Nutritional composition of
Soymilk showed that it contained moisture content of 90.54%, ash content of
0.82%, protein 4.2%, carbohydrate 0.75%, crude fibre, ether extract 3.6% and
Nitrogen free, extract 0.88% and the total carbohydrate is 0.88%. The minerals
investigation gave the following results. Sodium 64.5±0.10mg/l, potassium
4,047.5±0.01mg/l, Magnesium 93.9 ± 0.10mg/l, Iron 34.8 ± 0.01 mg/l, Zinc 9.70 ±
0.10mg/l, Calcium 855.0±0.01mg/l, Copper 3.0±0,10mg/l and lead, Nickel,
Chromium are Nil.
of Content vi-vii
1.0 Introduction 1-4
1.1 Importance of milk 4-6
1.2 Preservation of milk 6-8
2.0 Literature Review 9
2.1 Protein in Milk 9
2.2 Carbohydrate in Milk 9
2.3 Fat and Oil in Milk 10
2.4 Mineral Content in Milk 10-11
2.5 Enzymes in Milk 11-12
2.6 Lipid in Milk 12
3.0 Materials and Methods 13
3.1 Materials 13
3.2 Crude Protein Determination 13
3.3 Digestion 13-14
3.4 Distillation 14
3.5 Titration 15
3.6 Determination of Moisture Content 15
3.7 Determination of Ether Extract 15
3.8 Determination of Carbohydrate Content 16
3.9 Determination of Ash Content 16-17
3.10 Determination of Crude Fibre 17
and Discussion 18-20
The soy is a low cost source of
protein that has been consumed in Asian nations for many countries. The rapid
growing population fo the developing countries is facing acute shortage of
protein, Soy bean is rich protein content and contains fiber.
Soybeans are the least
processed form of Soy protein, its available in most grocery stores, they can
be purchased in fresh, frozen or roasted forms. These beans can be eaten alone,
like peas or added to salads and stir fies.
Tofu: Curdling Soy mil with a
coagulant makes tofu or bean curd its available in both soft and firm forms,
tofu can be used in a variety of recipes to partially replace either meat or
diary product due to the common use of calcium sulphate as the curdling agent,
Tofu can also be a good source of calcium (Chdi wenm et al; 2000).
Soymilk: Soymilk is another
high quality source of Soy protein that is an alternative of diary animal milk
and available in variety of forms including plain, vanilla and chocolate, it
can also be used to replace milk added to coffee, tea or cereal.
Human beings are the only
species to consume milk past childhood. We are also the only species to consume
the milk of another species. There are some great nutritional benefits to milk,
for example milk naturally contains a readily absorbable form of calcium and
has higher quality protein than soy milk. In this condition known as lactose
intolerance, it causes unpleasant abdominal symptoms including stomach cramps,
flatulence and diarrhea. Lactose intolerance is reality for 75% for the world
population, even though consuming diary is unnatural and problematic for many
people. There are many people who cannot drink cow milk because of a milk
allergy or out of a values choice like vegan. Soymilk is a healthy drink and is
important for people with above problems and had been the first production ever
prepared and consumed by human since long ago. Soymilk not only provides protein
but also is a source of carbohydrate, lipid, vitamins and minerals.
Milk composition describes the
chemical and physical properties and effect of pasteurization on the compound
in milk. The variation in milk composition are:
How the body digests foods and
absorbs nutritional components
Food undergoes mechanical, chemical and enzymatic digestion
as it travels from the mouth from the mouth to the stomach to the intestines.
Many chemicals, enzymes, hormones, glands and organs are involved in the
absorption of nutrients from food.
The first step is mechanical digestion in the mouth chewing
food to break it into small pieces. Saliva, secreted by the salivary gland,
contains water that helps dissolve food to make it easier to swallow. Saliva
contains the enzyme amylase that begins to break down larger carbohydrate
molecules, which makes them easier to digest in the small intestine. Mechanical
digestion continues in the stomach as it churns the food and mixes it with
gastric juice. The stomach contains hydrochloric acid that dissolves additional
foods components that didn’t dissolve in saliva. The highly acidic environment
in the stomach causes protein to unfold (denature) so that they can interact
with the enzyme pepsin, which breaks down proteins into smaller molecules
(peptides) for easier digestion in the small intestine. Gastric lipase begins
to break down fats in digestion in the small intestine.
