INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT ETHICS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIAN PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE CLUBS IN LAGOS STATE

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of management ethics on the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of this study consisted of all footballers, coaches, medical personnel and administrators from MFM and Ikorodu United football clubs in the Nigerian Professional Football League. The sample for this study consisted of one-hundred (100) footballers, coaches, medical personnel and administrators from MFM and Ikorodu United football clubs in the Nigerian Professional Football League. They were selected through the convenience sampling technique. A total of forty (40) footballers, two (2) coaches, three (3) medical personnel and four (5) administrators will be selected each from MFM and Ikorodu United football clubs in the Nigerian Professional Football League. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect the information for the study. The questionnaire was validated by the supervisor and other experts in sports administration and management. The reliability of the research instrument was determined through a test-retest reliability method by administering twenty (20) copies validated questionnaire twice to footballers in Shooting stars football club within two weeks interval. Results from the reliability test shows a Pearson Correlation value of 0.81 which indicates the instrument was reliable; thus it was adopted for data collection. The descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages was used to analyze demographic data of the respondents. The inferential statistics of Chi-Square (x2) will be used to test all stated hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. Four research hypotheses were tested and results indicated that management’s objectivity, transparency, equity and fairness would all significantly influence performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state. The study hereby recommends that football club owners in the professional league should ensure proper management’s objectivity in other to foster an improved performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state.

 

Keywords: Nigerian Professional Football League, MFM, Ikorodu United, Management’s Ethics, Objectivity, Transparency, Equity and Fairness

 

 



 

TABLE OF CONTENT

                                                                                                                                    PAGES

Title page                                                                         i

Certification                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                           iii

Acknowledgment                                               iv

Abstract                                                                            v

Table of Content                                                    vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                    1

Statement of the Problem                                       5

Purpose of the Study                                      5

Research Questions                                                       6

Research Hypotheses                                                   7

Significance of the Study                                              7

Limitation of the Study                                                 8

Delimitation of the Study                                               8

Definition of Terms                                          8

 

CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction                                                       10

History of Nigeria Premier League               11

The League Management Company                            14

Past Winners of the Nigerian Premier League          17

An Overview of Soccer                          16

Theorization of Power and Emancipation                20

The Dictates of Administrators                      23

The Player Labor Response and Resistance       30

The concept of ethics                              33

Dimensions of Ethics                            36

Ethical Perspectives                                37


CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design                                         41

Population                                         41

Sample and Sampling Technique                  42

Research Instrument                                 42

Validity of Research Instrument                   42

Reliability of Research Instrument         43

Procedure of Data Collection                      43

Procedure of Data Analysis                     43

Pilot Study                                                     43

 

CHAPTER FOUR : ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS                                           

Data Presentation                                         44

Testing Stated Hypotheses                               47

Discussion of Findings                                 50

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Introduction                                                                     53

Summary                                                          53

Conclusion                                                           55

Recommendations                                                55

REFERENCES                                                                57

APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE                       61

 

 










CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Within a global context, sport plays a significant role in the generation of economic activity and in the provision of services to spectators, participants, communities, athletes, coaches, administrators and the corporate sector (Maguire, 2005).  Increasingly, Governments see sport as an important element of their policy frameworks. In some cases, legislative frameworks have been established regulating the operation of sport. Managing football clubs today is a multi-billion dollar business and various management ethics has to be followed in the management of these clubs. Management ethics refers to a set of principles and rules dictated by upper management in a football club that define what is right and what is wrong in terms of equity, fairness, transparency and objectivity.

 

European football is of increasing importance to ongoing research in International business and business administration because it is a huge and fast growing business, operating worldwide – but still lacks systematic knowledge. This is a bold statement because, it is backed by many arguments: football is highly popular (this in itself should generate interest in research); it has rabid fans (whose sociology is well researched); it involves high uncertainty (the outcome of a game is not always the same as winning a game); and it is an activity where ethnic, gender, social, and economic backgrounds are irrelevant to its practice (but still of great interest to spectators). The skillful team or the talented football player are visibly obvious; this is intuitively perceived by all spectators.

