The purpose of this study is to know the
factors that influence the Niger Delta crisis and its implication on
Socio-political development of Nigeria.
The study continued to evaluate the extent of damages the Niger Delta Crisis
lure on political development of the nation. The crisis are a threat to both
local and foreign investors. The researcher after various investigation and the
researcher’s findings about the Niger Delta crisis, the researcher concluded
that the crisis is as a result of high degree of neglect of the oil exploration
areas. The researcher still makes some recommendation of how the problems of
Niger Delta crisis can be solved.
TABLE OF CONTENT
page - - - - - - - - i
Page - - - - - - - ii
- - - - - - - iii
- - - - - - iv
- - - - - - - - v
of contents - - - - - - vi-viii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - 1-6
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - 7
1.4 Research Question - - - - - 8
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis - - - - 8
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - 9
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - 10
1.8 Limitation of the Study - - - - 10
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - 11
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - 11-35
2.2 The concept of Ethnic Militia - - - 36-38
2.3 Impact of the crisis on the Economy - 39-49
Educational Implication of the Crisis - 50-51
Efforts of the Government towards the Crisis 52-53
References - - - - - - 54-55
3.0 Research Design and Methodology - - 56
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - 56
3.2 Research Design - - - - - 56
3.3 Sources/Methods of Data Collection - - 57
3.4 Population and Sample Size - - - 57
3.5 Sample Technique - - - - - 58
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument - - - 58
3.7 Methods of Data Analysis - - - - 59-60
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data - - 61
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - 61
4.2 Presentation of data - - - - - 61
4.3 Analysis of Data - - - - - 62
4.4 Test of Hypothesis - - - - - 63
4.5 Interpretation of Result(s) - - - 64-68
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations -69
5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - 69-70
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - 72
5.4 Recommendation - - - - - 73-75
References - - - - - - 76
Appendix - - - - - - - 77
Questionnaires - - - - - - 78-81
OF THE STUDY
The Niger Delta region is located in the
Southern part of Nigeria.
The region is characterized by Swamps
and high rainforest but through which the Niger River flows into the Atlantic Ocean multiple estuaries. The Niger Delta region
treasure base. It represents the country’s economic heartbeat endeared with
petroleum often referred to as the precious black-gold which earns over 90% of
the country’s revenue. For over five decades, all the oil exploration and
exploitation in the country had taken place within this region.
Expectedly, the occupation of the inhabitants
of this region is predominantly farming and fishing taking advantage of the
presence of the rich rainforest and large body of water.
According to Abati (2009:54) Nigeria
Delta refers to the states of Cross River, Ondo, Imo, Abia, Edo, Rivers, Bayelsa,
Akwa Ibom and Delta but more directly the last four states which face more
peculiar problems. It is one of the largest wetland in the world and clearly,
the largest in Africa.
It is a trite point that oil is important
to the world as a major source of energy. Anywhere in the world where the
vehicles tank is being filled with gasoline, or an engine is being run with
diesel or any other fuel, a lantern or store is being filled with kerosene, or any petroleum based
product is being used, there is a linkage to a complex process that involves
exploration, refining, high-tech engineering and technology, human and material
resources, the politics of nations and the rights and expectations of human
is at the centre of this process as the sixth largest producer of oil in the
world and the largest oil producing country in Africa.
Oil was first discovered in Nigeria in 1908 but commercial exploration did
not commence until the discovery of oil in Olobiri (now in Bayelsa State)
in march 1957 (Abati 2009:54).
inability to develop local capacity in oil exploration and to acquire the
required technology, has made it possible for the multinational corporations engage in joint venture partnerships
with it to get way with lopsided contractual agreements.
Nigeria is fully aware of its
importance as an oil producing country and almost all the wealth that came the
way of the country last fifty years (50 years) or more has been derived from
However, before the discovery of oil in
the Niger Delta, every region in Nigeria has means of generating
wealth for development of their regions. There was great competition among the regions to see which would surpass
the other in terms of development.
But the discovery of oil and the oil boom
suddenly put an end to this as all Nigeria wanted a share of the
In the 1963 constitution, derivation was
fifty percent (50%) and federal government got only thirty percent (30%). The
same constitution granted the ownership of the continental shelf to the
regions. By 1966, this had been constructively jettisoned controlling Nigeria
oil resources became the federal government’s compulsive obsession. The civil
war further exposed the strategic value of the oil resources in Niger Delta and
as the military seized control of power and politics, exercising control over
oil and revenue became a major task. In 1970, derivation had been reduced to
forty five percent. (45%).
