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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007107

No of Pages: 58

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The present study assessed the bacteriological quality of powdered soya bean milk sold in Umuahia, Abia State. A total of 10 samples of Powdered Soya bean milk were purchased from local markets in Umuahia. The bacterial load and identity of the bacteria present were determined using spread plate method.The viable count on Mannitol Salt Agar ranged from 1.0x104 to 7.0x104 cfu/g,the viable count on Salmonella Shigella Agar ranged from 1.4x104 to 6.0x104 cfu/g,theviable count on Eosin methylene Blue ranged from 1.6x104 to 8.0x104, the total coliform count on Macconkey Agar ranged from 1.0x104 to 8.6x104, while the total heterotopic count ranged from 1.6x106to 8.0x106Six (6) bacteria species were isolated(Staplylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp,Bacillus sppSalmonella sppShigella spp). Staplylococcus aureus recorded the highest percentage occurrence of (80%) while Klebsiella spp recorded the least percentage occurrence of (20%). Comparing the general counts with the acceptable standards, the powdered soya beans milk offered for public consumption in Umuahia gave result above the acceptable limits. There is therefore the need to implement regulatory and hygienic measures in its production, distributions and storage in order to ensure the health of the public.



Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                               iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                 iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                    v

List of Tables                                                                                                                           viii

List of Figures                                                                                                              ix

Abstract                                                                                                                                   x


1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1       Aim and Objective                                                                                                      3

CHAPTER TWO                      

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       4

2.1       Soya beans                                                                                                                  4

2.1.1    Origin of Soya bean                                                                                                    4

2.1.2    Agronomic Characteristics                                                                                         4

2.1.3    Production of soyabean seeds                                                                                                5

2.1.4    Production and Nutritional Value of Soyabean                                                          5

2.1.5    Anti-nutritional factors in soyabean                                                                           6

2.1.6    Anti-nutritional factors in soyabean and its negative effect                                      12

2.1.7    Composition of Soya Bean Milk                                                                                  12

2.2       Soya milk                                                                                                                     14

2.2.1    Definition of Soya Milk                                                                                               14

2.2.2    Origin of Soya Milk                                                                                                     14

2.2.3    Composition of Soya Milk                                                                                           15

2.2.4    Classification of Soya Milk                                                                                          17

2.2.5    Powdered Soya Milk Preparation Method                                                                 17

2.2.6    Major Concerns about Soya Supplement and Health Products                                 20

2.2.7    Nutritional quality                                                                                                       20

2.2.8    Microorganisms associated with spoilage of Soya bean milk product                      21 Phychrotrophs                                                                                                             21 Coliforms                                                                                                                    22 Lactic Acid Bacteria                                                                                                    22 Fungi                                                                                                                           23 Spore forming Bacteria                                                                                              23 Other Microorganisms                                                                                               24

2.2.9    Preservation & Storage of Soy Milk and Milk Products                                             24

CHAPTER THREE                    

3.0       Materials and Methods                                                                                              26

3.1       Soy Milk Samples                                                                                                        26

3.2       Sterilization of Materials                                                                                            26

3.3       Media used and their Preparation                                                                             26

3.4       Microbiological Analysis of Samples                                                                          27

3.4.1    Serial Dilution                                                                                                             27

3.4.2    Isolation and Enumeration                                                                                         27

3.4.3    Purification and Storage of the Isolates                                                                     28

3.5       Characterization and Identification of the Bacterial Isolates                                                28

3.5.1    Purification and Storage of the Isolates                                                                     28

3.5.2    Colonial Morphology                                                                                                  28

3.5.2    Gram Staining                                                                                                             28

3.5.3    Biochemical Tests                                                                                                       29 Catalase Test                                                                                                              29 Coagulase Test                                                                                                            30 Motility test                                                                                                                30

3.5.4.   Indole                                                                                                                          30

3.5.5.   Sugar Utilization Test                                                                                                  31

3.5.6.   Oxidase Test                                                                                                               31

3.5.7.   Citrate Utilization Test                                                                                                32

CHAPTER FOUR                     

4.0       Result                                                                                                                          33


