research work on the impact of quality control techniques on profitability in
manufacturing organizations strives to assess the role of quality control in
enhancing the profitability of manufacturing organizations. The study argues
that the ultimate aim of any manufacturing company is the production of quality
goods and services for the satisfaction of its customers and to maximize
profit. The study reveals that for any product to survive the competitive
nature of the market depends on the value attached to the products by the
consumers. Such value may include quality, durability, price, utility and cost
of others. It further asserts that printing industries are concerned with/
despite the fact that the printing products are being used by a wide range of
customers within the society, there is need for the manufacturers to consider
individual optimum benefits, to be abele to accomplish this aim, the quality of
the product must be given adequate recognition. One of the major findings was
that, the quality control personnel need to be given adequate compensation and
recognition to enable them perform creditably well. Their basic functions of
supervision is to ensure that standard outputs are produced for the
satisfaction of their clients. It is recommended that New Nigeria Newspaper
should therefore intensify more effort in their quality control techniques
practice to bring their products to the standard of other foreign country
predicts so as to enhance their profitability.
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
Background to the Study - - - - - - 1
Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 5
Objective of the Study - - - - - - - 7
Statement of Hypothesis - - - - - - 8
Significance of the Study - - - - - - 9
Scope of the Study - - - - - - - 10
Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 11
Historical Background of the Case Study - - - 11
Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 13
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 16
Definition of Quality Control Technique - - - 17
Quality Inspection/Monitory - - - - - 18
Quality Control Technique Function - - - - 27
Quality Control Technique and
Inspection - - - 29
Quality and Reliability - - - - - - 32
in Printing Department Printing Process - - 39
Sampling Technique in Quality Control Technique - 39
Management (TQM) Techniques in Quality Control 42
Economic of Quality Control - - - - - 47
3.0 Research Methodology- - - - - - - 49
Research Design- - - - - - - - 49
Research Population - - - - - - - 49
Sample Size and Sampling Techniques- - - - 49
Method of Gathering Data - - - - - - 50
Justification for Method Used - - - - - 51
Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 52
Justification of Instrument Used - - - - - 53
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction 58
Presentation and Analysis 58
of Result 82
of Hypothesis 85
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
of Findings 91
Appendix I 94
OF THE STUDY
The ultimate aim of any manufacturing company is
the production of quality goods and services for the satisfaction of its
customers and to maximize profit.
The quality production may be checked by the
Good/term vs defectives.
Production is a any process or procedure designed as well as organized to
transform a set of input components into specified set of output elements.
Why do we inspect? To need out inferior product of course but if I stop
with that answer, I will over look most of what I should be doing inspection is
done his the production process not only to catch the bad item, but also save
wasting further work on them.
The quality of production can be checked by accepting the unit that are good
and reject the unit that are defective or present defective production.
The quality of production by good/terms vs
defective product is determine as quickly as possible during the production
cycle when qualities is shipping so that corrective may be taken before the occurrence
of real loss in the form of defective items.
A quality control system must include inspection.
In the case, however, the basic purpose of such inspection is not isolate good
and bad unit, but to play watch dog over the production process there by providing
the control required to keep performance within acceptable limits. The consumer
reaction, the quality of production is checked from the reaction of consumer of
a product if the attitude of consumer is positive then quality is said to be
met but if the reaction is negative towards a particular product is said to be
The effect of the consumer reaction on the
organization is that the organization may end up losing t heir customer to
their competitors when the reaction is negative and could lead to the collapse
of the organization. But when the reaction of consumer is positive it brings
Increase in the sales of the organization product
and also brings good wheel to the organization. In terms of having more customers
which of course will make the organization to remain in the market.
The quality of production is determine as quickly
as possible during the production cycle, when quality is slipping so that
corrective action may be taken before the occurrence of real loss in the form
of defective items. A good quality control system must include inspection. In
this case, however, the basic purpose of such inspection is not to isolate good
and bad units but to play watch dog over the production process there by
proceeding the control required to keep performance within acceptable limits.
