This proposed project work is to give in
detail the usefulness of information as one of major requirement of management
function which is also an essential ingredient that enhances efficiency and
reduction in the work load if when handles ordinarily will cause much delay,
has made possible for better control system put in place both within and
outside any organisation/business enterprise. This information technology has
came into existence through the use of an electronic device known as the
computer which helps an organisation handles data and distributes information
effectively. In this regard, we may conclude that computer has became a worthy
companion almost in all facets of human endeavours. The work of this research project shall be
splitted and discussed in details through five chapters. The chapter one shall
comprise the background of the study which aids the preparation of financial
report using computer, the statement of the problems to test if truely it
enhances gathering of useful information, way of processing it and how it will
be communicated to ensure prompt decision making. It also explains the objective of the study
as a means of detecting and correcting falseful information through retrieval
from system. The significance of the
study to different groups and professions, hypothesis, the scope of the study
and definition of terms. Chapter two shall explain the preliminary statements,
the historical back-up about its invention and people behind it, various
components making up computer, the types and their various classifications,
various problems associated and the usefulness of it as an electronic device.
The chapter three of this project shall discuss the research methodology as a
way of making some findings with possible solutions of solving them, its
approaches, design, specific sample size and population, questionnaire and its
reason, data analysis with various research instruments. Chapter four will
cover the introduction based on the analysis and interpretation of data with
various examples to be sit4ed thereby bringing about questions with answers
from respondent to be clearly stated and also an observation by whom the
project work is carried out.
Lastly, the chapter five will be based
on Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation which explains the importance of
computer as an information technology in any business organisation with
accountancy as a profession.
of Content vi
Statement of problems 7
Objectives of the study 7
Background of the study 8
Research questions 8
Scope of the study 10
of terms 10
Evolution of information technology 13
Element of a computer processing system 16
Hardware of Computer 16
Types of Computer 18
Types of Digital Computer 19
Classification of Hardware 19
Problems associated with the use of
computer can do 23
computer cannot do 24
Research methodology and design 25
Research approach 25
Research design 26
Selecting sample size and population 26
Data analysis 27
Research Instrument 28
Reason for using questionnaire 29
Statement of Hypothesis and Research
Data Analysis and Interpretation 31
Testing of Hypothesis 43
Chi-square Table of Analysis 46
5.2 Conclusion 48
along with other energy and material is a basic resources in human
society. It is indeed an indispensable
ingredient in management which makes lot of difference in management quality.
is very important in that the management requires the analysis and information
before a specific decision can be made which the quality of decisions to be
taken depends on the quality of information provided. These information must be accurate, timely,
compete, concise and relevant.
Information is synonymous with computer popularly refers to an
electronic device that has the ability to accept data internally store and
automatically execute a program of instruction, perform mathematical, logical
and manipulates operations base on data and reports the results. As a result of this, one may be right to
submit that we are heading towards a paper less age where not a whiff of our
business transactions would be left uncompleted because of the computer being a
worthy companion almost in all facet of human endeavours.
of computer to provide necessary information in our business is gradually
out-facing the manual method. However,
the focus of this write-up shall be gradually integration of information
technology on the practice of accounting and its implications towards realizing
the functions of an accountant. Prior to
this, we shall consider an accountant as
performing dual function of;
Provision of information for planning,
control and decision making.
Safeguarding of Assets
of Information for planning, control and decision
as regarded the life wire of any organisation or individual that must be
survived. Hence it could be considered
as the pivot on which the wheel of any organisation rotates. Without adequate and accurate provision of
this information, the managerial functions of planning, controlling, decision
making, communicating, organizing and directing may not be achieved.
emanates from various functions in an organisation which are sales and
marketing, production, personnel, finance etc.
It has rendered accounting information a finance tool necessary for
effective management in an organisation.
There is need for an accountant to provide an organization with necessary
accounting information that are accurate and be presented at the right
time. It is therefore of great interest
that the application of computer for this purpose becomes necessary in the
Timely and accurate presentation of
accounting information for management decision making.
Reduction in the number of personnel
thereby reducing cost of salaries paid to employees.
Complex computation such as the
separation of fixed cost and variable cost through the multiple regression
analysis, linear programming using simplest method, etc. may not be easy using manual operation.
Space management is made easy with the
introduction of computer into business operations. This is because a lot of information can be
stored in a computer on disks, flash disk,
tapes or floppy drive diskettes which can be retrieve when the need
Retrieval here is mostly automatic
instead of having to scan through the lots of disarranged documents.
guarding of assets
can simply say assets of company are not restricted to fixed and current assets
simply because the safeguarding of these assets can only be possible if and
only there is genuine and sufficient
data to do so. Hence, data should be
considered a valuable property to safeguarding for effective running of an
organisation, which implore that data resources should be maintained and
1.2 GOALS OF DATA RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
needs to be protected because of large investment the organisation has in
it. Yet data can be far more valuable
than the amount we have spent to obtain it.
For instance; the organisation happen to lose its records of who owes it
money, it could also lose more than it spend on data processing in a hundred
years. The future investment also relies
on it because it is through the available data he picks as it relates to the past
and present performance. And if wrong
data would invariably mislead the management from the above fore-going. Therefore, the information technology on the
practice of accounting as regards information processing and control with
safeguarding of assets are immeasurable value of any organisation.
