This study looks at the role of leadership on
motivation of workers. The internal driving force that results in directing and
persistence in behaviour of workers. The task of directing is rested on all
supervisors or managers. To executive this task effectively, the supervisor or
manager has to be a good leader, someone who led others by getting work done
through them. This study examine the leadership conceptions utilized in
organization with a view to determine whether the following factors like the
workers satisfaction with their leader, the nature of leadership between
manager and worker motivate the worker’s performance. It was concluded that
there is a negative association between nature of relationship that exist
between management and workers and negative association between leadership
style geared towards achieving its goals. It was recommended that leaders
should adopt style that will satisfy their subordinates.
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
to the Study 1
of Problem 3
of the Study 4
of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of
the Study 7
of the Study 8
of Terms 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 12
Nature of Leadership 12
2.2.1 Definition of Leadership 13
of a Leader 14
2.3.1 A Model 15
2.3.2 Activator or Mobilize 15
2.3.3 Flexibility 15
as Leaders 17
Social Climate for Autocratic, Democratic
and Liaises Fair Leadership 17
2.5.1 Autocratic Leadership Style 18
2.5.2 Democratic Leadership Style 18
2.5.3 Liaises Fair/Free Rein Leadership Style 19
of a Good Leader 19
an Effective Leader 21
2.7.1 Organization Size 22
2.7.2 Interaction of Group Members 23
2.7.3 Personalities of Group Members 23
of Performance with Motivation 23
Behaviour and Style 24
2.9.1 Persuasive Leadership 25
2.9.2 Intellectual Leadership 25
2.9.3 Job and Production Centered Leadership 25
2.9.4 Employees Centered Leadership 26
Theories and Research 26
2.10.1 Behavioural Approach 27
2.10.2 The Michigan Studies 27
2.10.3 The Ohio Studies 28
2.10.4 The Management Grid (Black and Muton) 32
2.10.5 Situation Approach 39
2.10.6 Traits Approach 44
2.10.7 Transformational Approach 46
2.10.8 Transactional Approach 46
Based Approach (Validation of Self Concept) 46
2.10.10 Mission or Vision Approach 47
2.10.11 Value Based Approach 47
2.11 Motivation 47
2.11.1 Kinds of Motivation 48
2.11.2 Steps of Motivation 48
2.11.3 Techniques of Motivation 50
Advantages of Motivation 51
2.11.5 Theories of Motivation 51
2.12 How Leadership Style Shapes Motivation 55
2.13 Measurement of Effective Leadership 56
RESEARCH METHOD 63
3.2 Actual Field
of the Study 63
of Data Collection 64
of Data Presentation 66
of Data Analysis 66
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 67
4.3 Test of
of Findings 87
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 89
of Findings 89
5.3 Recommendations 91
Appendix I 95
Appendix II 96
1.1 Background to the Study
comprises of people interested and working together towards the achievement of
the organization. It is a common notion that a fundamental and material
disagreement exist between the demand of the organization and the need of the
workers. Whereas, the organization imposes demands for routine behaviour and
conformity to rules and regulations workers exhibit dominant needs for creative
expression and initiative.
In the light of this,
it is paramount for one rested with the responsibility of supervising and
motivating the workers to ensure that they work in accordance to instruction.
In this case, one who wears the crown as a leader that assures the role of his
leadership style in the motivation of workers has effect on their performance.
Leadership dates back
to ancient times, when men of stoned age in association with each other
exploited their environment through the process of farming, hunting and
building etc. In this process there were always people to lead them.
In this recent time,
workers have demonstrated a non-chalant attitude to their job in certain
transition. The truth is not far fetched because this can be attributed to the
effect of leadership style in the management of human resources in relationship
to his work place.
It is no doubt that
success of any organization lies in the type of leadership style adopted by
various leaders in leading their subordinate to accomplish the set goals and
objectives. Workers perception of satisfaction with the boss and leadership
style can affect their management performance either in a negative or positive
manner. It is when workers are happy that they will contribute optionally
towards the goals and objectives of the organization on the other hand, if
workers are not happy with their boss leadership style, they will definitely
not be motivated to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the
1.2 Statement of Problem
Organization exists for
the purpose of achieving certain goals and objectives. Every organization has
people as the hallmark function towards the realization of organizational goals
and objectives. This is so because organization does not exist in isolation.
For this reason, people are employed to perform different functions so as to
achieve same goals and objectives of the organizations.
These people employed
to work in an organization has their need to satisfy and the process, through
which these needs can be met and the thought which they are satisfied in the
workplace influence their performance.
The leadership style
adopted by the leaders in leading their subordinate can also affect the
performance of workers towards the accomplishment of the organization goals and
This is mostly the case
in a situation when such a leadership style will not enable the subordinate to
achieve their personal needs in the organization.
The particular style
adopted by the leaders ensuring that subordinate behaviour is geared towards
realization of the organization can affect the performance of the subordinate.
