project examines training as a means of improving employees efficiency using
Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi as a case study. The research problem is to examine
how training contributes to the improvement of employees efficient in an
institution. The problems are stated in form of questions such as, does
training improve employees performance? How do workers react to changes in an
institution? Of what significance is training to the institution? The
instrument used in the collection of data was questionnaire. Primary and
secondary sources such as textbooks and journals were also consulted. In the
analysis of data collected, the simple percentage was used in the course of
analyzing the data. The researcher came up with the following findings; that
training contribute to the improvement of employees’ efficiency in the institution.
The study hereby recommends that workers should be informed about the training
program to facilitate their participation. Training of workers in the
institution should be on continuous basis so that the institution can meet the
changes that take place in he environment. The research strongly believes that
if the above recommendations are adopted, workers efficiency would be
substantially improved in the institution.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents v
Chapter One: Introduction 1
to the Study 1
of the Problem 4
of the Study 9
of the Study 9
of the Study 10
of the Study 10
Definition of Terms 11
Chapter Two: Literature Review 12
to the Study 15
Literature Review 20
Theories of the Review 27
of the Chapter 42
Chapter Three: Research Methodology 40
of the Study 40
Chapter Four: Data Analysis, Interpretation and Discussion 43
and Data Analysis 43
of Result 52
of Findings 54
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 56
TO THE STUDY
It is common phenomenon to hear institutions complaining
about the inefficiency of their employees in delivering services. This problem
is not peculiar to one institution; it cuts across various institutions in the
What aroused the interest of the researcher, in this topic
despite all the efforts made by the organization through training to improve
employee’s efficiency in performance their duties, there is still a sharp
decline in improving efficiency. The management of the institutions
theremselves do not rest in their efforts to find out how to arrest the
situation. They have provided a lot of commendable incentives for their
employees in order to motivate them to improve on their efficiency.
The researcher saw this topic as worth researching because he
has come across this problem of employees inefficiency in the cause of his
one-year industrial training. The employee’s activities call for a thorough
appraisal, and review so as to spot light the problem(s) militating against
efficient performance. From the researcher’s observation, some of the
employees’ problems identified include; lack of good human relation,
inexperience and work pressure. It appears that there is a fall in standard of
performance of institution employees especially in terms of customer’s
Training as a means of improving employee’s efficiency is a
theory that needs to be embraced. There are other means of improving employee’s
efficiency. For example, application of the technology and motivational
techniques. Even for an employee to be able to operate a new and technical
device like computer, he/she needs to be trained and retrained in the operation
of such a device.
It is from the above analysis that this researcher come to a
decision to investigate training as a means of improving employees efficiency.
Training is an organized procedure by which people learn
knowledge and skills for a definite purpose (Manpower Service Commission,
Training is a planned process aimed at modifying attitude,
knowledge on skills behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective
performance on a range of activities. It develops the attitude of individual in
the workplace and satisfies the future manpower needs of the organization.
Organization can embark on different types of training to improve employees’
efficiency in carrying out their function. Induction training is designed for
newly employed workers to acquaint them with the actual of what is expected of
On the job training is when an employee is able to put into
practice and doing it successfully what he/she had learnt in his course of
study, that development could be said to have taken place in his/her course of
carrying out responsibility in his/her area of strength would be known and be
encouraged to keep it up.
Off-the job training is when an employee is sent on course of
study outside the organization. This may involve sending him/her abroad to
acquire knowledge on the introduction of new technology into the organization.
Training prepares people for work and helps in enhancing
their worth to their employee and to themselves. A systemic training gives the
workers the confidence to execute any assignment given to him/her. This is
because he knows what is expected of him and believes he can do it. This
propels him to think and possibly come out with innovative ideas on how best to
execute an assigned job.
Every organization requires adequate training of its
employees to actualize its corporate objectives. Training is one of the ways in
which staff efficiency and effectiveness could be improved. The process of
training is a continuous one. Money spent by the organization on the training
of its employees is money well invested. Employees who have not received
adequate training before being assigned with responsibility lacks the necessary
confidence with which to carry out the job. An employee should grow through
systemic training. It is only then that he will feel confident to carry out
responsibilities of the job, because he knows what is expected of him/her on
the job and because he can do it, his enthusiasm on the job increases. It is a
person in that position who can think and originate ideas as to how best to
carryout the task of the job. Employees who are not trained trend to stick to
what they were taught at the first time of work. they are frightened of doing
the job in a different way because something might go wrong and they cannot
At the 14th Annual General meeting of the Nigeria
Employers consultative association (Enehero, 1970) said “the development of
human resources cannot be the entire concern of our nation’s educational
institution”. It is also the responsibility of other institutions capable of
performing training functions. Every institution whether public or private
necessarily does considerable training. Some of which is organized and some haphazard
and incidental. If employers display greater readiness than many of them do, to
invest in training we can hope more rapidly to supplement the work of
educational and other training institutions.