The majority of food digestion occurs in the small
intestine, the duodenum. As food leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum,
hormones signal the pancreas to release sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the
stomach acid so that digestive enzymes can act. The pancreas releases enzymes
for the digestion of all major food components. Proteases to break down
proteins into small peptides, amylases to break down fats. Hormones trigger the
release of bile that is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder to
aid in emulsification of fats for digestion and absorption. Breakdown of peptides
into amino acids and small carbohydrate into individual sugar molecules occurs
by enzymes that are secreted by the intestinal cells.
The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose which is a
molecule that must be broken down (hydrolyzed) into its two individual sugars
(glucose and galactose) before absorption. Lactose is broken down by the enzyme
lactase that is secreted by the intestinal cells. Lactase often decrease as
people age or may be deficient in some populations which can result in lactose
mal absorption or lactose intolerance.
Absorption of nutrients occurs in the second and third
section of the small intestine, the jejunum and ileum. Proteins, carbohydrate,
fats, fat-soluble vitamins, water soluble vitamins and mineral are absorbed by
diffusion across the cell membranes, other require transporters on binding
proteins the absorption of fats involves a complex network of lipid carriers.
After absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, the
remaining mass moves into the large intestine. The function of the large
intestine is to absorb water and sodium and prepare the remaining mass for
excretion by the body.
1.1 IMPORTANCE OF MILK
Milk is one of the greatest blessings that is given to
human by nature. Milk is considered a complete and great food. People is past
used milk and things made by it most of the time like cheese, butter in
subcontinent. According to research of health experts the secret behind long
ages and good health of people of subcontinent in past was use of milk.
Milk is proved a complete food from latest scientific
researchers, all the important elements that are needed for body are in milk.
Milk has hundreds of benefits to our bodies, health and mind, specially the
milk of cow and goat as many benefits. The milk of cow keeps the stomach system
of old people and kids strong, most of the people drinks milk while sleeping
but its not the correct time of drinking it. The correct time of drinking milk
is in morning. Milk even powdered milk is a nutritious, cost, efficient source
of protein minerals and vitamins, milk is now often pushed aside to make space
for excessively sugary sodas, juice and sports drinks that contribute empty
calories to diets already so full of unhealthy choices that many populations
are now experiencing unmatched levels of diet-related obesity, diabetes, heart
disease and cancer.
Teenagers also should replace sugared beverages with milk.
Because adolescents undergo extra ordinary physiological changes, the required
energy and nutrient-dense foods for optimal development of hormonal, muscular,
circulatory and reproductive systems. Teen’s calcium intake must be accompanied
by physical activity to optimize bone-calcium integration and that adolescence
is the best time to increase bone density to thwart later life bone fragility
and osteoporosis. Without calcium, vitamin D and phosphorous, adults of all
ages risk bone degeneration, so milk remains essential. Other calcium rich, non
dairy foods such as tofu, broccoli and spinach but some contain compounds that
compromise the absorption of calcium. Spinach is high in oxalates, which hinder
calcium absorption and the calcium in other vegetables such as broccoli, is not
as readily absorbed as the calcium in milk.
Children should be served milk, not high sugar beverages
milk’s outstanding protein is built from balanced amino acids that are
biologically available that is easily absorbed and used. Milk’s Calcium
fortifies a child’s developing bones, teeth and brain tissue and contributes to
chemical reactions at the cellular level that govern muscle and neurological
function. Fortified milk also provides vitamin D, a critical vitamin that helps
the body absorb both calcium and phosphorous for bone integrity, promotes red
blood cell production, aids digestive and nerve processes and supports
Milk and diary products contain many nutrients and provide
a quick and easy way of supplying these nutrients to the diet within relatively
Milk, cheese and yougurt all provide the following beneficial
nutrients in varying quantities.
