Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Objectives of the study
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of terms
Barriers Associated with Information and
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Relevance of Information and Communication
3.2 The quantitative survey as research design
3.4 Data collection instrument
Data collection procedures
Data analysis procedures
3.8 Questionnaire Administration
4.1 Profile of the students (Gender and Age)
4.2 What perceived ICT skills do students
at the University of Lagos possess?
4.3 What perceived purpose(s) are ICT skills used for as viewed by students at the University
4.4 What perceived learning strategies do the students of the University
of Lagos adopt while using ICT?
4.5 Does age play a role in students’ perceptions of using ICTin learning?
4.6 Students suggestions on how the University
of Lagos could support them in their use of ICT for learning
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Introduction
5.4 Implications of study
5.5 Limitations of the study
of the study
It is difficult and maybe
even impossible to imagine future learning environments that are not supported,
in one way or another, by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).
When looking at the current widespread diffusion and use of ICT in modern
societies, especially by the young – the so-called digital generation – then it
should be clear that ICT will affect the complete learning process today and in
the future. Virtually everywhere across the globe; the African Union (AU),
European Union (EU) and the Member States have dedicated effort and resources
to the promotion and implementation of ICT in education and training; and they
continue to do so (e.g. the EU eLearning Programme and the SourceCrew Virtual
Classroom Programme powered by Elluminate).
There is, in other words,
a widespread belief that ICTs have an important role to play in changing and
modernizing educational systems and ways of learning. There is, however, little
scientific evidence of the concrete contributions of ICTs to the learning
domain, despite the efforts of the last decades. Hence, there is a need to bring
evidence together on the impact of ICT on education and training in Africa.
However, it should be
noted that many early online courses, such as those developed in the 1970s and
80s at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, courses at the University of Guelph
in Canada, the British Open University, and the online distance courses at the
University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard
Inc. was first developed), have always made heavy use of online discussion
between students. Also, from the start, practitioners such as Harasim (1995)
have put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks for knowledge
construction, long before the term e-learning. There is also an increased use
of virtual classrooms (online presentations delivered live) as an online
learning platform and classroom for a diverse set of education providers such
as Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and Sachem School District.
E-learning is naturally
suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but can also be used in
conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term Blended learning
is commonly used. E-Learning pioneer Bernard Luskin argues that the
"E" must be understood to have broad meaning if e-Learning is to be
effective. Luskin says that the "e" should be interpreted to mean
exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and
educational in addition to "electronic" that is a traditional
national interpretation. This broader interpretation allows for 21st century applications
and brings learning and media psychology into the equation.
In higher education
especially, the increasing tendency is to create a Virtual Learning Environment
(VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS)
to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are
handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the
institution. A growing number of physical universities, as well as newer
online-only colleges, have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and
certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide
range of disciplines. While some programs require students to attend some
campus classes or orientations, many are delivered completely online. In
addition, several universities offer online student support services, such as
online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchase,
student governments and student newspapers.
ICT in form of e-Learning
can also refer to educational web sites such as those offering learning
scenarios, worksheets and interactive exercises for children. The term is also
used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to
cost-effective online training. The recent trend in the e-Learning sector is
screencasting. There are many screencasting tools available but the latest buzz
is all about the web based screencasting tools which allow the users to create
screencasts directly from their browser and make the video available online so
that the viewers can stream the video directly. The advantage of such tools is
that it gives the presenter the ability to show his ideas and flow of thoughts
rather than simply explain them, which may be more confusing when delivered via
simple text instructions. With the combination of video and audio, the expert
can mimic the one on one experience of the classroom and deliver clear,
From the learner's point
of view this provides the ability to pause and rewind and gives the learner the
advantage of moving at their own pace, something a classroom cannot always
of the problem
One of the major
challenges confronting the educational sector in Nigeria is the scaring
discrepancy between the astronomical increase in the number of applicants
seeking admission into various higher institutions and the available facilities
in these institutions to provide quality education; the main purpose for their
existence. Each year the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB)
register hundreds of thousands of students seeking to get admission into
various institutions of higher learning in the country. Unfortunately less than
20 percent of these students are absorbed by these institutions, as the
facilities they have on ground can only support fewer students. As a matter of
fact, those even admitted by these institutions often outstrip the facilities
available to support qualitative education and make the academic environment
conducive for learning environment. It is therefore not a surprise that in most
of these institutions students are often cramped up in lecture rooms, with most
of the students struggling to get themselves desks and chairs just to listen to
lectures. More outrageous and embarrassing is the situation whereby students sit
on the floor while some hang on window frames just to be in the class and
listen to their lecturers.