However, there are many employers in the country who still do
not believe in the philosophy of training. To them, training is costly and
unnecessary. That attitude however is an unfavourable one which in the long run
will do such organization more harm than god. There is a drive in Nigeria, to
promote Nigerians to positions of higher responsibilities in industries and
only companies that prepared to train their workers.
of the Problem
This research work is with the intention of looking into some
problems bedeviling training and employees efficiency.
The following questions will be focused on in this research
What is the impact of training on workers’
What effects do the area of priority in training have
on employee’s performance?
What are the types of training programs and their
effects on employees performance?
What is the relationship between the method of
evaluation techniques and the level of employee’s performance?
It is important to test hypotheses because of its relevance
in the decision taken. However, this study will test the following hypotheses;
there is no significant relationship between training and improvement in
there is no significant relationship between problems encountered in training
and employees efficiency.
there is no significant relationship between the defined method of training and
4. That there
is no significant relationship between the evaluation technique and employees
of the Study
The objective of this study is as follows;
To examine the impact of training on workers job
To look into the priority the organization give to the
training of their staff.
To determine the type of training programs
organization adopt for their staff to enhance their performance.
To determine the method of evaluation, techniques
organizations adopt in assessing the training of their staff.
1.6 Scope of
This study lays emphasis on improving emphasis on improving
employees efficiency in Nigeria, using Auchi Polytechnic because training also
serves as the spring board for other bigger organizations.
of the Study
Managers will this study be of great benefit to, as the
findings and recommendations will increase their understanding of the training
needs of the employees and the training techniques to apply in order to
increase the overall productivity.
The research work would also be relevant in the academic
level. It will help to improve the quantity of the research work in this area
of management of people in the institution.
The postulation of the study can arouse other research
interest in the institution. Such new researchers will enrich the literature on
training as an important topic in organizational behaviour and management.
This study is also significant to the government in the
ground that it will reveal the benefits and constraints of staff training on
workers performance. This will enable the government to appreciate the benefits
of training and encourage them to provide adequate funds to finance manpower in
government owned institutions.
of the Study
In writing this project work, the researcher encountered a
lot of administrative problems.
The first problem that was encountered was that of getting
information from the organization, under study and administering of
questionnaires was not an easy task to undertake. Usually as a private company
the fear of giving vital information to the public is usually very difficult.
The problem of embarking on training programme for the employees, this made it
impossible for the researcher to come out with adequate information that would
have enriched this project more. This went a long way to affecting the
information the researcher would have gathered from the employees.
Definition of Terms
To enhance the understanding of this study, the following
terms have been defined as used;
Employees: A group of
persons who are in legal relationship on employee(s) to execute a job for price
called wage(s) (Imafidon, 2000).
Training: This is a
process of updating old skills as well as developing new skills in a particular
job. In other words as an organized procedure by which people learn and acquire
knowledge and for skill for a definite purpose. It is the systematic
acquisition of skills, rules, concepts or attitudes that result in improved
performance in another environment (Goldstein, 1986).
A converse of action designed to enable the individual to realize his
potentials for growth in the organization. It is only learning activity that is
directed towards future needs rather than present needs. It is concerned more
with career growth than immediate performance (Osoba, 2005).
Those who employ others resources into productive process in order to
achieve organization goal(s) (Wendell, 1978).
Efficiency: This means
the quality of being able to perform ones work diligently and well. It can also
be regarded as the ratio of output to input (Beach, 1975).
Leaning: Leaning is
a complex problem of acquiring knowledge understanding. Skills and values in
order to be able to adapt to the environment in which we have lived. Learning
is basis for training and development. The acquisition of learning depends on
the innate qualities of the learner, such as intelligence, the skills of the
teacher and the condition under which the learning take place (Osoba, 2005).
Trainer: This is the
person who trains workers in organization (Yodder, 1970).
Trainee: This is
the person who undergoes some form of training (Subba, 1990).
Performance: This is aggregate result of efforts of workers towards
achieving the organizational goal (Okho, 1998).