research examined Collective Bargaining as a Tool for Improving Organisational
Peace and Productivity with special reference to U.B.A and Access Banks. The research adopted survey research design.
Data were gathered through primary source with the aid of a well-structured
questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of
sample, this was used to eliminate biasness in the selection process of the
Data garnered were presented on table using
percentage. The result of the analysis shows that Collective
bargaining serves as a tool for improved organizational peace and productivity
in the organization. Also, collective bargaining has positive effect on the
management and worker union, management compensate workers regularly even when
collective bargaining is adopted and that collective bargaining has helped in
preventing strikes and lockouts in your organization.
on the conclusion of the analysis, recommendations were proffered to the staff
and management of U.B.A and Access Banks.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover Page 1
Table of Content 3
1.1 Background to the Study 5
1.2 Statement of the Problem 12
1.3 Objectives of the Study 13
Significance of the Study 14
Scope and limitation of the study 15
Research Questions 16
Research Hypothesis 16
Operational Definition of terms 17
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Concept of Collective Bargaining 25
2.3 Union and Management 50
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 53
3.2 Research Design 53
3.3 Population 53
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure 53
3.5 The Research Instrument and Description 54
3.6 Response Rate 56
3.7 Technique of Data Analysis 56
FOUR: PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction 57
4.1 Analysis of Respondents Demographic Features
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions 64
4.3 Discussion of Findings 70
FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary 74
5.2 Recommendation and Conclusion 75
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies 77
Research Questionnaire 80
1.1 Background to the Study
economic growth and development of any country depends so much on the peaceful
and harmonious industrial relations existing in such country. Every
organization or industry is prone to conflict, human beings themselves are
elements of conflict. Therefore. Conflict is a good feature of any human
society but the most important thing is how such conceit is managed. Conflict
cannot be curbed in human society. Conflict will continue to exist as long as
human beings exist/man is a social being and in every social organization
either for work or other purpose, conflict is bound to exist.
nations of the world are aware of the prominent role of organizational peace in
the realization of sound economic system which is achieved only through a
better collective bargaining (International Labour Organization (ACT/EMP)
Publications). Collective bargaining is a mechanism for conflict resolution and
valid framework for grievance procedure. In practical terms, collective
bargaining involves two parties in negotiation and hence it is customary for
the workers to make demand and the employers to cut down the demand by giving
reasons these reason include inability
to pay, solvency, liquidity and profitability.
independence our political leaders has encouraged the use of collective
bargaining in industry. The Prime Minister of Nigeria, Late Tafawa Balewa in
reaffirms its confidence in the effectiveness of negotiation and wages
bargaining for the determination as wages. The long-term interest of
government, employees and trade unions alike would seem to rest on the process
of consultation and discussion which is the foundation of democracy in
industry. Government intervention in the general field of wages should be
limited to the establishment of statutory wages fixing machinery for any
industry or occupation where wages are unreasonably low by reference to the
general level of wages…
the then Minister of Labour, Late Chief Festus Okotie-Eboh in 1955 reiterated
the government policy as follows:
the various types of collective bargaining familiar to other individual
societies thrive in different conditions of under-developed countries today…?
from the immediate discourse, it is pertinent to understand that, the process
of achieving improved organizational peace and productivity rest on the
application of the principles of collective bargaining. Collective bargaining
on issue of employment from time to time must be based on the commitment of the
two parties not only to bargain in faith but also be ready to implement the
negotiated agreement. The willingness of the employer at both the public and
private sector to implement the agreed negotiation is another issue which is
subject to deregulation.
is principally out of the availability of resources to meet the agreement by
the two parties. It is difficult to provide meaningful expression because the
environmental variables which include customers, labour, technological
sub-system, legal sub-system, competitors and advertisement as well as the
individual leadership good will have often been neglected in terms of
fulfilling negotiated terms. This has continued to cause failure in the process
of collective bargaining.
to Omole (1995), collective bargaining in the Nigerian Milieu is normally a
product of a “real conflict” or “zero-sum” situation necessarily resulting in
losses to the other party. This explains why it is almost always proceeded by
corporate mistrust and suspicion, distorted operational efficiency, thwarted
organizational goal, open hostilities and most importantly diminished or
also explains why a conciliator is usually considered necessary in order to
ensure a free flow of information and counteracts the effect of the inevitable
conflict of interest in an organization with homogenous workforce.
careful examination of this discourse shows that collective bargaining connotes
a negotiation striking an industrial treaty for the purpose of business
stability. Such an industrial treaty is expected to reflect a set of rules
(regulations) and terms stating workers’ condition of employment, associated
workers remuneration schedule, workers and management, job remuneration
schedule, workers and management, job security and other related programmes. In
essence, collective bargaining is a prerequisite to industrial harmony and
improved organizational peace and productivity. However, it is only limited to
imposition but could not be effective in conflict resolution where two parties,
presumably the employers and trade union are involved in bargaining fro improved condition of services and
bilateral bargaining approach as the name implies, is one in which a formally
designated negotiator or negotiating team represents employees. The objective
of these negotiators or negotiating team is to reach a tentative agreement
which the two negotiators or groups will take to their respective bodies which
they represent for ratification. The negotiators are assumed to be the public
spokesman for their respective bodies which each represents and all
negotiations between the management and employees must be channeled through
bargaining also belongs to the class of collective bargaining and to some
extent, it is incorporated in the definition of collective bargaining. Abu (1997),
defines multilateral bargaining as a process of negotiation in which more than
two distinct parties are involved in such a way that a false dichotomy does not
exist between employees and management in an organization. In the language of
the same theory, the concept of bilateral and multilateral bargaining
correspond to two parties and three parties respectively.
