Informal group came into
existence through the interaction of people as a result of socialization. When
individual meet and interact with one another, there is the tendency for
individuals with similar interest and characteristics to form powerful cohesive
groups in order to obtain organizational objectives. It therefore, the
objective of this research was find out the relationship that existed between
informal groups activities on productivity levels in organizations for
effective management of the informal groups in Nigeria organizations. A review
of the related interactive was made to provide a sound theoretical background
of the concept of informal groups. This was done by review of work previously
done by scholars on the concept of informal groups. By making use of a case
study, questionnaires was distributed or rather administrated to the workers at
University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. The data collected
from the filed was analyzed, the hypotheses, which were formulated, were tested
through the use of statistical models. The findings of the research were that
workers were found to be keenly interested in belonging to informal groups in
their work places such as the trade unions. They agreed that they derive
benefits groups offered by the groups to workers given the opportunity to work
for their benefits. Workers should realize their primary objectives through group
association. Managers should realize that team spirit is the important
characteristics of informal groups which motivate them to be effective in
organization. Informal organization are not officially recognized and do not
have any space in organizations organogram. My conclusion is that since
informal organizations continue to exist and cannot be stopped or terminated in
any set up, it should continue to be accommodated as much as it does not
adversely affect the attainment of organizational goals. During recruitment, selection and
orientation, new employees should be made to join informal groups such as trade
union or any other, this makes the workers to socialize and adopt quickly and
better to the values existing in the organization. More consultation of the
informal groups by the management should be encouraged and suggestions made by
the workers be utilized as this motivates the workers more for greater
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - -i
Dedication - - - - - - - - - ii
- - - - - - - - - iii
- - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
contents - - - - - - - - viii
Background of Study - - - - - - 1
The statement of the Problem
- - - - - 4
The Objective of the Study - - - - - 5-6
- - - - 6
Significance of the study - - - - - 6-7
Limitation of the study - - - - - - 7
Delimited/ scope of the study
- - - - 8
Definition of special terms - - - - - 8
of the related literature
Theoretical Frame Work for the Study - - - 10-13
Historical Background - - - - - -
literature on postulated above- - - 16-45
Design and Methodology - - - - 47
3.1 The research
design - - - - - - - 47-48
source of data - - - - - - -
Primary sources of data - - - - - - 48
Secondary sources of data - - - - -
Population for the Study - - - - -
Sample Design and determinations of
- - - - - - - - - 49
of data collection - - - - - - 50
Secondary methods of data collection - - -
of data presentation and Analysis- - -
presentation - - - - - - -
Demographical Characteristics - - - - 58
Presentation according to key research
Questions - - - - - - - - - 62
Analysis Based on Research Questions - - -
of finding - - - - - - -
Recommendations - - - - - - -
Conclusions - - - - - - - - 73
ii. List of
frame for sampling
1.1 THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The organization development is a vital exercise
that must be carried out with a successful conclusion if technological bondage
is to be avoided in the nation. In our society today there is need for adopting
a creative approach for our technological take off. The reason is to encouraged
employees to cultivate the ability of making maximum use of resource available
to them, develop new ways of resources utilization that may come in the course
of their job.
independence, the nation has gone through a gradual rise in the level of
industrialization and the evolution of both small and complex organization. An
organization as defined by Griffin
(1984:86) is a combination of people, or human efforts, working in pursuit of
certain common purposes called organization goals. It is any group of two or
more people working to achieve a goal or goals.
range from the small business units to the very large and complex corporate
bodies. There are two groups the formal and informal groups.
formal group come into being as a result of organizational hierarchy which
defines expected relationships among its workers in most cases, a group of
people come together and discuss about the problems of the company, individual
problems and how the problems should be handled. Also, talk about those with
different opinion from other and how such people should be treated or handled.
Furthermore, this kind of group will usually have its mission or area of
activity spelled out.