The horrible situation of
students sitting on the floor and hanging on the window frames in classes so
they can receive lectures is not faced by the students alone. The lecturers
also have their own share of this unfortunate situation in our institutions of
higher learning. For instance due to huge number of students they have in their
classes, lecturers dissipate their energy while lecturing as they need to
shout, not speak, for them to be audible enough that the students can hear
them. No public address system and when there is, there is often no electricity
to power it. Obviously the productivity of both the lecturers and students are
negatively affected. And ultimately the prior aim of these institutions
(providing quality education of international standard) is defeated.
The introduction and
adoption of effective and efficient ICTs will surely go a long way in
ameliorating the above sorry situation but will also compliment the effort of
these institutions in task of providing quality education. It is a creative and
an innovative development that allow teachers to teach more comfortably and
conveniently. Especially in a virtual classroom where the presence of teachers
and students are not necessarily required, this is made possible through a web
collaboration technology. Virtual classroom just like physical classroom is
interactive, and in a densely populated area, it puts the institution in a
vantage position to admit more students than they currently do without
compromising the quality and standard of education the offer, but rather
of the study
The objective of this
project is to describe the impact of ICT on teaching in classrooms through
students and teachers in various institutions of higher learning. And by this
objective the goals include:
the present problem and challenges faced by institutions of (higher) learning
in Nigeria in terms of matching up their facilities with the number of students
the admit into their schools.
create a conducive teaching and learning environment for lecturers and students
respectively via eLearning.
build an online network and community among the teachers and students.
bring up the Nigeria higher institutions, lecturers and students to
technological development and innovations as they are related to eLearning.
of the study
The main purpose of this
study is to examine the impact of ICT in classrooms implementing ICT equipments
and tools in teaching-learning process as a media and methodology. Generally,
to familiarize teachers and students with the use and workings of computers,
and related social and ethical issues, and also to provide the prospects and
trends of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into the
general educational activities.
The probable research
What are the factors responsible for the
under-utilization of the capabilities of our school teachers/higher institution
lecturers in terms of ICT?
What role can the government play in the
overhauling of our teachers/lecturers productivities in terms of technological
What role has our higher institutions
played in matching up their facilities with the international standard such
that many of our lecturers can be reckoned with anywhere in the world?
What is the degree of readiness of our
teachers and lecturers in terms of teaching with the state of the art
The following hypothesis
were formulated from the research questions:
communication technology is a strong catalyst to reform and improve classroom
The opposing hypothesis
is: the true improvement is found in schools which use the technology as a
supplement to their materials, not as a catalyst, and improvement is achieved
when technology is applied in specific educational problems.
The successful operation
of the ICT system in the classrooms will help students to achieve higher
learning skills even if the quality of the instructional materials may be low.
The academic achievement is dependent on the teachers’ roles and the school’s
expectations (goals), not on the instructional materials and the information gathered
from using the ICT system.
The opposing hypothesis
stated that: the use of the ICT will lower the academic achievement due to
wasted time spent on reviewing lower quality materials from the web sites.
The success of the
implementation of the ICT depends on the level of teachers’ ability to
integrate it in their teaching-learning situations. This hypothesis states that
teachers mediate the use of the ICT and that the ICTs intellectual value is
strongly related to the teachers’ ability.
The opposing hypothesis
is: the successful adoption of the ICT is determined by the schools’
technological infrastructure and the students’ ability to use the ICT rather
than the teachers’ abilities.
The gap between the haves
vs. have-nots on the technological knowledge should not widen if there is an
equal access to the ICT system.
The opposing hypothesis
is: there will be an increased gap between the haves vs. have-nots on the
technological knowledge if there is an equal access to the ICT system.
of the study
The increasing use
of technology in all aspects of society makes confident, creative and
productive use of ICT an essential skill for life. ICT capability encompasses
not only the mastery of technical skills and techniques, but also the
understanding to apply these skills purposefully, safely and responsibly in
learning, everyday life and employment. ICT capability is fundamental to
participation and engagement in modern society.
ICT can be used to
find, develop, analyze and present information, as well as to model situations
and solve problems. ICT enables rapid access to ideas and experiences from a
wide range of people, communities and cultures, and allows students to
collaborate and exchange information on a wide scale. ICT acts as a powerful
force for change in society, and citizens should have an understanding of the
social, ethical, legal and economic implications of its use, including how to
use ICT safely and responsibly. Increased capability in the use of ICT supports
initiative and independent learning, as pupils are able to make informed
judgements about when and where to use ICT to enhance their learning and the
quality of their work.
are some of the significance of ICT to classroom teaching:
Access to variety
of learning resources
In the era of
technology, ICT aids plenty of resources to enhance the teaching skills and
learning ability. With the help of ICT now it is easy to provide audio visual
education. The learning resources are being widens and widen. Now with this
vivid and vast technique as part of the ICT curriculum, learners are encouraged
to regard computers as tools to be used in all aspects of their studies. In
particular, they need to make use of the new multimedia technologies to communicate
ideas, describe projects, and order information in their work.
