have been found to be an important source of motivation. This study explored
financial and non-financial rewards and its influence on the performance of
student-athletes in tertiary institutions. This study was guided
by research objectives, questions and hypotheses that included the influence of cash rewards on the performance
of athletes in tertiary education sports, the influence of scholarships on the
performance of athletes in tertiary education sports, the influence of awards
on the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports, the influence of
health insurance on the performance of athletes in tertiary education
sports. Literature review covering
relevant texts and documents on the research topic was done. The researcher
adopted the descriptive survey research design. The study was carried out among
student-athletes in University of Lagos and Yaba College of Technology. A
sample of 200 student-athletes were taken from the two tertiary institutions.
The researcher administered questionnaires to the selected respondents for data
collection. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used which
included frequency tables and chi square for the hypotheses. The results of the
study showed that: cash rewards had an influence on the performance of
student-athletes; scholarships had an influence on the performance of
student-athletes; awards had an influence on the performance of
student-athletes; health insurance had an influence on the performance of
Title Pages i
of content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
to the study 1
of the Problem 4
of the Study 5
of the Study 7
of the study 7
of the Study 7
Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
concept of rewards in sports 10
An examination of the influence of rewards on
examination of the role of finance in the career of a student-athlete 14
examination of non-financial rewards and how they influence athletes’ performance 15
Importance of Motivation to Athletic Performance 16
factors that motivate student-athletes 23
concept of balance between sportsmanship and academics 24
findings on financial and non-financial rewards influence on athletes’
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Method 32
Population of the
Sampling technique 33
Validity and Reliability
of Research Instrument 34
Procedure for Data
Method for Data
Pilot Study 35
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND
of demographic data 36
of research questions 38
of findings 47
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS
for further studies 52
Background to the study
There is so much occurring in the
world of collegiate sports today, and each institution is trying to bring the
best out of its student-athletes. Rewards are considered an important tool to stimulate
athletes’ performance. Management use rewards for athletes motivation, and so
we can say that an attractive reward system attracts new athletes for the
institution and motivate existing athletes to perform at high levels. Athletes
give their good efforts for achieving goals
and good effort depends on rewards. In other words, we can say that good
rewards are the most important ways to engage the athletes with their duties.
It is the genuine desire of every
student-athlete to achieve success in their sporting career, to uplift the name
of his tertiary institution and to be recognized. It is also the desire of each
tertiary institution to have their athletes succeed at inter-collegiate sports
and bring home the glory; however, this feat would be easier to achieve if
these student-athletes are adequately motivated. Rising above competition to
become successful as an athlete is not easy. It takes extra effort, extra
ability and extra motivation (Hudson, 2006).
defined a reward as an external agent administered when a desired act or task
is performed, which has controlling and informational properties.
Hudson continued that, while rewards are typically delivered to increase
the probability of a response, they can increase or decrease the probability of
an event occurring. This study deals basically with two kinds of
rewards which are: Financial and Non-financial. Hudson’s(2006) rhetoric about
the performance of student-athletes referred
to financial rewards as monetary remunerations; while it pointed out that non-financial
rewards could be in the form scholarships, recognition and exposure .
are psychological beings, and as such, are susceptible to appreciation,
recognition and rewards (Wilson,2005). Before we explore this study, it is
important to examine what intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are and to reveal
the difference between them. Intrinsic
motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather
than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. The motivation
comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of
satisfaction in completing or even working on a task.(Cassandra,2007).
In Cassandra’s example, an intrinsically motivated person will work on a math
equation, for example, because it is enjoyable. Or an intrinsically motivated
person will work on a solution to a problem because the challenge of finding a
solution is provides a sense of pleasure. In neither case does the person work
on the task because there is some reward involved, such as a prize, a payment,
or in the case of students, a grade.
motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not seek rewards. It just
means that such external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated. An
intrinsically motivated student, for example, may want to get a good grade on
an assignment, but if the assignment does not interest that student, the
possibility of a good grade is not enough to maintain that student's motivation
to put any effort into the project.(Cassandra,2007).
motivation, on the other hand, refers to motivation that comes from outside an
individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money
or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself
may not provide. (Cassandra,2007).
