An embedded fingerprint biometric authentication scheme for Automated Teller Machine (ATM) banking systems is modelled in this work. In this scheme, fingerprint biometrics techniques are fused together with the ATM system for person authentication to improve the security level. The proposed system is fast and more secure. This work’s purpose is to document the ways of designing, implementing and using this new system to ensure a safer and more efficient transaction environment. The methodology adopted for the work is the object oriented analysis and design methodology which was used to produce a model of the fingerprint authenticated automated teller machine that can authenticate one using their fingerprint during ATM transactions.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Certification Page iii
Approval Page iv
Table of Content viii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Significance of the Study 3
1.5 Scope of the Study 3
1.6 Limitations of the Study 3
1.7 Thesis Organization 4
1.8 Definition of Terms 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Emergence of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) 6
2.2 ATM Hardware and Software Characteristics 7
2.2.1 How the ATM Works 7
2.2.2 Positive and Negative Dimensions of the ATM 8
2.2.3 Electronic Banking System And The Use Of ATM In Nigeria 8
2.2.4 ATM Security Issues 9
2.3 Biometrics 11
2.3.1 What Are Biometric Systems Used For? 12
2.3.2 Why Biometrics Are Secure 13
2.3.3 What Are The Main Types Of Biometric Systems? 13
2.3.4 How Biometric Systems Work 14
2.3.5 What Is The Best Biometric Technology? 15
2.3.6 Biometrics Identifier 15
2.3.7 Application Areas of Biometrics 17
2.3.8 Advantages of Biometrics Authentication System 18
2.3.9 Disadvantages of Biometrics Authentication System 18
2.3.10 Issues and Concerns of Biometrics 19
2.4 The Fingerprint 20
2.4.1 Principles of Fingerprint Biometrics 21
2.4.2 How Does Fingerprint Biometrics Work 21
2.4.3 Issues with Fingerprint Systems 22
2.4.4 Benefits of Fingerprint Biometric Systems 22
2.4.5 Applications of Fingerprint Biometrics 22
2.5 Fingerprint Authenticated Automated Teller Machine 23
2.6 Benefits of Biometric Supported ATMs 26
2.7 Research Methodology 26
2.7.1 Prototyping 26
2.7.2 The Expert Systems Approach To Software Engineering 27
2.7.3 The Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) 27
2.7.4 Usability Engineering Methodology 29
2.7.5 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) 29
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS
3.1 Introduction 31
3.2 Methodology Adopted 31
3.3 Analysis of the Existing System 32
3.3.1 ATM Card Issuance 32
3.3.2 ATM User Authentication Procedure 32
3.3.3 Data Flow Diagram of the Existing System 32
3.3.4 Weaknesses of the Existing System 34
3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System 35
3.4.1 Use Case Diagram of the Proposed System 35
3.5 Justification of the Proposed System 36
3.6 High Level Model of the New System 37
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM DESIGN
4.1 Objectives of the Design 39
4.2 System Components 39
4.2.1 Customer Module 39
4.2.2 Bank Personnel Module 39
4.3 Specifications 39
4.3.1 Database Specification 39
4.3.2 Input and Output Specifications 40
4.4 Class Model View and Class Diagram of The New System 41
4.5 System Flowchart 44
4.6 Sequence Diagram 45
4.7 Activity Diagram 46
4.8 Program Flowchart 48
4.9 Data Dictionary 63
4.10 System Implementation 64
4.10.1 Choice of Programming Language 64
4.10.2 Hardware Requirements 64
4.10.3 Software Requirements 65
4.11 Implementation Plan 65
4.11.1 Installation Procedure 65
4.11.2 Change Over Procedure 66
4.12 User Documentation 67
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 68
5.2 Conclusion 68
5.3 Recommendation and Areas for Further Research 69
Appendix I: Source Code
Appendix II: Sample Output
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Account (Customer) Information Table 40
Table 4.2 Data Dictionary 64
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 3.1 Overall data flow diagram for the existing system 34
Fig 3.2 Use Case Diagram of Bank Personnel 36
Fig 3.3 Use Case Diagram of Customer 36
Fig 3.4 High level model of the proposed system 38
Fig 4.1a Customer Profile Form 40
Fig 4.1b Fingerprint Enrolment Form 41
Fig 4.2 A Class Model View of an ATM System 42
Fig 4.3 Class Diagram Showing Associations between System Classes 43
Fig 4.4 System/Process Flow for Account Creation 45
Fig 4.5 Sequence Diagram for Customer Login Process 46
Fig 4.6 Activity Diagram of the System 47
Fig 4.7 Main Menu Flowchart 49
Fig 4.8 Admin Panel Flowchart 50
Fig 4.9 Open Account Flowchart 51
Fig 4.10 Edit/Delete Account Flowchart 52
Fig 4.11 Enroll Fingerprint Flowchart 53
Fig 4.12 User Authentication Flowchart 54
Fig 4.13 Transaction Flowchart 55
Fig 4.14 Statement Flowchart 56
Fig 4.15 Change PIN Flowchart 57
Fig 4.16 Airtime Recharge Flowchart 58
Fig 4.17 Withdrawal Flowchart 59
Fig 4.18 Inquiry Flowchart 60
Fig 4.19 Transfer Flowchart 61
Fig 4.20 Pay Bills Flowchart 62
1.1 Background of the Study
An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a computerized machine designed to dispense cash to bank customers without need of human interaction (Kayne, 2003; Foster, 2011). The ATM can also take deposits, transfer money between bank accounts and provide other basic financial services.
Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have become a mature technology which provides financial services to an increasing segment of the population in many countries (Yanez & Gomez, 2001). Biometrics, and in particular fingerprint scanning, continues to gain acceptance as a reliable form of securing access through identification and verification processes. This work identifies a high level model for the modification of existing ATM systems to economically incorporate fingerprint scanning, and outline the potential business and social advantages of using such system to carry out ATM transactions.
ATM innovation paralleled the growth of the personal computer (PC) and telecommunication industries. Each machine operated in a local mode without any connection to the banking systems, and transaction authorization took place based on the information recorded in the magnetic bands of the cards. The next step in the evolution of this industry was to connect these devices to the banks’ centralized systems; by then, mid -1980’s, banks would work in a dual modality, in other words, the ATM would work on-line but in the event of communication loss it had the ability to authorize the transaction with the information recorded on the magnetic band.
Biometrics identification is utilized to verify a person’s identity by digitally accepting one’s fingerprint and comparing those measurements with those that have been stored in a template for that same person. Templates can be stored at the biometrics device, the institution’s database, a user’s smart card, or a Trusted Third Party (TTP) Service Provider’s database. Mehtre (Biometrics ATMs for rural India - Express Computer, http://www.expresscompute ronline.com/.../technology01.shtml, 2001) illustrated the process of fingerprint authentication as thus, “Fingerprints of account holders are captured through the scanner in the system at the time of account opening. A template is created for each fingerprint by extracting features and storing these features in the debit card against the unique Customer ID. During verification, the fingerprint is captured using a fingerprint scanner attached to the ATM and 1:1 matching of the fingerprint captured is done with the templates stored in the debit card. Upon a successful match, the user is allowed to perform further transactions.”
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is a high demand for greater security during access to sensitive and personal data due to the rapidly increasing number of break-in reports on traditional PIN and password security systems which criminal–minded individuals identify and exploit to perpetuate fraud. Working with the current ATM technology that uses 4-digit PIN code, fraudsters are likely to guess someone’s PIN by trial and error. Again, a PIN code can deliberately or mistakenly be revealed to someone who in turn may tamper with the account. For this reason, countermeasures like the use of fingerprint biometrics are therefore required to protect the banking system as well as the equipment.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this work are:
1. To develop a model that integrates fingerprint biometrics technology onto ATMs in order to improve security in ATM transactions.
2. Increase the PIN to a 6 - digit combination which is harder to crack and large enough to make guessing difficult.
3. To provide a quick and secure access to accounts to perform banking transactions and improve banking relationship between banks and their customers.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Security is a very important factor in every organization, in an individual’s life and in the society as a whole. The current system of pin and chip-on-card authentication has proven to have security flaws and definitely needs improvement as it causes social and financial insecurity. The Fingerprint Authenticated Automated Teller Machine is geared towards improving the security of the current system. Since no two fingerprints in the world are the same, this system would prove to be the most secure method of carrying out ATM transactions but if this work is ignored, cases of ATM fraud will be on the increase and consequently, customers’ dissatisfaction may lead to decreased use of the ATMs.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study relates generally to the use of one’s fingerprint as a method of authentication in ATM transactions. It involves:
· The Design and Implementation of a customer account creation software.
· The Design and Implementation of the Fingerprint Authenticated Automated Teller Machine software model interfaced with the fingerprint machine.
· The Design and Implementation of a database that stores the account holders’ data and fingerprint templates.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
In as much as this system is built to improve security, the limitations of the system are:
· The Automated Teller Machine is simulated as the actual machine could not be afforded for the research
· Limited access to the real system to evaluate how it works in details.
· The SDK of the digitalPersona fingerprint machine used is the free version and thus, only ten people can use the system.
1.7 Thesis Organization
This report produces a comprehensive explanation of how the project was realized and subsequent chapters are organized as thus; the literature review of the project is in chapter two, chapter three comprises of the methodology and system analysis, while the system design is reported in chapter four, summary, conclusion, recommendation and area for further studies are given in chapter five.
1.8 Definition of Terms
ATM - An automated teller machine, or ATM, is a machine that can dispense cash and perform other basic financial services.
Chip - Chip is short for microchip, the incredibly complex yet tiny modules that store computer memory or provide logic circuitry for microprocessors.
PIN - A personal identification number (PIN) is a secret numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system.
Fingerprint - A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.
Template - A template is a document pattern or part of a document that you keep stored to make new documents.
Database - A database is an organized collection of data, today typically in digital form. A database is a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.
Identification - This is the process or activity of recognizing something or someone by analysis
Authentication - This is the process of proving or showing that something or someone is of undisputed origin or veracity
Characteristics - This a feature that is typical of a particular person, place or things
Access Control - This is a way of restricting the opportunity to approach or enter a place, or retrieve information from somewhere.
Virtual – Not physically existing as such but made by software to appear to do so.
Security – A measure to ensure safety from a criminal activity
Sample – A small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is about
Server – A computer or computer program which manages access to centralized resource or service in a network
Analysis – A detailed examination of something in order to interpret it or explain it.