IT has provided
immediacy to education. Now in the year of computers and web networks the pace
of imparting knowledge is very very fast and one can be educated anywhere at
any time. New IT has often been introduced into well-established patterns of
working and living without radically altering them. For example, the
traditional office, with secretaries working at keyboards and notes being
written on paper and manually exchanged, has remained remarkably stable, even
if personal computers have replaced typewriters.
Any time learning
Now in the year of
computers and web networks the pace of imparting knowledge is very fast and one
can be educated. One can study whenever he wills irrespective of whether it is
day or night and irrespective of being in Nigeria or in US because of the boom
Now ICT has made
it easy to study as well as teach in groups or in clusters. With the online collaboration
technology we can be united together to do the desired task. Efficient postal
systems, the telephone (fixed and mobile), and various recording and playback
systems based on computer technology all have a part to play in educational
broadcasting in the new millennium. The Internet and its Web sites are now
familiar to many children in developed countries and among educational elites
elsewhere, but it remains of little significance to very many more, who lack
the most basic means for subsistence.
approach to education
Education, planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials that involve
sight, sound, or both, for educational purposes. Among the devices used are
still and motion pictures, filmstrips, television, transparencies, audiotapes,
records, teaching machines, computers, and videodiscs. The growth of
audio-visual education has reflected developments in both technology and
Studies in the
psychology of learning suggest that the use of audio-visuals in education has
several advantages. All learning is based on perception, the process by which
the senses gain information from the environment. The higher processes of
memory and concept formation cannot occur without prior perception. People can
attend to only a limited amount of information at a time; their selection and
perception of information is influenced by past experiences. Researchers have
found that, other conditions being equal, more information is taken in if it is
received simultaneously in two modalities (vision and hearing, for example)
rather than in a single modality. Furthermore, learning is enhanced when
material is organized and that organization is evident to the student.
suggest the value of audio-visuals in the educational process. They can
facilitate perception of the most important features, can be carefully
organized, and can require the student to use more than one modality.
Authentic and up
to date information
and data which are available on the net is purely correct and up to date.
collection of computer networks that operate to common standards and enable the
computers and the programs they run to communicate directly provides true and
thousands of different kinds of operational and experimental services one of
which is online library. We can get plenty of data on this online library.
As part of the ICT
curriculum, learners are encouraged to regard computers as tools to be used in
all aspects of their studies. In particular, they need to make use of the new
multimedia technologies to communicate ideas, describe projects, and order
information in their work. This requires them to select the medium best suited
to conveying their message, to structure information in a hierarchical manner,
and to link together information to produce a multidimensional document.
method of learning at a distance rather than in a classroom. Late 20th-century
communications technologies, in their most recent phases multimedia and
interactive, open up new possibilities, both individual and institutional, for
an unprecedented expansion of home-based learning, much of it part-time. The
term distance learning was coined within the context of a continuing
communications revolution, largely replacing a hitherto confusing mixed
nomenclature—home study, independent study, external study, and, most common,
though restricted in pedagogic means, correspondence study. The convergence of
increased demand for access to educational facilities and innovative
communications technology has been increasingly exploited in face of criticisms
that distance learning is an inadequate substitute for learning alongside
others in formal institutions. A powerful incentive has been reduced costs per
student. At the same time, students studying at home themselves save on travel
time and other costs.
reasoning, distance learning widens access for students unable for whatever
reason (course availability, geographical remoteness, family circumstances,
individual disability) to study alongside others. At the same time, it appeals
to students who prefer learning at home. In addition, it appeals to organizers
of professional and business education, providing an incentive to rethink the
most effective way of communicating vital information.
