study investigated the planning of educational resources for school
effectiveness in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area
of Lagos State. The study equally reviewed some important and extensive
literatures under sub-headings. The descriptive research survey design was
applied in the assessment of respondents’ opinions towards the subject matter.
In this study, five null hypotheses were formulated and tested with the
application of the independent t-test and the Pearson Product Moment
Correltional Coefficient Statistical tools at 0.05 significance level. Also,
the simple percentage frequency counts was used to analyse the questionnaire
response of the selected respondents together with the research questions. A
total of 200 (two hundred) respondents, 50 (fifty) teachers and 150 (one
hundred and fifty) students were selected for this study. At the end of the
data analyses, the following results were obtained thus: that there is a
significant relationship between educational planning and utilization of
educational resources in the school, that there is a significant relationship
between planning of educational resources and their implementation in the
school, that there is a significant relationship between educational resources
planning and teachers’ productivity in the school, that there is a significant
relationship between teachers’ experience and educational resources planning, and that there is no significant gender
difference in the academic achievement of students due to educational resources
planning. Based on the conclusions reached at the end of this study, the
following recommendations are made by the researcher: Nigerian educational
plans should be short-term based. This will enable educational planners to
solve short-term educational issues and manpower planning and educational
development should be the watchwords of Nigerian educational managers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
to the Study 1
of the Problem 7
of the Study 8
of the Study 10
of the Study 12
of Terms 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
of Educational Planning and Human Resource 14
Importance of Educational Planning and School Productivity 35
of Educational Planning 36
Resource Planning 39
Principles of Human Resource Planning 45
to Educational Planning and School Productivity 47
Policy Evolution, Formulation and Objectives
in Nigerian Education System 51
The Problems in
Educational Planning Management and Implementation
in Nigeria 53
of Literature Review 71
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND
of the Study 74
Size of the Study 74
of Research Instrument 75
Analysis Method 76
FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
Summary of Findings 82
of Findings 83
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
IMPLICATION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 87
of the Study 87
of Findings for Educational Policy and Practice 89
for Further Studies 90
to the Study
education, the importance of human resource planning and management cannot be
overemphasized. This is because, the role played by human resource management
and planning on the achievement of education objectives cannot be neglected
(Iyede, 2000). According to Odenu (2002), human resource planning and
management involves planning, leading, directing and a number of other
activities in order to achieve efficient utilization. Precisely, it involves
integrating society’s needs with educational objectives, among other things.
addition, the extent to which an organization like education, attains her
objectives are directly proportional to the human resources available and their
planning and management. In another development, Anyanwuocha (2000) described
human resource as the most vital of the resources in the educational
enterprise. The term, personnel administration refers to management of human
resources, the acquisition of personnel and co-ordination of performance within
the organization. Cubson (1985) opined that there are many literature in the
area of human resource planning and management.
(2003) and Nwangwu (2004), state that human researches planning and management
are variously referred to as personnel management. They observed that human
resource management and planning are that functions of all enterprises which
provides for effective utilization of human resources in order to achieve both
the objectives of the enterprise and the satisfaction and development of the
employees. According to them, without the planning and management of human
resources, the staff in the education sector would not be effectively harnessed
and managed for effective utilization in education, especially in the teaching
and learning processes.
component part of management concerned with facilitating the accomplishment of
the objectives of an organization through the systematic management of
constraints and careful utilization of the available, limited resources which
include human, material, equipment supplies, finance and work techniques or
technology is known as administration (Peretomode, 2003). According to him,
while management deals with the formation of plans, organization of programmes
and formulation of policies, administration is fundamentally concerned with the
execution and implementation of the formulated policies, plans or ideas and
programmes. As Amaonye (2000) puts it, administrators are more of implementers
of policies and programmes rather than formulators of programmes and
administration, like management, involves such elements and activities as
planning, organizing, staffing, budgeting, coordinating, reporting and
evaluating, but this is done on a smaller scale when it is compared with
to Ezewu (2003), the school management in the traditional sense is often
thought of as involving the management and planning of human resource such as
men (teachers and students), and perhaps money (school finance). The buildings,
school space, and equipment are usually taken for granted for they are assumed
to be there or “on the ground” as it were and therefore should not be given
attention. But this assumption is unwarranted for they are actually not there.
(2000) observed that school facilities mean substantial costs to the school
system for their establishment. According to him, if they are not properly
maintained and managed, they depreciate and become dilapidated and even wear
out faster than their normal “life span”. Also if not properly utilized, the
school would not derive optimum benefits from their use. This will have
negative result on the school performance and productivity. This is because,
schools where there are poor human resource in terms of the personnel, there
won’t be quality teaching and learning process, and poor management standards
will be the order of the day.
to Akambi (2000), there are indices for high performance school orgnisations;
the followings are the characteristics of high performance school
High quality of teachers.
Effective school climate.
Effective school plants.
High students’ academic performance.
Good teacher-principal relationship.
Good teacher-teacher relationship.
Good teacher-student relationship.