(2010) noted that an extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even
when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction
they will get from some reward. The rewards can be something as minor as a
smiley face to something major like fame or fortune. For example, an
extrinsically motivated person who dislikes math may work hard on a math
equation because want the reward for completing it. In the case of a student,
the reward would be a good grade on an assignment or in the class.( Lauridsen,
further, Lauridsen (2010) noted that extrinsic motivation does not mean that a person will not get any pleasure from
working on or completing a task. It just means that the pleasure they
anticipate from some external reward will continue to be a motivator even when
the task to be done holds little or no interest. An extrinsically motivated
student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may
have no interest in the subject, but the possibility of a good grade will be
enough to keep the student motivated in order for him or her to put forth the
effort to do well on a task. (Lauridsen, 2010).
some researchers viewed reward system as a positive cycle whereby each reward
serves as a positive reinforcement for further achievement (Bear,2006;Harlow,2008),
other researchers concluded that extrinsic rewards, under which financial and
non-financial rewards are classified, are disadvantageous to continuous
achievements(Rang,2003;Berridge, 2012). Based
on the foregoing, it becomes obvious that the athletic performance of a
student-athlete could somehow be influenced through the medium of rewards. This
study examines the impact of these rewards.
Statement of the Problem
has become part of university culture all over the world – and Nigerian
universities are no exception. Each university aims to achieve recognition and
excellence in all aspects of its curriculum, a vital part of which sports is. It
is important to note that intercollegiate competitions in the world, and in
this case, Nigeria, appear to get keener year in year out, with each higher
institution trying to outfox the others and claim the bragging rights.
of speculations and hypotheses have been proposed as to how this sporting
success can be achieved, with each higher institution trying to motivate its
athletes with the resources at its disposal. What this study aims to unravel is
how monetary rewards and non-financial rewards such as scholarships spur or
deter university athletes in their quest for athletic glory.
Purpose of the Study
This research seeks to examine the influence
of financial rewards on the performance of athletes in tertiary education
sports. This study will also determine whether granting of scholarships will
influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports. Furthermore
this study seeks to determine whether financial rewards are an effective
motivational strategy. This study also seeks to determine whether financial
rewards are an effective motivational strategy for athletes. Lastly, this study
seeks to determine whether a robust sports center will influence
student-athletes’ athletic performance.
The following research questions were
answered in this study:
Will cash rewards influence the
performance of athletes in tertiary education sports?
Will granting of scholarships
influence the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports?
Will awards be an effective motivational
strategy to athletes?
Will health insurance influence
student-athletes’ athletic performance?
following hypotheses were tested in this study
Cash rewards will not significantly influence
the performance of athletes in tertiary education sports.
2. Granting of scholarships to athletes will not
significantly influence their performance of in tertiary education sports.
will not significantly influence the performance of athletes in tertiary
insurance will not significantly influence the performance of athletes in
tertiary education sports.
Significance of the Study
findings of this study might be of benefit to coaches, sports instructors and
school sports authorities because it will promote a deeper understanding of the
motivational background of the contemporary student-athlete. It will also
further enhance the understanding of coaches and managers of student-athletes
on how rewards, whether financial or non-financial should be disbursed to bring
about greater athletic performance. Lastly, the findings of this study might
add to the body of knowledge in psychology of sports.
Delimitation of the study
study was delimited to the Impact of financial and non-financial rewards on
athlete performance in tertiary institution sports in Lagos state using
descriptive survey research method and the Chi-square statistical tool. It
covered student-athletes in University of Lagos (UNILAG), Akoka, Lagos and Yaba
College of Technology (YABATECH).
Limitation of the Study
research of this caliber would have needed a greater time investment in
carrying it out. However, this study was limited by time constraint, because
the researcher had to shuffle time between this research and his enormous
Operational Definition of Terms
student who is also a sportsman or woman in a tertiary institution.
remunerations given to an tertiary institution athlete for his/her achievement
at tertiary institution competitions
that spurs a student-athlete to engage in a sporting activity or to improve in
rewards: These refer to rewards given to tertiary institution
athletes that come in non-financial forms such as scholarships, recognition,
Institution Sports: These are sporting activities that are
organized within tertiary institutions or between them.