Quality control means different things to different
people. Quality control is more than a set of statistical formular and table
for acceptance and control. Indeed, it is more than the department unit
responsible for quality control to an enlightened. Management it must represent
a business investment, which any other investment should show paper returns to
justify its existence.
The control of quality is the responsibility of
every one in the organization what over is produce by person or machine, the
person or the operator doing the work or operation of the machine is the one
who can most effectively control quality or make information available so that
desired quality control can be attained so that immediate action can be taken.
The person who has most influence for good or bad over the worker whether the
work is production or administration is the first line supervision. This supervisor
becomes the determinant which the total quality control effort revolves.
This project will therefore assess the import of
quality control on profitability in manufacturing organizations. With emphasis
on the printing industry and in particular to new Nigeria Newspaper limited Kaduna.
BACKGROUND OF NEW NIGERIA NEWS PAPERS LIMITED
The New Nigeria News paper limited,. Whose hand
office is located along Ahmadu
Bello Way Kaduna
was incorporated and launched by the Northern Regional Government on 23rd
October, 1964. The Launching of the company was performed by his Royal Highness
Late sin Ahmadu Bellow Raba the sardauna of sokoto. Its original name was
Northern Nigeria Newspaper Limited until it was change to now Nigeria Newspaper
limited after the creation of state in 1967. The aims of the establishing the
company was primarily to print and publish newspapers which will provide means
of public enlightment and education for the growing literate population of Nigeria. It was
also decided that the company should take over the publication of Gaskiya tafi
kwabo which was hither to published in Zaria
by Gaskya Corporation Limited.
In Maran 1973, the southern edition of the New
Nigeria was inaugurated in Lagos, the office of the
company to start printing simultaneously with the Kaduna Head office to enhance
easy transportation wide coverage. When the northern region was split into six
states by the creation of 12 states in the federation in July, the ownership
and management of the companies publication where transferred to the northern
state interim common services agency (ICSA) before the company was fully taken
over by the federal government August 1975 and place under the Federal
Ministries of Information. At present, the company publishers four Newspapers
the New Nigerian the Gaskiya Tafikwabo (a three time a week Hausa publication)
the New Nigeria weekly and the Sunday New Nigerian. While the New Nigeria was
first published on 1st January 1939, the Sunday New Nigeria was
first published on 24th May, 1981, the New Nigeria weekly (Saturday)
was first published on the 7th February 1998. The company operates a
commercial/ stationeries printing department, which under takes printing job of
various types and process high quality exercise books and other stationeries
products. In other to consolidate its economic base the company went in to real
property development project in 1977 with the construction of imam house (named
after the first indigenous editor of Gaskiya Tafi Kwabo) and multistory
building known as Nagwamatse housing the bank of the North area office Kaduna.
Furthermore, the company has yet built another 13
story building adjacent human house which was leased out to organizations such
as national electric power Authority (NEPA) now PHCN and Bank of the North and
other housing project to case accommodation within the New Nigerian Newspaper
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The quality of a product may be defined in terms of
its kind, types, characters and degree of goodness or excellence. If the
company’s product is to satisfy the customer requirement than it is necessary
for the company to establish standards for the product function and appearance
aspect of its product. This implies the need for a general requirement for
setting up a quality control department to ensure that the standard are adhered
to quality control sometimes fails to meet the required specification because
of some unassignable causes, defective
materials improper setting of equipment, operation errors, manpower and many
other unassignable causes. Because it cost the same amount of money to produce
good units, emphasis should be on prevention rather than error defection. Thus,
the attainment of suitable quality department appropriate human performance
when the product is being made consequently conflict crisis between the quality
control personnel and promotion personnel. When this happens it is the
responsibility of the manager to resolve the conflict.
In the face of economic depression in our present society
man is corrupt and can go to any length to compose standard for his own
benefits. There is need for quality control officials to be adequately
remunerated so that they would perform their function effectively.
