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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005712

No of Pages: 88

No of Chapters: 5

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An embedded fingerprint biometric authentication scheme for Automated Teller Machine (ATM) banking systems is modelled in this work. In this scheme, fingerprint biometrics techniques are fused together with the ATM system for person authentication to improve the security level. The proposed system is fast and more secure. This work’s purpose is to document the ways of designing, implementing and using this new system to ensure a safer and more efficient transaction environment. The methodology adopted for the work is the object oriented analysis and design methodology which was used to produce a model of the fingerprint authenticated automated teller machine that can authenticate one using their fingerprint during ATM transactions.




Cover Page                                                                                                                              i

Title Page                                                                                                                                ii

Certification Page                                                                                                                   iii

Approval Page                                                                                                                        iv

Dedication                                                                                                                              v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vii

Table of Content                                                                                                                     viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                          xi

List of Figures                                                                                                                         xii



1.1              Background of the Study                                                                                           1

1.2              Statement of the Problem                                                                                           2

1.3              Objectives of the Study                                                                                              3

1.4              Significance of the Study                                                                                           3

1.5              Scope of the Study                                                                                                     3

1.6              Limitations of the Study                                                                                             3

1.7              Thesis Organization                                                                                                    4

1.8              Definition of Terms                                                                                                    4



2.1       The Emergence of Automated Teller Machine (ATM)                                               6

2.2       ATM Hardware and Software Characteristics                                                           7

2.2.1    How the ATM Works                                                                                     7

2.2.2    Positive and Negative Dimensions of the ATM                                             8

2.2.3    Electronic Banking System And The Use Of ATM In Nigeria                      8

2.2.4    ATM Security Issues                                                                                      9

2.3       Biometrics                                                                                                                   11

2.3.1    What Are Biometric Systems Used For?                                                        12

2.3.2    Why Biometrics Are Secure                                                                           13

2.3.3    What Are The Main Types Of Biometric Systems?                                       13

2.3.4    How Biometric Systems Work                                                                       14

            2.3.5    What Is The Best Biometric Technology?                                                      15

2.3.6    Biometrics Identifier                                                                                       15

2.3.7    Application Areas of Biometrics                                                                    17

2.3.8    Advantages of Biometrics Authentication System                                        18

2.3.9    Disadvantages of Biometrics Authentication System                                                18

2.3.10  Issues and Concerns of Biometrics                                                                 19

2.4       The Fingerprint                                                                                                           20

2.4.1    Principles of Fingerprint Biometrics                                                               21

2.4.2    How Does Fingerprint Biometrics Work                                                        21

2.4.3    Issues with Fingerprint Systems                                                                     22

2.4.4    Benefits of Fingerprint Biometric Systems                                                    22

2.4.5    Applications of Fingerprint Biometrics                                                          22

2.5       Fingerprint Authenticated Automated Teller Machine                                              23

2.6       Benefits of Biometric Supported ATMs                                                                    26

2.7        Research Methodology                                                                                               26

      2.7.1    Prototyping                                                                                                     26

      2.7.2    The Expert Systems Approach To Software Engineering                              27

      2.7.3    The Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM)         27

      2.7.4    Usability Engineering Methodology                                                               29

      2.7.5    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM)                  29



3.1       Introduction                                                                                                                31

3.2       Methodology Adopted                                                                                               31

3.3       Analysis of the Existing System                                                                                 32

            3.3.1    ATM Card Issuance                                                                                        32

3.3.2    ATM User Authentication Procedure                                                             32

3.3.3    Data Flow Diagram of the Existing System                                                   32

3.3.4    Weaknesses of the Existing System                                                               34

3.4       Analysis of the Proposed System                                                                               35

3.4.1    Use Case Diagram of the Proposed System                                                   35

3.5       Justification of the Proposed System                                                                         36

3.6       High Level Model of the New System                                                                       37



4.1       Objectives of the Design                                                                                            39

4.2       System Components                                                                                                   39

4.2.1    Customer Module                                                                                           39

4.2.2    Bank Personnel Module                                                                                  39

4.3       Specifications                                                                                                              39