to children with disabilities
communication technology has brought drastic changes in the life of disabled
children. ICT provides various software and technique to educate these poor
peoples. Unless provided early with special training, people profoundly deaf
from birth are incapable of learning to speak. Deafness from birth causes
severe sensory deprivation, which can seriously affect a person's intellectual
capacity or ability to learn. A child who sustains a hearing loss early in life
may lack the language stimulation experienced by children who can hear. The
critical period for neurological plasticity is up to age seven. Failure of
acoustic sensory input during this period results in failure of formation of
synaptic connections and, possibly, an irremediable situation for the child. A
delay in learning language may cause a deaf child's academic progress to be
slower than that of hearing children. The academic lag tends to be cumulative,
so that a deaf adolescent may be four or more academic years behind his or her
hearing peers. Deaf children who receive early language stimulation through
sign language, however, generally achieve academically alongside their hearing
of the study
The impact of the ICT on
learning can be approached in different ways. There is no single concept of
learning through the use of ICT. Many different types can be envisaged:
computer assisted learning, web-learning, computer-classes, online training,
distance education, eLearning, virtual learning, digital training, etc. In this
study, a broad view on ICT and teaching is taken. Consequently, its impact on
the teaching process does encompass not only traditional teaching outcomes but
also the use of ICT by students (learning), the organizational use of ICT by
education and training institutions, and, last but not least, the impact of
ICT-enabled education on, for instance, personal development, confidence and
ICT is an increasingly
influential factor in education. Computers and are used in developed countries
both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of
learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives
students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The
proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging.
Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and
understandings of students, including Multimedia, and provides new ways to
engage students, such as Virtual learning environments. One such tool are
virtual classrooms, which are an "interactive, Web-based visual
representation of a dynamic object that presents opportunities for constructing
mathematical knowledge" (Moyer, Bolyard, & Spikell, 2002). In short,
virtual classrooms are dynamic visual/pictorial replicas of physical
mathematical manipulatives, which have long been used to demonstrate and teach various
mathematical concepts. Virtual classrooms can be easily accessed on the
Internet as stand-alone applets, allowing for easy access and use in a variety
of educational settings. Emerging research into the effectiveness of virtual
manipulatives as a teaching tool have yielded promising results, suggesting
comparable, and in many cases superior overall concept-teaching effectiveness
compared to standard teaching methods. ICT is being used more not
only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of
students in classrooms. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and
interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom.
Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the
Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and
communication technologies (ICTs) are a “diverse set of tools and resources
used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.” These
technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio
and television), and telephony. There is increasing interest in how computers
and the Internet can improve education at all levels, in both formal and
non-formal settings. Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have
for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print
remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery
mechanism in both developed and developing countries. In addition to classroom
application and growth of e-learning opportunities for knowledge attainment,
educators involved in student affairs programming have recognized the
increasing importance of computer usage with data generation for and about
students. Motivation and retention counselors, along with faculty and
administrators, can impact the potential academic success of students by
provision of technology based experiences in the University setting.
The use of computers and
the Internet is in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at
all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access.
Usually, various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole
delivery mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses
both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the
sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural
community in Sri Lanka. The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU),
established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly
dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based
materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online
programming. Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India
combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and
television, and audio conferencing technologies.
terminology has been used throughout this document.
A philosophy of
interaction and personal lifestyle where individuals are responsible for
their actions, including learning and respect the abilities and contributions
of their peers.
machine, operated under the control of instructions stored in its own memory,
which can accept data (input), manipulate data according to specified rules
(process), produce results (output) and store the results for future use.
knowledge, skills and attitudes which enable a person to use computer
technology to benefit themselves and others related to tasks they wish to
understanding of the role of computer technology in society and the social
implications associated with the use of computers in society.
The view of
learning that requires the learner to actively construct conceptual meaning
from experiences. This view is
predominant among educational theorist in the world.
A structure of
interaction designed to facilitate the accomplishment of a specific end
product or goal through people working together in groups.
A term used
throughout the world to refer to the use of any technologies to support the
processes of learning and teaching.
mail) Text messages and computer files
exchanged through computer communication, via Internet or intranet networks.
& Communications Technology) Typically used to refer to computer
technologies but strictly speaking should also include other technologies
used for the collection, storage, manipulation and communication of
international network of networks of computers using common protocols such as
network, based on the same technologies used for the Internet but only
available to authorised users within an organization or company.
psycho-social and physical environments within which learning occurs. This may be physically contained within a
classroom or may involve a complex of various locations, persons and
students may demonstrate from what they have learned. In the Curriculum Framework these are
described as sets of outcomes associated with areas of learning.
A term used
principally in Australia to denote the use of technologies to support the
processes of learning and teaching.
Usually used to discuss the use of computer technologies in this
capacity. Similar use to the
internationally used term, educational technology.
There are 12
overarching outcomes at the beginning of the Curriculum Framework that aim to
direct the focus of all learning in Western Australian schools.
dictionary definition would state that pedagogy concerns the science of
teaching children. It concerns what
teachers do when they interact with children to support their learning. Most educators would consider that pedagogy
encompasses the beliefs and actions of teachers including their teaching
strategies, the organization of learning experiences and of the learning
teaching associated with technologies where the technologies are the focus of
Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) The communications protocol used to
define the ‘rules’ for the transmission of data between computers and
networks wishing to be part of the internet.
Resource Locator) The unique address of any document available for access
over the Internet.