The evaluation of power density of ray
emissions from GSM masts in selected locations within Ilorin metropolis were
carried out. The measurements taken in each spot were done using Acoustimeter.
The location that shows the highest peak measurement (5.12 ± 1.07) location H,
which exceeded the international approved exposure limits which is 4.1mW/m2.
This research shows that there are some areas
within Ilorin metropolis where these GSM antennas are installed and is emitting
high radiations which could cause several hazards to Human Health.
TABLE OF CONTENT
List of tables and figures
Table of content
Introduction and literature review
Materials and method
Choice of location
Sampling period and apparatus
Duncan multiple range test (Table)
LIST OF TABLE AND FIGURE
1: Showing studied
locations in Ilorin metropolis.
2: Showing the Duncan
multiple range tests of power density of GSM mast emissions.
3: Showing the ranges in
power density of ray emission from GSM mast in study locations.
1: Showing bar charts of
the trends in the measurement of power densities in all the ten study
1: GSM Mast
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
world is fast becoming a global village, courtesy of communication, especially
the telecommunications of which the Global System for Mobile Telecommunications
(GSM) is a major factor. This wireless telephone system has brought several
improvements to human lives across the globe, from the rural areas to urban
areas, from the learned/educated to the uneducated, from the poor to the rich.
There have been great increased trends in the socio-economic growth as high
attention has shifted on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at
homes, organizations and nations. In Nigeria today, experts have expressed
concern over the environmental and health implications of the increasing
mounting of telecommunications infrastructures indiscriminately especially
around schools and homes (Punch Newspapers, 2010)
have been several reports on the hazards associated with mobile phone antennae
or base stations, for instance Goldsworthy (2006) reported that detailed
studies have shown that weak electromagnetic fields, such as is used in the GSM
transmission can cause leaking of cell membranes, leading to fragmentation of
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cells. This genetic damage may result in several
abnormalities in future organisms.
et al (2003), Wolf and Wolf (2004) and Hutter et al (2006) have variously
reported on the biological effects of people exposed to radiations from GSM
masts/antennae. Such people’s complaints includes:
and sleeping problems.
v Memory loss.
argued that these complaints can cause enormous damage to human health, hence
the need to pay attention on solving this problem to save humanity.
and Kas (1998) reported the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on dairy
cows while McLeod et al (1987) had reported that these radiation cause drastic
changes in the patterns of locomotion of diatoms.
report on the potential health risk due to telecommunications radiofrequency
radiation (RFR) exposures
in Lagos state, Nigeria. Aweda et al
(2009) reported that the measured RFR power close to radio and television mast
and transmitters are within tolerable limits in most cases but there are
concerns on the risk associated with the use of mobile phones.
and Aweda (2011) in their report on the assessment of radiofrequency power
density distribution of GSM and broadcast antenna masts in Lagos city, Nigeria
observed that the power densities of
the RF Radiation from telecoms transmitting and receiving antenna were far
below the international standard limits. They concluded that the values
observed were not likely capable of inducing
significant hazardous health effects among people that are at least 6m away
from the antennae. They took their measurements within 250 - 200meters from selected
antennae and obtained range of results from 0.219 - 304.40mW/m2.
assessment report of radiofrequencies radiation within the vicinity of some GSM
base stations in Ghana, Deatanyah et al (2012) reported a range from 0.85 to
1.07mW/m2 for 900MHz antennae. 0.78 – 1.19mW/m2 for
1800MHz antennae these were results obtained from 46 towns and 76
GSM cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. Especially in residential areas,
schools and market places. These values, they reported were significantly very
low to the international limit. Also Viel et al (2009) reported from France on
the residential exposure of radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base
stations and broadcast transmitters; a population based survey with personal
meter showed that field strength recorded were generally below 0.05V/m (0.006mW/m2).
transmit by the low frequency electromagnetic radiation exhibiting a pulsating
pattern to transmit both voice and data information. The base stations serve as
the intermediate between the caller
and the recipient. The base station is a complex system with several components
meant to receive and transmit signals. Depending on the distance, several
antennae may be involved in the transmission of signals between the caller and
was launched in Nigeria in 2001 and from this period, there have been increase
in the number of masts installations across the country. These, apart from
posing environmental threats, are
believed to be hazardous to both human and other life forms. This fear has also
attracted attention all over the world.