The role of leadership style as a subordinate performance of these, has well
demonstrated by such scholars like the Gregor (1957 – 1960), Monter and Blake (1996),
Fielder (1967) and Likerb (1961). It was found that the researchers decide to
look at the role of leadership styles on the motivation of workers performance
in an organization.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following purposes
are expected to be accomplished in this study;
To determine the
leadership style in the motivation of workers.
To examine the
leadership style adopted by the leaders in leading their subordinates in the
organization and to see the effect on workers performance.
To identify how
workers perception of a leader can affect their performance.
To look at the
problems associated with the leaders such by way of recommendation.
people’s knowledge and understanding on leadership as an important phenomenon
in the organization and human resource management in the organization.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research
questions shall direct and guide the thrust of this study;
Does the workers
perception of the leadership style of his boss motivate him to perform?
Does the workers
perception of the ways of his boss involve him in decision, motivating him to
Does the workers
perception of the way his boss leadership style meets his needs motivate him to
Does the workers
perception of the ways his boss value his job motivate him to performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
HO: The nature of relationship between the workers and
management in the organization will no affect the workers perception of their
boss leadership style.
HI: The nature of relationship between the
workers and management in the organization will affect the workers perception
of their boss leadership style.
HO: A worker’s satisfaction with the relationship of
leadership style of his boss will not motivate him to performance.
HI: A worker’s satisfaction with the
relationship of the leadership style of his boss will motivate him to
HO: The leadership style geared towards achieving the
needs of the workers will not motivate them to performance.
HI: The leadership style geared towards
achieving the needs of the workers will motivate him to performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
According to Douglas
McGregor (1975 – 1960) a leader cannot avoid the exercise of authority any more
than he can avoid the responsibility of what happens to his organization. The
significance of this study as to examine the various leadership happening to a
leader to adopt different situation with a view to enhance the performance of
The study is
significant in the sense that it broadens the people’s mind or knowledge in the
leadership style process in the organization. New research has been generated
due to findings of this study and such new research can enrich the literature
on leadership and improve orientation and knowledge on the concept.
The leader has to be
conscious of his unique position in the organization by making sure that the
action head to conformity with demands of workers is secure. Also the study
will be of great importance and improvement to the management of organization
being studied and practicing manage of the other organization.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study intends to
cover up every parts of an organization. in the course of this study,
questionnaire shall be distributed to all categories of workers in an
This study will look at
the roles played by the leaders in the organization. The various leadership styles
appropriated at different situations and the relationship between the leaders
and effective performance of the subordinate.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the process of
carrying out this research work, the researcher has been faced with a lot of
limitations, which are as follows;
Problem of Data Collection: In the course
of this research work, there has been the problem of data for the activation of
the purpose of this research work. A lot of assumptions have been made based on
the data given by organizations used for the purpose of achieving every
research work. All efforts towards getting the necessary and relevant
information for this project work was time constraint since there was no other
alternatives of getting such primary information.
Time Constraint: Due
to the tight schedule in school, the researcher has missed some vital point of
some of the necessary information as well as the primary data necessary for
research work. Due to tight schedule of seeing the staff of the organization as
1.9 Definition of Terms
a. Motivation: The desire and will to excel and work, it
stimulates an individual to perform their work.
As used in this project are those
people such as the top managers who control and make policies for organization.
Style: The style adopted by
the leaders in leading his subordinates.
Process by which the workers are being motivated to performance through
bearing and seeing things being made.
e. Planning, organizing, co-ordinating and
controlling of activities in an organization are the functions of a manager in
This refers to the time and space between the parts of the performance.
makers: Making a good policy that is beneficial to the organization and the
As it is also used in this project,
it means making poor result on performance.
Not able to be used in combination
This means to develop the meaning
of an idea or explanation of literature test.
k. Environment factors: The place where the
organization will be located based on the account of the leadership.
l. Arbitration: Performing the duty or functions of settling
disputes especially amongst his subordinate and between some other people or
m. Demoralization: To destroy the morale of something or kill the
spirit of something.
n. Luminary: A person who is an expert or a great influence in a
special area or activity.
o. Activator: To make such a device or chemical process start
working laying down a standard that is challenging of the higher level of
p. Authorities: As it is used in this project, it relates to as
q. Visionaries: To show the ability to think about or plan the
nature with great imagination and intelligence.
r. Persistent: This means a condition in which a person’s body is
kept working by medical means but the person shows no signs of other brain
s. Transcend: This means to be or go beyond the usual limits;
t. Unanimity: As it is used in this project, means complete
agreement about something among a group of people.
u. Adaptability: Able to change or be changed in order to deal
successfully with a new situation, old workers can be adaptable and quick to
adapt to economic change.
v. Empathy: The ability to understand another person’s feelings
w. Dexterity: This means one using his hand for quantity skills.
x. Dynamism: This means energy enthusiasm to make new things
happen or make things succeed.