interrelationship of people, objective and structure together with the
efficient use of available non-human and human resources will determine the
success or failure of the organization and the extent of its productivity. An
organization is a complex social system which is the sum of many interrelated
variables whose operation are influenced by the external and internal
environment of which it is part.
six features of an organization according to Mullin (1996) are: Objective,
legal entity, structure. People, evaluation and management.
an organization is the interaction of people in order to achieve “objective”
through some structural arrangement, it is through people’s interaction that
efforts are channeled and co-ordinate to necessitate “management”. The
organization must be a legally registered entity that is subject to litigation
and can be subjected to litigation action on the basis of its operations.
all activities within the organization stand to be evaluated to establish the
achievement of its stated objectives (The Nigerian Journal of Industrial
Education and labour relation volume 5 No 1. June 2003). For any organization
to progress, to achieve its goals all the features stated above must be
property adhered to in a peaceful environment. The organization will
progressively achieve its objectives,, peace and increase ion productivity in
an organization is a function of collective bargaining.
study therefore involves a study of the extent to which collective bargaining
system is used in ensuring improved organizational peace and productivity in
UBA and Inter-Continental Banks Plc UCH Ibadan. As industries that engage in
financial transactions, and other money related marketing, one would not expect
absence of industrial conflicts due to dynamic governmental policies which
always affect the organizational policies. This study investigate the role of
collective bargaining in promoting improved organizational peace and
1.2 Statement of the Problem
major focus of industrial relations is how individuals groups and organizations
determine decisions affecting the employment relationship between the employers
and employees on one hand and the power relationships between employers and
trade unions within the working environment on the other hand.
has been observed that every human organization is affected by conflict which
is an obstacle to improved organizational peace, harmony and productivity in
the banking sectors.
has been discovered that strike and lockouts occurred in the industries due to
unsuccessful collective bargaining.
it has been discovered that the employees in the bank are poorly remunerated and
compensated and this has been the main causes of industrial conflict in the
the conditions for successful collective bargaining such as observance of the
agreement, proper internal communication and good faith to the union are not
properly adhered to and this has hindered an improved organizational peace and
1.3 Objectives of the Study
major objective of the study is to examine in details how collective bargaining
serves as a tool for improved organizational peace and productivity in the
the specific objectives are as follows:
To examine how the management of the
banks and their workers union accept collective bargaining as a means of
ensuring improved organizational peace and productivity.
To find out how collective bargaining
has helped to prevent and restrain strikes and lockouts in the organizations.
To examine the effect of collective
bargaining of the management, workers’ union, government, society and
To investigate the working conditions of
employees in the banks and how they are compensated.
To offer suggestions and relevant
recommendations which have emerged from the findings.
1.4 Significance of the Study
other issues, this research is intended to improve the working system of both
the management and the workers union. It will help in preventing and resolving
conflicts in our banking sectors.
this research, other researchers will be interested in other areas related to
this study and base their own research on such area. In other words, it will
serve as a good reference and springboard for those interested in studying
issues related to collective bargaining.
this study will revitalize the organization system in the banking sector and
open the eyes of people to the advantages of collective bargaining
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
study investigates collective bargaining as a tool for improved organizational
peace and productivity. This is a general issue, collective bargaining exists
in all organizational structure and administration in order to maintain
organizational peace and productivity. Every organizational peace and
productivity. Every organization uses collective bargaining as a tool for
improved organizational peace and productivity but the banking sector is used
as a case study of this research. Some selected banks are used in this study to
see how collective bargaining achieves its aims of organizational peace and
study is delimited due to: i) the short period of time available for the
research, ii) economic situation of the researcher and the merger resources at
the disposal of the researcher. Therefore, U.B.A and Access banks headquarters
in Lagos were used for this study.
1.6 Research questions
collective bargaining serve as a tool
for improved organizational peace and productivity in your organization?
collective bargaining has positive
effect on the management and workers union?
management compensate workers regularly when collective bargaining is adopted?
collective bargaining helped to prevent
and strikes and lockouts in yours organization?
1.7 Research Hypothesis
HI. Collective bargaining does not serve as a tool for improved
organizational peace and productivity in the organization.
H2 Collective bargaining does not have positive
effect on the management and worker union.
H3 Management does not compensate workers
regularly even when collective bargaining is adopted.
H4. Collective bargaining has not helped in
prevention strikes and lockouts in your organization.
1.8 Operational Definition of terms
Collective Bargaining: Voluntary
negotiation between employers or employers’ organization/union and workers
organization or union, with a view to the regulation of terms and conditions of
employment by collective agreements.
Industrial conflict: A
dispute between or among the actors in an industry.
This is a means of solving and regulating conflict in order to bring peace and
harmony into the organization.
The body involved in organization and administration of an industry. They are:
the workers, management and the government.
Concerned with seeing to the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization or
industry through decisions for planning and guiding the operations in the
Category of people in an organization who own nothing but their ability to work
and earn money for their labour (energy) contributed to the means of
production. The collectivity of these people is called labour.
A complex social system with interrelated variables whose operations are
influenced by the external and internal environmental factors.
Social system and structure where goods and services are produced.
Dialogue between two or more parties in an industry or organization on
employment and conditions of work.
Formal process of settling argument or disagreement between two people by a
person or body who is not in either of the parties.
The free association formed either by the management for the employers or by
labour for the workers or employees to protect the interest of its members.
Consent to a decision by all the affected parties or members.
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