Good student-student relationship.
the increasingly volatile and complex nature and structure of the Nigerian
school system, two basic factors are important for Nigerian educational
success: capital and the human resource. Capital or fund, whether acquired
through loans or government budgetary allocation, is by far, easier to manage,
control and use optimally going by certain predetermined economic and
managerial parameters. On the other hand, the acquired quantity and quality of
the human resource is often hard to acquire as at when needed unless the need
is preceded by long term planning (Banjoko, 2006).
its nature, the human resource is complex, unpredictable and sometimes
difficult to change. It required long period of development, and may not be
available in the right quantity or quality when needed. Yet it is the most
vital and critical resource required for organizational or institutional
performance. According to Nwachukwu (2000), teachers significantly affect the
success of school as an organization. Teachers, depending on how they are
selected and acquired, will bring few or many problems to the school. This is
because, people often make their own as well as organizational life relatively
pleasant or unpleasant. In short, the viability, growth and survival of any
organization are tied to the availability of competent and well developed staff
within the organization at the appropriate time.
resource planning and management can therefore, be described as that part of
the overall organization, planning and management processes by which an
organization tries to ensure that it had the right number of staff and the
right kind of staff at the right time, at the right places performing functions
which are economically useful and which satisfy the needs of the organization
and equally provides satisfaction for the individuals involved (Rowland, 2007).
In Nigeria school
system, it is one thing to plan for human resource, it is another thing to
manage and implement that which has been planned. According to Onuoha (2001),
the implementation of the existing human resource is faulty. Planning and
management of manpower in any organization such as the school, is as important
as the implementation of the plan. Implementation of any plan, be it human
resource or the curriculum of any school system, is where there is a lot of
problem in this country. Any plan without proper execution or implementation,
cannot be said to be in existence.
of the Problem
The problem inherent
in the examination of educational resources for school effectiveness in
selected secondary schools cannot be overemphasized. This is because, it is
seemingly impossible for the secondary school system to grow and flourish
without adequate plans and management being put in place and implemented on
educational resources which include financial resources, physical resources and
especially human resource. The management of human resource in Nigeria lacks
effectiveness. No wonder there is under utilization of the human and material
resources planned for the Nigerian education system. In most cases, some
of the educational planners and managers of the Nigerian educational system are
not experts and well experienced in planning and management of education. For
instance, in many cases there is putting round hole in square pegs sort of
employment and placement of those who plan and manage our human and material
resources for education in Nigeria (Asoluka, 2000) and this has caused the
problem of educational growth and development in Nigeria today for human
resource management begets poor or low secondary school organisational
The above problems
gave rise to the examination of human resources management and high performance
secondary school organisation in Lagos
of the Study
objectives of this study include to:
ascertain whether management of human resource
affects the utilization of educational resources in the school.
examine whether there is a relationship
between management of human resource and their implementation in Nigeria.
investigate whether a relationship exists
between management of human resource and teacher’s productivity in the school.
find out whether there is any relationship
between teachers’ experience and human resource planning in the schools.
examine whether there is a gender difference
in the academic performance of students due to planning management of human
resource in the schools.
following research questions were raised in this study:
Does management of human resource affect the
utilization of educational resources in the school?
Is there any relationship between management
of human resource and their implementation?
Does any relationship exists between
management of human resource and teachers’ productivity in the school?
Is there any relationship between teachers’
experience and management of human resource in secondary schools?
Is there gender difference in the academic
performance of students due to management of human resource in secondary
following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
There will be no significant relationship
between human resource management and utilization of educational resources in
There will be no significant relationship
between human resource management and their implementation in the school.
There will be no significant relationship
between human resource management and teachers’ productivity in the school?
There will be no significant relationship
between teachers’ experience and human resource management in secondary schools.
There will be no significant gender difference
in the academic achievement of students due to human resource management in
of the Study
study will be beneficial to all stakeholders in the Nigerian school system for
example the school authorities and the stakeholders in our educational sector
at the secondary school level would find this study very useful because it will
generate good information on the way forward to planning and management of
educational resources in our various schools. Not only the school authorities,
the teachers who are one of the most important and prominent stakeholders in
Nigerian educational system, would be able to receive proper and better
information on the effect of planning and management of educational resources
for example, this study will afford them the opportunity of knowing how to
effectively use the planned educational resources in their teaching and
learning processes in the school.
the findings and recommendations of this study, administrators of our
educational system including educational planners, would be able to see the
need to plan well the educational resources, because, guiding their usefulness,
if the educational resources are not properly planned and adequately executed
by the school administrators, it will result in low productivity of teachers in
study will be very informative, educative and directional, in the sense that,
it will help the school managers/administrators and school planners to redirect
their system of thinking and planning for effective education of the Nigerian
findings and recommendations of this study will afford school authorities and
other stakeholders the opportunity of knowing the best way to plan educational
resources and enough insights on how best to implement and manage the planned
educational resources in the school system effectively.
work if completed, will serve as reference material to researchers and
students. This is because, they would use this material or part of it in their
future studies or researches. Also, this study will be relevant to other
agencies of our educational system, because it will help them to understand and
appreciate the effect of educational planning on productivity of school
teachers in Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
study examines the human resources management and high performance secondary
school organisation in Lagos
this study, terms were categorically defined thus:
Resource: These are the monetary inputs available for and expended
on the education system. These are usually referred to as cost of and
expenditure on education.
Resource: These include buildings, classrooms, laboratories,
libraries, hostels, administrative staff offices, technical equipment,
reprographic equipment and other physical plant like machines, vehicles,
computer sets, typewriters duplicating and photocopy machines.
Resource: These refer to students, teachers, administrative staff,
supervisory staff, from the ministry of education, guidance counsellors, school
managers and others.
Programme: This refers to the activities, events or
programmes that place in the school environment such as orientation programmes,
workshops, seminars or in-house programmes of the school.
Plant: This refers to educational resources or every thing
concerning the school or education which includes school buildings, classrooms,
assembly halls and other general facilities in the school.