HISTORY OF ACADEMY PRESS PLC
1957, when Nigeria
was moving towards independence, a young American Richard Gamble led an
international living group of twelve American students into Nigeria. Four years later, Mr. Gamble returned to Nigeria to form
EDCON (Enterprises Development Company
Nigeria Limited) with a goal to joining Nigeria in the development,
financing and management of medium sized business.
then was the holding company through which American capital could be
invested. In 1961, Mr. Gamble was
introduced to Mr. Alade Idris Animashaun, then the assistant secretary in the
Federal Ministry of labour. After two
years, Mr. Animashaun left government office where he worked to join EDCON and
began a new career in the private sector.
After a while, Lan David Pritchard (Late) an English man with publishing
experience in West Africa joined EDCON. EDCON’s investigation in 1963 and 1964
indicated that there would be increasing demands in Nigeria for printing
materials which many of this printing materials were been imported.
the decision concerning how to set up a printing company was made and this led
to birth of Academy press limited that was incorporated on 28th July 1964 with the commencement of
the business planned for the second half of 1965. At the initial stage, only Nigerians and held
15% of the equity holding finance while the remaining was retained by
EDCON. With promulgation of Nigerian
Enterprises promotion decree, Nigerians
purchases of some of the foreign owned stores which most of whom had invested
in the company at the time of the initial private of per, and the company
became owned with majority by Citizens of Nigeria.
development in Academy press has been gradual that today, the staff force is
above 450. Academy press has excelled
itself as a home of printing excellence in educational and trade books with
wide variety of full colour printed materials, labels, magazines, company annual
report, brochures, security printing etc.
part of its development process, the computer section of its operations started
late 80’s. Today, most part of its
department has been computerized and in fact Academy press today is the biggest
printing house in West Africa.
ever since then, it has been facing various challenges as administration
changes which it also adjusts to suit the current organizational
structure. All this could be achieved
generally towards effective flow of information which is indispensable to the
efficient management of the company.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY
both the human and information society, human capital has now been replaced
“Naira” and capital as the strategy resource.
People and profit are linked in modern times to complete information
Nigerian and global economy has become very complex and dynamic that the speed
with which information is gathered, processed and communicated for prompt
decision making will continue to determine the success in the market
place. In the light of the above,
statement of problems of the study are:
There is a problem of inadequate
management information system existing in the academy press.
Shortage of staff in the computer
Inadequate financial resources to
acquire and take possession of more computer system.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
It saves time
It reduces uncertainty
It ensure easy flow of information
It discourages guessing, rumours` or
gossips thereby promoting trust, confidence and supportiveness.
It may be a correction of a past false
It enhances the personal confidence of
an accountant and encourages him to exhibit good leadership.
1.5 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For financial costing and control system
It helps in the preparation of cash flow
and affect of change credit restriction and fall in receipts from debtors can
be calculated almost instantly.
It enables to prepare financial report.
For retrieval of management information
particularly information on financial matters, marketing, sales and production.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Does the problem of inadequate management
information exist in Academy press?
What are the probable causes of the
problem if they exist?
What measures can be taken to correct
the problem should the company implement the recommendation.
1.7 GENERAL HYPOTHESIS
following hypothesis is derived from the undertaken of the previous
investigations, which were discussed in the review relevant literature which
serves to clarify the study of hypothesis are as follows:
That good management procedure will
That the electronic data processing system
is suitable than the conventional system.
That the introduction of computerization
will bring improvement to general accounting system of the company.
That the introduction of new information
technology will enhance the smooth flow of work.
That good management reports will
improve the objectives and requirement in the company
And also that the good management
reports provides a clear link between and corporate strategies.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
is not within the scope of this project to go into the core computer science as
a discipline but to look into its application and usefulness to accounting as a
profession as well as to business enterprise as a whole.
problem accompanied to this is that the use of computer is restricted even
among staff thereby making the system in accessible to our use. And apart from the inadequate knowledge of
staffs on the operation and use of computer, made it difficult for most of our
interview to be adequately addressed to our satisfaction. However, with the cooperation from the staff,
I have been able to obtained the necessary information that is not only
relevant but also important to the study.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
of the common terms that are expected to be used in this project work are as
PROGRAMS:- This consist of a set
of instruction that specifies to the computer the precise sequence of operation
that must be carried out.
is the raw figure obtains from data to day activities.
This is obtained from the distillation of data through its being processed.
PROCESSING:- This is the process of collecting all
items of source data together and converting them to useful information. Data processing operation involves recording,
sorting, calculating, storing, retrieving and communicating.
This represents computer machines and peripheral units.
It means broad term covering the methods of using and controlling computers
that includes system programs and other facilities.
COMPUTER:- This can be defined as an electronics device that
operates on data represented as numbers (digit).
OF DATA:- This represents gathering of data to be used in
processing as one of the steps of a data processing application.
It checks application within a data processing system to minimize mistakes and
the misuse of information.
PROCESSING:- This is the method of processing data
under which groups of transaction recorded are collected and processed together
at regular intervals.
It is the term used to describe the computer’s ability to perform complex
computations without errors.
LOGIC UNIT:- It represent the component of computer
processing unit in which arithmetic and comparison operations are carried out.
A repository for data written on a storage medium. A collection of data records organized on the
storage medium. For convenient access
It is used to access data from an external device and into computer memory.
It is the keyboard device used to punch holes into cards to represent
It means data and information generated by a computer system.
(xvii) RELIABILITY :- A
term used to describe the computer’s ability to repeatedly perform difficult
processing tasks and obtains accurate result.