In 1975, it was further reduced to twenty
five percent (25%). In 1981, the shagari administration took it all the way
down to five percent (5%). It later went down to three percent (3%) under the
In the 1999 constitution, derivation was
fixed at thirteen percent (13%) on response to agitation by the oil producing
Based on this development, youths in
Obokafia, a community in Niger Delta region rose up with arms to struggle for
the emancipation of their people in a bid to actualize the objectives of their
struggle, different militia groups sprang up unfortunately, these groups
resorted to violence instead of making demands.
Since the violence or crisis broke up,
the polity has been restive. Komolate (2009:72) in his contribution about the
crisis in Niger Delta region assets:
are simply counted in dozen and displaced places in thousand news papers are
awah with photographs of helpless children, old men and women who have been
displaced. These defencess folks are fleeing the sports where solders are
bathing it out with militants.
assertion above illustrates the looming danger about the security of people of
Niger Delta. What the youths claim is to struggle for emancipation of their
people has turned to be criminal activities range from kidnapping of expatrate
workers. School children, parents to political office holders and canalization
matter of fact life in Niger Delta is really becoming unbearable as the means
of livelihood dimished by the passage
of time. The indigene of this region particularly Ogonis, Ijaws, Ibibios etc
have protested and still protesting against their deplorable condition of
The high rate of crime in the Niger Delta
region cannot be over emphasized such that lives and properties are being lost
everyday. people are kidnapped and ransom demanded before release. In most
cases, people kidnapped by hostile youths of Niger Delta are killed, if ransom
is not paid. This resultant effect is that companies now prefer to shut down
and leave for other countries, thereby throwing some Nigeria out of job.
Again, the hostilities in this
geo-political region of the country has led to school drop outs. Most youths
now prefer to join any group that specializes on kidnapping and therefore make
Insecurity also abound as a result of the
Niger Delta crisis. People now live in fear because of the presence of many
militia groups who are conscious of making fast money through hostility
irrespective of the amnesty granted to the militants.
OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are:
To high light the problems of Niger Delta
How the Niger Delta crisis affected the socio-political
and economic development of the region and Nigeria in general.
To measure the extent of damages the crisis
has caused in the Niger Delta region.
To evaluate the impact of this crisis on the
economy and its implication in educational system of the region.
For the purpose of this research work,
the following are the questions for research
What are the factors that influence the Niger
What are the impacts of Niger Delta crisis on
education advancement of the region?
What influence does the Niger Delta crisis
have to the standard of living of the people?
What can be done to improve their condition?
What are the efforts of the government
towards resolving this conflict?
Delta crisis has no effects on socio-political development of Nigeria
Hi: Niger Delta
crisis have effects on socio-political development of Nigeria.
Ho: Niger Delta crisis has no effects
on standard of living of the people
Hi: Niger Delta crisis has effect on
standard of living of the people.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
both local and foreign investors, the Niger Delta area crisis is becoming
increasingly threatening to business and socio-political development of Nigeria due to militancy
of pressure groups in the area. But the area is a multinational economic base
that attracts attention. This is very significant as it tries to investigate
the factors that energize the crisis and seek solution to it.
research work has provided solution to the problem based on the findings. It
also serves as a reference material for students and researchers. In addition,
the work is significant to government who may require information contained
here for policy implementation.
the result of the research will help to reduce violence in Niger Delta region.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE SYUDY
study was limited to South-East and South-South of Nigeria which make up the Niger
Delta States and they are Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross rivers, Delta, Imo
and Rivers state.
OF THE STUDY
The study will cover selected communities
including Ohaji/Egnema Local government area in Niger Delta region but due to
dilapidated roads and high cost of transport in
the area, the researcher could not cover the whole Niger Delta regions.
Finance is another limitation of the
study because the researcher, shortcoming in finance, the researcher was unable
to cover all the regions in Niger Delta as scheduled.
Time factor is another hindrance to the
study because of the limited time, the researcher was unable to complete going
round all the regions in Niger Delta.