In view of the above
concern, the aim of this project work is to access the field strength of GSM
mast emissions in some locations within Ilorin metropolis of Kwara State and to
ascertain if they fall within the safety limit recommended intermediately.
900MHz GSM Masts used in Nigeria
MOBILE PHONE TRANSSMISSION MASTS (BASE STATION)
greater concern among the public over proximity of masts rather than the use of
handsets even by children, is understandable. The apparent unrestrained
proliferation of masts and antennas, in some cases with minimal public
consultation, has led to suspicion and organized protest, particularly where
these facilities have been sited or have been planned to be sited near schools,
child care centres and like. Masts often represent a visual obtrusion and the
sheer number of antennas on a mast shared by several carriers encourages the
casual observer to assume that the EMFS can be focused or at least enhanced in
particular locations. Although the levels, when measured are indeed very low,
the continous and whole body nature of the exposure gives the concerns some
justifications. however it must be remembered that mobile phone transmissions,
along with radio, TV, and other communications networks. (Eltiti et
phones and towers Emits electromagnetic radiation having health effects which
can be divided into thermal and non-thermal. Thermal effect refers to heating
effect which you observe if you hold the phone for long near ear.
effects on the cells genes and the DNA are more harmful than thermal effects.
use of mobiles can lead to headache, sleep disturbance, lack of concentration,
memory loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and increased risk of brain cancer (Eltiti
mobile towers in your neighbourhood can also pose health problems like severe
headache, sleep disturbance, constant body pain, memory problems, joint pains
e.t.c. The more severe health effects noted include infertility, miscarriage
neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer parkinson) heart problems and cancer
surveys have found a variety of self reported symptoms for people who live
close to base stations (Hutter et
base station system is composed to two parts;
base transceiver stations (BTS)
base station controller (BSC)
BTS and BSC communicates across the specified interface, enabling operations between
components of BBS may consist of four to seven or nine cells. A BSS may have
one or more base stations. the BSS uses the interface between the BTS and the
separate high speed line (T1 AND
then connected from the BSS to the mobile MS.
THE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION (BTS)
BTS houses the radio transceiver that defines a call and handles the radio link
protocols with the NS. In a large urban area a large number of BTS may be
base transceiver station serves a single cell. it also includes following
encrypting, multiplexing, modulating and feeding the RF signals to the antenna
and rate adaptation
and frequency synchronizing
trough full or half services
decryption and equalizing receives signals
channels measurement (smith et al.,
refers to excessive amounts of waste much of which contains harmful poisons,
that are released into the environment –air, water and soil.
is usually caused by people more specifically.it is caused by the waste
produced by the cars we drive,the factories that make the things we buy, the
power plants that produce the gas and electricity we use,and even the farms
that grow the food we eat.
has been a problem ever since large numbers of people occupied a relatively
small space.During the 1800s and 1900s,however,as the world became increasingly
crowded and more factories were built, environmental ,pollution became a
serious issue(Abbassi et al, .2011).
TYPES OF POLLUTION
pollution (Kelishadi et al.,2009)
the introduction of harmful pollutants into a certain environment, that makes
an environment unhealthy to live in. The widespread pollutants are usually
chemicals, garbage, waste water. Environmental pollution is causing massive
damage to the ecosystem that organisms depend upon the health of this
environment to live in air and water pollution can cause death of myriad
organisms in given ecosystems including Humans.
pollutants have various adverse health effects from early life some of the most
important harmful effects are perinatal disorders, infant mortality, respiratory
disorders, allergy, malignancies, cardiovascular disorders, increase in stress
oxidative, endothelial dysfunctions, mental disorders, and various other
harmful effects.(Hassan et al.,2011)