Another factor to be considered that which is
militating against quality control is time particularly in printing industries
where emphasis is majority on mass production. How eve, time limitation must
never be compromised for quality control, its desire is to meet the over all
objective of satisfying customer’s needs profitability.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Against the background of the enumerated of the organization,
the following are the objective of the study.
1. To examine the process of quality control
technique in printing industries in particular to New Nigeria, Newspaper
2. To also highlight it importance inreducing
the cost of correcting effective product in printing industries in particular
to the New Nigeria Newspaper.
3. To also determine the impact of quality
control techniques on profitability in printing industries in particular the
New Nigeria Newspaper Limited.
4. To preset impartial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of Higher National Diploma in productions and
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis are put forward to guide,
the researcher in this study:
Ho: Quality control techniques is not significant impact on the
profitability of an organization.
Hi: Quality control techniques is significant impact on the profitability
of an organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Considering the importance of quality control
techniques in the organization, it is necessary that the dimension or other
attributes to be controlled should be defined as clearly as possible.
Being a tradition that a final year student must
written project or research work of this nature as fulfillment for the award of
Higher National Diploma in production and operations management. The study is
undertaken for t he purpose of exercising the term quality control technique,
its role how effective, efficient to the over all achievement of the
organizational goals and objective.
And also it is certain that the finding of this
study would be of benefit to the organization as a whole especially to the
production department and future researchers.
a. FUTURE RESEARCHERS:
Future researcher will find this project work
useful and interesting w hen making research on a related toic or when user is
needed for review on this particular topic. This project work will service as
foundation that will case further research.
B. TO THE PRODUCTION OPERATION MANAGER
That quality control techniques enhances profit and
that all activities in the production process that bring about defective job
should be avoided for them to maintain quality.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The major scope of t his study has to do with
aspect of quality control techniques on the profitability. With a case study of
New Nigeria Newspaper company limited Kaduna.
This research work is directly concerned with quality control technique on the
profitability in many facturing organization, especially I quality control
department. Therefore, the prime scope of this research is to access the
quality control technique on the profitability in manufacturing organization in
the effectives of New Nigeria Newspaper Company Limited Kaduna.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
To undertake research work of these nature is by no
means on easy task, the researcher encounter a number of problems in the course
of gathering materials, analyzing them etc the major limiting factors
encountered include the following:
information provided by the management of the company studied no company would
be willing to divulge information on its operation as it relates to quality
control technique. The researcher has been able to convince management of the
need for such vital information to the educational development of the nation as
this would serve as part of their contribution to such development.
Time: time has
also been a limited factor in the sense that despite the fact that the research
work is an important aspect of the academic programme of the poly technique
available to meet other academic commitment which are equally important.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Technique According to David Dorfman
(2011) is defined technique as a way of carrying out a particular task,
especially the execution or performance of manufacturing work or a scientific
Technique can be described
as ability in a particular field.
A technique is a systematic procedure formular or
routine by which a task is accomplished.
control techniques: Quality control techniques According to Juran
(1974:448) is a regulatory technique through which we measure actual quality
performance compared with standard and act on the differences.
Deming, W.E (1976:26) quality control technique as
a function or collection of duty which must be performed through out an
organization in order to achieve its quality objectives.
Is the description of an item ordered by an organization that a description
given must confirm to. Is the statement providing description list of
characteristics or requirement laid down for materials component or process
These are products or services that have all characteristics expected of them.
In terms of functional performance taste. It can be defined as the
profitability of a product performing its purpose adequately for an intended
period or under a given operating condition.
In this definition four elements are being stressed
upon job probability adequate performance, time and operating. To achieve
reliability, a product must be properly designed for its function. There must
also be a follow up to ensure that the quality of materials (printing paper ink
etc) and workmanship is consistent with desired reliability
This measures the projected use available form the product over its operating
cycle before its deteriorates (in terms of information).
Quality control: Is the function
of collection of duties which must be performed throughout the organization in
order to achieve its quality objectives.
In printing industries which major objectives is to
produce books Newspaper in general which has to do with feeding the public with
vital information, may not be irrelevant to lay emphasis on quality control in
the determination of its goals and objectives.