– for healthy bones and teeth.
– for energy release.
– for muscle function
– for growth and repair
B12 – for production of healthy cells.
– for immune function
– for healthy skin
– for production of healthy cells.
C – for formation of healthy connective tissues.
– for regulation of the body’s rate of metabolism.
1.2 PRESERVATION OF MILK
Milk is a perishable commodity
and spoils very easily. Its low acidity and high content make it the perfect
breeding ground for bacteria including those which cause food poisoning
(pathogens). Bacteria from the animal, utensils, hands and insects may
contaminate the milk and their destruction is the main reason for processing.
This preservation of the milk can be achieved by fermentation, heating,
cooling, removal of water and by concentration or separation of components to
produce foods such as butter or cheese.
The degree to which milk consumption and processing occurs
will differ from region to region. It is dependent upon a whole host of
factors, including geographical and climatic conditions, availability and cost
of milk, food taboos and religious restrictions, where processing does exist,
many traditional techniques can be found for producing indigenous milk
products. These are more stable than raw
milk and provide a means of preservation as well as adding variety to the diet.
In addition, the introduction of western style diary products and the
subsequent setting up of small scale dairies has provided more choice of diary
products to the consumer. Infections in the animal which cause illness may be
passed directly to the consumer through milk, it is therefore extremely
important that quality control tests are carried out to ensure that the
bacterial activity in raw milk is of an acceptable level and that no harmful
bacteria remain in the processed products. Routinely is necessary to check the
microbiological quality of raw milk using either methylene blue or resazurin
dyes, these tests indicate the activity of bacteria in the milk sample and the
result determine whether the milk is accepted or rejected. The type of animal
its quality and its diet can lead to differences in the colour, flavour and
composition of milk. Infections in the animal which cause illness may be passed
directly to the consumer through milk. It is therefore extremely important that
quality control tests are carried out to ensure that the bacterial activity in
raw milk is of an acceptable level and that no harmful bacteria remain in the
processed productions. Milk can be kept for longer periods of time if it is
heated to destroy the bacteria remain in the processed productions. Milk can be
kept for longer periods of time if it is heated to destroy the bacteria or
cooled to slow their growth. Pasteurization an sterilization are the two most
commonly used heat treatments. Technically, it is possible for both to be
carried out on a small scale, but they are most usually performed on a larger
industrial scale due to the need for qualified, experienced staff and accurate
and strictly controlled hygienic processing conditions.
Milk can also be preserved from homogenization which breaks
up the oil droplets in milk and prevent the cream from separating out and
forming a layer. This is of particular importance of sterilized milk which has
a long-shelf life and when the formation of a cream layers is not desired.
Additional changes include increased viscosity and a richer taste. Homogenizers
are more usually designed for industrial scale production. Pasteurization is a
relatively milk heat treatment (usually performed below 100oC) which
is used to extend the shelf life of milk for several days. It preserves the
milk by the inactivation of enzymes and destruction of heat sensitive
micro-organisms, but causes minimal changes to the nutritive value or sensory
characteristics of a food. Some heat resistant bacteria survive to spoil the
milk after a few days, but these bacteria do not cause food poisoning.
The time and temperature combination needed to destroy
target micro organisms will vary according to a number of complex inter-related
factors. For milk, heating time and temperature is either 630C for
30 minutes or alternatively 720C for 15 seconds. Sterilization is a
more severe heat treatment designed to destroy all contaminating bacteria. The
milk is sterilized at a temperature of 120C maintained for 15-20
minutes, this can be achieved using a retort or pressure cooker unlike
pasteurization, this process causes substantial changes to the nutritional and
sensory quality of the milk. Pasteurization does not destroy all the
micro-organisms, therefore milk has to be cooled rapidly to prevent the growth
of surviving bacteria. Cooling can be achieved on a small scale by using a
bottle – cooling system and should be packaged in sealed bottles and stored at
room temperature, sterilized milk should have a shelf life in excess of six
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