CHAPTER FIVE           

5.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   38

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                   40

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                      40









Table                                                   Title                                                                 Pages

2.1       Content of anti-nutritional substances in soybean                                         11

2.2       Average chemical composition of (dry weight) Soyabean seed                    13

2.3       Composition of Soya milk, Cow’s milk and human breast milk                     16

4.1       Total Microbial count of soya bean samples                                                 34

4.2       The total heterotrophic count of the samples                                                            35

4.3       The cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristic of the

bacteria isolates                                                                                             36

4.4       The powdered soya bean milk sample, microorganism isolated,

total incidence and percentage occurrence of the isolates                           37










Fig 2.1: Method of Soyamilk production                                                                    19








1.0       Introduction

Soya beans (Glycine max) is a member of the family legminosae, sub family papilnonaceae (Howell and Caldwell, 2007).  It is an annual summer legume being that it is found in the hairy pods of an erect bushy legume native to Asta and have been reported   to have originated from eastern and where used as food as long as before the existence of written record. It is highly proteinous in that it contains a large proportion of assailable protein; have carbohydrate having no starch at all. The protein of soybeans is glycinun, phaseolin, and legumlin are equally good source of B- complex vitamins and minerals. They are also known to contain best balance of essential ammoniac’s and that is why it is usually referred to as the miracle legume or the poor man’s meat”.

Soya bean milk is a traditional oriental food beverage that is growing in popularity in the United States and the world (Jimoh and Kolapo, 2007). Soymilk which is a watery extrac3t of whole soybean is rich in water soluble protein, carbohydrate and oil (Adebayo-Tayo et al., 2008). Soya bean milk is made by soaking soybeans inwater before grinding and straining. The milk is a whiteor creamy emulsion which resembles cow milk (conventional milk) in both appearance and consistency (Iwe, 2003; Kolapo and Oladimeji, 2008). It is commonly characterized as having a beany, grassy or soy flavor, which reportedly can be improved by lactic acid fermentation, as in yoghurt- like products (Jimoh and Kolpo, 2007). The increasing popularity of soymilk as a beverage worldwide is credited to health benefits e.g. low cholesterol and lactose, its ability to reduce bone loss and menopausal symptoms, prevention and reduction of heart diseases and certain cancers (Kolapo and Oladimeji, 2008; Adebayo-Tayo et al.,2008).

Soya bean is used in various forms in many parts of the world. Soybeans and products derived from them have served as an important source of protein in the diet of millions of oriental people for nearly 5,000 years (Hackler et al., 2002). The diets of people in many developing countries comprise mainly starchy roots and cereals and few legumes.

Soya bean milk, which is traditionally an aqueous extract of whole soybeans has been of considerable interest to nutritionists as a possible  substitute for cow or human milk due to its advantage over many other protein source in that no allergenic properties have been associated with it so far. Therefore it is recommended for infants who are allergic to cow’s milk. Soymilk has been recommended by physicians for years to patients who are allergic to cow’s milk and now it is being recommended to those who have suffered from or are prone to degenerative heart diseases and who need a milk with unsaturated fat as a   replacement for dairy milk.

Soya beans is a food of high nutritional value and it is highly associated with microorganism, in addition to poor handling and unhygienic practices of local producers of soymilk products, the nutrient composition of soymilk milk makes it an excellent bacteriological medium. These have been implicated in the occurrence and prevalence rate of diseases such as typhoid fever and dysentery among soymilk consumers (Iwe, 2003). The sale of soymilk is quite popular in Umuahia but there is little or no report on its microbiological quality, which should have addressed the safety of its consumers in Umuahia. As a result of this, it needs to be hygienically prepared and declared fit for consumption so as to protect the student from disease that arises due to food poisoning. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the microbial load and nutritive value of soymilk as a means of addressing the safety concerns of its consumers in the study area.


1.1        Aim and Objectives

i.                    To isolate, characterize , and identify bacteria species associated with  powdered soya bean milk samples sold in Umuahia

ii.                  To evaluate the bacterial load of powdered soya bean milk sold in Umuahia.


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