The game of football has become famous because it is generally linked to our childhood, and its professional teams are on top of pyramid-like organizations of several leagues, with amateur players at all levels, from silver aged teams to kid's teams. And football today is a international business, as players are transferred frequently around the globe, international professional leagues are created, and the European Cup finals or the FIFA World Cup finals are top media events (Beech & Chadwick 2004; Horne & Manzenreiter, 2002; Dauncey & Hare 1999).

In recent years, the world of football has been referred to more and more as an industry in its own sake. Its characteristics have been getting closer to those of services or the entertainment business, as people worldwide may choose whether to go to the cinema, to an amusement park or to the stadium to watch a match. The ranking of football as a business activity has risen in the economies of those countries where football is promoted as national sport. In many of these countries, it represents today a large percentage of a nation’s GDP, because football events also drive a considerable number of other sectors, such as media and different services, like catering and transportation.

The globalization of the football industry has provoked a concentration of resources in the hands of a few big European and South American clubs, which have had the ability and, most of all, the economic resources to face enlarged competition from foreign clubs and other businesses in the entertainment industry. We have a multibillion EURO business in professional football which is hardly at all recognized in scientific articles as recently illustrated by Nilsson (2005). And this is becoming a truly international business, as the same few rules on the visible pitch enable skillful players regardless of their ethnic and social background to play in those teams which create enormous media interest. The problems and challenges in the field of football are the same everywhere on the globe, such as amateurism vs. professionalism, young players going to big clubs, league teams versus national teams, branding and sponsorship growing as a source of revenue and media creating uncertain expectations for better incomes.

Football has successfully outmaneuvered many other team sports, such as ice hockey, basketball or handball, and has been accepted as the number one sport with regard to media attention and audience reception worldwide (Horne & Manzenreiter 2002). According to FIFA (the football international governing body, Fédération Internationale de Football Association) statistics the FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan set a new record for a sports event of 49.2 billion people worldwide in terms of viewer hours. The 2002 Final between Brazil and Germany was the most viewed match in FIFA World Cup history, with 1.1 billion individuals watching the game, and being broadcasted in 213 countries worldwide. For the 2002FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan finals FIFA and the internet partner Yahoo! signed a contract on the establishment and management of the official FIFA World Cup website, a six-language data bank with ample chances for premium services and various e-shops centered around football. Details of the deal were not made public, as it is mostly the case in the field of football, but a volume of sales worth at least 25 million EURO has been predicted (Horne & Manzenreiter 2002). Already on day 8 of the matches, FIFA announced that the Official Website counted more than 100 million pages viewed per day, making it the most successful sports-event website ever, overtaking the Salt Lake City Olympics Games and the Official Website of the Euro 2000, the European Football Championship Finals in 2000.

Looking at the football phenomenon, there is need to consider explicitly the role of government in its relationship to football. To this end, it is necessary to understand the philosophy of the governing body, FIFA, and the environment for mega sports events created by governments worldwide. This is not merely an economic matter, as “football has always been one of the most convenient sports for serving political aims. Through successful performance of national teams it provides a reliable platform for displays of national capability and the instilling of national pride” (Butler 2002). Japan and South Korea had their own reasons for wanting to host the 2002 FIFA World Cup. The Koreans aimed at introducing the finals as a “catalyst for peace” (Sugden & Tomlinson, 2002) on the Korean peninsula, and the Japanese focused their bid on its ability to promote political stability, high technology and the country’s infrastructure (Sugden & Tomlinson 2002). With its decision to award the tournament for the first time in history to Asian hosts and to more than a single nation, the FIFA moved strategically towards the globalization of football. In the bid to host the 2006 FIFA World Cup South Africa failed in 2000, losing to Germany only by a single vote in the final round. It was argued by BBC Sports that a vote for South Africa was seen as a vote for Africa - which has never hosted a World Cup tournament before, despite exporting some of the world's finest soccer players to Europe and other parts of the world - as well as a vote for developing countries. 3 But on 15May 2004, history had been made: it was the time of Africa and South Africa to stage the world's greatest sporting festival. With 14 votes to Morocco's 10 and Egypt's none, South Africa had been chosen as host of the 2010 FIFA World Cup from the first round of voting.