4.3.1    Database Specification                                                                                   39

4.3.2    Input and Output Specifications                                                                    40

4.4       Class Model View and Class Diagram of The New System                                      41

4.5       System Flowchart                                                                                                       44

4.6       Sequence Diagram                                                                                                      45

4.7       Activity Diagram                                                                                                        46

4.8       Program Flowchart                                                                                                     48

4.9       Data Dictionary                                                                                                          63

4.10     System Implementation                                                                                              64

4.10.1  Choice of Programming Language                                                                 64

4.10.2  Hardware Requirements                                                                                 64

4.10.3  Software Requirements                                                                                  65

4.11     Implementation Plan                                                                                                   65

4.11.1  Installation Procedure                                                                                     65

4.11.2  Change Over Procedure                                                                                  66

4.12     User Documentation                                                                                                   67



5.1       Summary                                                                                                                     68

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  68

5.3       Recommendation and Areas for Further Research                                                     69

References                                                                                                                              70

Appendix I: Source Code                                                                                                      

Appendix II: Sample Output                                                                                                 






Table 4.1         Account (Customer) Information Table                                                         40

Table 4.2         Data Dictionary                                                                                              64


Fig 3.1             Overall data flow diagram for the existing system                                         34

Fig 3.2             Use Case Diagram of Bank Personnel                                                            36

Fig 3.3             Use Case Diagram of Customer                                                                     36

Fig 3.4             High level model of the proposed system                                                      38

Fig 4.1a           Customer Profile Form                                                                                   40

Fig 4.1b           Fingerprint Enrolment Form                                                                           41

Fig 4.2             A Class Model View of an ATM System                                                       42

Fig 4.3             Class Diagram Showing Associations between System Classes                    43

Fig 4.4             System/Process Flow for Account Creation                                                   45

Fig 4.5             Sequence Diagram for Customer Login Process                                            46

Fig 4.6             Activity Diagram of the System                                                                     47

Fig 4.7             Main Menu Flowchart                                                                                    49

Fig 4.8             Admin Panel Flowchart                                                                                  50

Fig 4.9             Open Account Flowchart                                                                               51

Fig 4.10           Edit/Delete Account Flowchart                                                                      52

Fig 4.11           Enroll Fingerprint Flowchart                                                                          53

Fig 4.12           User Authentication Flowchart                                                                      54

Fig 4.13           Transaction Flowchart                                                                        55

Fig 4.14           Statement Flowchart                                                                                       56

Fig 4.15           Change PIN Flowchart                                                                                   57

Fig 4.16           Airtime Recharge Flowchart                                                                           58

Fig 4.17           Withdrawal Flowchart                                                                                    59

Fig 4.18           Inquiry Flowchart                                                                                           60

Fig 4.19           Transfer Flowchart                                                                                          61

Fig 4.20           Pay Bills Flowchart                                                                                         62






1.1              Background of the Study

An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a computerized machine designed to dispense cash to bank customers without need of human interaction (Kayne, 2003; Foster, 2011). The ATM can also take deposits, transfer money between bank accounts and provide other basic financial services.


Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have become a mature technology which provides financial services to an increasing segment of the population in many countries (Yanez & Gomez, 2001). Biometrics, and in particular fingerprint scanning, continues to gain acceptance as a reliable form of securing access through identification and verification processes. This work identifies a high level model for the modification of existing ATM systems to economically incorporate fingerprint scanning, and outline the potential business and social advantages of using such system to carry out ATM transactions.


ATM innovation paralleled the growth of the personal computer (PC) and telecommunication industries. Each machine operated in a local mode without any connection to the banking systems, and transaction authorization took place based on the information recorded in the magnetic bands of the cards. The next step in the evolution of this industry was to connect these devices to the banks’ centralized systems; by then, mid -1980’s, banks would work in a dual modality, in other words, the ATM would work on-line but in the event of communication loss it had the ability to authorize the transaction with the information recorded on the magnetic band.