Informal groups, on the other hand,
Michael (1985:1990).develop in response to the needs of the people making up the
group. As a result they do not have an explicitly stated set of goals nor are
there institutionally defined in and position of authority. These aspects of an
informal group develop as a result of group of individual with the same
objectives. Hence, informal groups are not set up by the management of the
organization but arise as a result of people with similar interest interacting
and also as a result of friendship association. Most cases, group of people
come together and discuss about the company’s problems, some individual
problems and how they should be dealt with, does who have contrary opinion from
others would be convinced, are forced to accept the opinion spell out by other
members of the groups.
The above comment succinctly shows the
existence of informal groups in an organization. These groups although not created
by the management of the organization are very powerful and have considerable
influence on individual members. Members are observed to be often committed to
the achievement of the group objectives. These objectives of the informal
groups sometimes go contrary with organizations objectives.
Therefore it is very important for the
management to be aware of the existence of these groups and understand how they
work. Some managers fail to realize the fact that informal groups work under
certain conditions which dominate the formal organization and neglect the
efforts of management.
Moreover, they can be pervasive with
some managers themselves belonging to the informal groups. Depending on whether
they are favourable or unfavourable, this may result to the increase or
decrease in the productivity of the organization. Improper management of the
informal groups may also lead to dissatisfaction of workers, absenteeism,
personal turnovers, grievances and conflicts and these may adversely affect the
stability of an organization.
As a matter of fact, there are
potential benefits to be tapped from the existence and activities of the
informal groups. The management can only tap the benefits when it is willing to
work with them effectively without engaging in measures to suppress the
The Statement of Problem
of organizations have been trying to improve individual productivity through
researches and product development, employment of high skilled and experienced
workers. Despite these efforts, productivity is declining in a organization who
is to be blamed is still declining or has remained low and unimpressive.
is actually responsible for the continuous decline in productivity despite
serious efforts by the management, who have control over these group is yet to
be achieved from the above assertions, it become imperative or necessary to
research and conduct an assessment on the influence of informal groups on
informal group activities influence organization decision-making?
provide answers to this problem motivated the researcher to carry out this
become imperative or necessary to research and conduct an assessment on the
influence of informal groups on organizational productivity.
1.3 The Objective of
objectives of this research are:
To determine the effects of
informal group activities on organization productivity.
To find out the actual
relationship between the informal groups and management in the organization.
To discover the concern and
contribution of informal groups towards the realization of the organizations
The researcher formulated
under listed questions to provide a guide in the course of this research.
To what extent do informal
group activities affects organizational productivity?
What is the actual
relationship between informal groups and
management in the organization?
extent informal group influence the organizational productivity?
To what extent do
informal group activities contribute to the realization of the organizational
1.5 Significance of the
The existence of informal
groups in organizations have negative or positive influence which may pronounced
or silent but vital to the achievement of organizational objectives.
and controlling the informal group activities might become possible when an
empirical study has been conducted and some facts about the relationship
existing between these factors informal groups, formal groups and the
management within an organization are revealed the identification of the needs
of the individual workers will help the management to motivate the workers
better for improved productivity.
Thus, the research would be useful to
organizations, academia and consultants to organizations. If also provide a
platform for further work on the topic by other scholars.
Limitation of Study
Research works are subject to one form
of limitation or the other especially during a period of economic meltdown.
Thus the researcher was financially constrained to elaborately, thus this
research was limited to University
of Nigeria Teaching Hospital,
the course of the study, the respondents got a lot of information concealments.
Equally time constraints affected the
research considerably as the period was too short for submission of this
of The Study
scope of this study was limited to cover type of groups, reasons for joining
groups, activities of informal groups informal group leadership roles, problems
of informal groups and the effects on the productivity in the organization.
of Special Terms
easy understanding of this work the following technical terms are necessary to
be interpreted by the researcher:
University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
West African Examination Council
Degree of Science
R.W (1984) Management in modern
York, Honghton Miffin Co.
M.H (1985) Management, New York, Aarper and Low
T.S (1970) Management New York: Honghton