 

Statement of the Problem

Most Nigerian professional football league clubs are faced with many challenges affecting their players and staffs and this leads to very low standard of the League when compared to other countries. The performance of Nigerian professional football league teams is as a result of many management ethics problems which could be avoided with proper administration and planning. In management, equity, fairness, transparency, objectivity among others has been observed by the researcher as Management ethics factors which could influence the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League Clubs. This formed the rationale for this study which is to examine the influence of management ethics on the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state.


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of management ethics on the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state. Other purpose of this study include:

1.      To examine the influence of management’s objectivity on the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state

2.      To determine the influence of management’s transparency on the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state

3.      To examine the influence of management’s equity on the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state

4.      To find out the influence of management’s fairness on the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state


Research Questions

The following research questions were raised in the study:

1.      Would management’s objectivity influence the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state?

2.      Would management’s transparency influence the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state?

3.      Would management’s equity influence the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state?

4.      Would management’s fairness influence the performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state?

 

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study:

1.      Management’s objectivity would not significantly influence performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state.

2.      Management’s transparency would not significantly influence performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state.

3.      Management’s equity would not significantly influence performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state.

4.      Management’s fairness would not significantly influence performance of Nigerian Professional Football League clubs in Lagos state.


Significance of the Study

This study could be of significance in the following ways:

1.      Empirical observations have shown that excellent performance of players in league clubs is in part dependent on management ethics. The outcome of this research work might inform the organizers/management of leagues the imperativeness of making positive as well as conducive hygiene factor for the players.

2.      The results of this study might be beneficial to league organizers in terms of the necessity to direct management ethics to favour the needs and interest of the players as an inducement to optimal performance of the players.

3.      The study could prompt or sensitize the authorities in charge of league to tailor the welfare packages towards players friendly as this may enhance the loyalty and commitment of players in form of putting up their best to win for the glory of the clubs.

 

Limitation of the Study

The problem encountered during this research work was in the area of getting players and coaches of the clubs during their busy schedule to fill the questionnaires. This problem was tackled by first discussing with the club management on the aim of the study and also request for permission to fill out the research instrument during the team’s free time immediately after training.


Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to the following:

1.      Survey research design.

2.      50 soccer players and coaches in MFM and Ikorodu United Football Club.

3.      Use of questionnaire for information gathering.

4.      Simple frequency counts of percentages and inferential statistics of Chi-Square (x2) for testing the stated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

 

Operational Definition of Terms

Football: A type of sport that involves two teams (where each team is made up of 11players) competing for the winner by scoring the highest goal.

Management Ethics: This refers to a set of principles and rules dictated by upper management in a football club that define what is right and what is wrong in terms of equity, fairness, transparency and objectivity.

Management’s Equity: This is the net amount of funds invested in a professional football club by its owners, plus any retained earnings.

Management’s Fairness: This is the quality management in a football club making judgments that are free from discrimination.

Management’s Objectivity: It refers to a lack of bias, judgment, or prejudice by the management of a professional football club.

Management’s Transparency: This implies openness, communication, and accountability by the management of a professional football club. Transparency is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed.

NPL: NPL is an acronym for Nigeria Premier League which is the professional football league in Nigeria.

Professional Football League: This refers to a league competition featuring professional football clubs from various regions in a country.

Sports: Any organized physical activity like football where participants are motivated by internal and external rewards.

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