Biometrics identification is utilized to verify a person’s identity by digitally accepting one’s fingerprint and comparing those measurements with those that have been stored in a template for that same person. Templates can be stored at the biometrics device, the institution’s database, a user’s smart card, or a Trusted Third Party (TTP) Service Provider’s database. Mehtre (Biometrics ATMs for rural India - Express Computer, http://www.expresscompute, 2001) illustrated the process of fingerprint authentication as thus, “Fingerprints of account holders are captured through the scanner in the system at the time of account opening. A template is created for each fingerprint by extracting features and storing these features in the debit card against the unique Customer ID. During verification, the fingerprint is captured using a fingerprint scanner attached to the ATM and 1:1 matching of the fingerprint captured is done with the templates stored in the debit card. Upon a successful match, the user is allowed to perform further transactions.”


1.2              Statement of the Problem

There is a high demand for greater security during access to sensitive and personal data due to the rapidly increasing number of break-in reports on traditional PIN and password security systems which criminal–minded individuals identify and exploit to perpetuate fraud. Working with the current ATM technology that uses 4-digit PIN code, fraudsters are likely to guess someone’s PIN by trial and error. Again, a PIN code can deliberately or mistakenly be revealed to someone who in turn may tamper with the account. For this reason, countermeasures like the use of fingerprint biometrics are therefore required to protect the banking system as well as the equipment.


1.3              Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this work are:

1.         To develop a model that integrates fingerprint biometrics technology onto ATMs in order to improve security in ATM transactions.

2.         Increase the PIN to a 6 - digit combination which is harder to crack and large enough to make guessing difficult.

3.         To provide a quick and secure access to accounts to perform banking transactions and improve banking relationship between banks and their customers.


1.4              Significance of the Study

Security is a very important factor in every organization, in an individual’s life and in the society as a whole. The current system of pin and chip-on-card authentication has proven to have security flaws and definitely needs improvement as it causes social and financial insecurity. The Fingerprint Authenticated Automated Teller Machine is geared towards improving the security of the current system. Since no two fingerprints in the world are the same, this system would prove to be the most secure method of carrying out ATM transactions but if this work is ignored, cases of ATM fraud will be on the increase and consequently, customers’ dissatisfaction may lead to decreased use of the ATMs.


1.5              Scope of the Study

The study relates generally to the use of one’s fingerprint as a method of authentication in ATM transactions. It involves:

·         The Design and Implementation of a customer account creation software.

·         The Design and Implementation of the Fingerprint Authenticated Automated Teller Machine software model interfaced with the fingerprint machine.

·         The Design and Implementation of a database that stores the account holders’ data and fingerprint templates.


1.6              Limitations of the Study

In as much as this system is built to improve security, the limitations of the system are:

·         The Automated Teller Machine is simulated as the actual machine could not be afforded for the research

·         Limited access to the real system to evaluate how it works in details.

·         The SDK of the digitalPersona fingerprint machine used is the free version and thus, only ten people can use the system.


1.7   Thesis Organization

This report produces a comprehensive explanation of how the project was realized and subsequent chapters are organized as thus; the literature review of the project is in chapter two, chapter three comprises of the methodology and system analysis, while the system design is reported in chapter four, summary, conclusion, recommendation and area for further studies are given in chapter five.


1.8   Definition of Terms

ATM - An automated teller machine, or ATM, is a machine that can dispense cash and perform other basic financial services. 

Chip - Chip is short for microchip, the incredibly complex yet tiny modules that store computer memory or provide logic circuitry for microprocessors.

PIN - A personal identification number (PIN) is a secret numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system.

Fingerprint - A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

Template - A template is a document pattern or part of a document that you keep stored to make new documents.

Database - A database is an organized collection of data, today typically in digital form. A database is a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.

Identification - This is the process or activity of recognizing something or someone by analysis

Authentication - This is the process of proving or showing that something or someone is of undisputed origin or veracity

Characteristics - This a feature that is typical of a particular person, place or things

Access Control - This is a way of restricting the opportunity to approach or enter a place, or retrieve information from somewhere.

Virtual – Not physically existing as such but made by software to appear to do so.

Security – A measure to ensure safety from a criminal activity

Sample – A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is about

Server – A computer or computer program which manages access to centralized resource or service in a network

Analysis – A detailed examination of something in order to interpret it or explain it.

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