This study seeks
to investigate customer’s perception of GSM interruptive advertisement in
Nigeria. The study adopted cognitive dissonance theory of mass communication.
The research methodology used in this research is the survey research of which
questionnaires were administered to 120 respondents in Abraka. The research
shown that the perception of GSM customers towards interruptive GSM SMS adverts
is disturbing; due to the unending SMS adverts. The results of the research
revealed that the perception of GSM users is that of annoyance, irritating
invasion of privacy. The research recommends that GSM service provider should
understand the perception and attitude of the customers before sending interruptive
SMS advert. Nigeria communication Commission (NCC) should regulate the number
of SMS advert which each service provider can send in a day. Service providers
should send important SMS advert that is most needed by the customers. The SMS
advert should be simple and easy.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page - - - - - - - - i
Abstract - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vi
Background to the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 10
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - 11
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 12
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - 13
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 14
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 14
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Review - - - - - - 16
framework - - - - - 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Design of the Study - - - - - - 30
3.2 Population of the Study - - - - - 31
Sample Size - - - - - - - 31
Sampling Techniques - - - - - 31
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection - - - - 31
3.6 Procedure of data collection - - - - 32
3.7 Techniques of Data Analysis - - - - 32
Limitation of the Study - - - - - 32
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND
Data Presentation - - - - - - 34
Data Analysis - - - - - - - 53
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 59
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 61
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 62
Recommendations - - - - - - 62
REFERENCES - - - - - - - - 64
APPENDIX (Questionnaire) - - - - - 67
to the study
According to Anil (2013:28) “Advertising
via mobile devices or mobile advertisement is defined as the usage of
interactive wireless media (such as cellular phones and pages, cordless telephones,
personal digital assistances, two-way radios, baby crib monitors, wireless
networking systems, GPS- based locators and maps) to transmit advertising messages
to customers in form of time and location sensitive, personalized information
with the overall goal to promote goods and services”. Whatever medium used in
marketing of goods and services even ideas, advertising is the creation of
public knowledge of a particular need of the public. Tarun Kant, et al
(2010:98) “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and
promotion of ideas, goods or service by any identified sponsored”. According to
the views of Nwabueze, Ezebuenyi and Ezeoke (2012:42) on advertising “the
concept has been viewed from diverse perspective by various scholars,
professionals and bodies. One of the acceptable definitions is that given by
Advertiser Practitioners Council of Nigeria APCON, in its code of advertising practice
which states that advertising is a form of communication through the media
about products, services, or ideas paid for by an identified sponsor”. The
bottom line of the communication in advertisement is to influence or cause a
behavioural change of patronage attitude by consumers towards different
products of same utility. Advertising is gear to stimulate demand by creating
awareness of a products and services. As a communication phenomenon,
advertising plays a vital role in the development of business of buying and
selling. This vital role is demonstrated easily in sphere of information which
is central to the advancement of humanity. Okoro (1988) state that advertising
is a channel for information dissemination of products, services and ideas,
movement and places, the importance of advertising to human society cannot be
overemphasized. According to Belch and Belch (2001)” the major tripod stand
upon which every advertising industry leans on are advertisers (or clients
advertising agencies and media organization)”.
Information technology affects all most
everything about human life. From business to daily life; it shapes and
reshapes not only commerce but also the way in which organizations implement
their marketing strategies. It offers new dimensions and strategies and
customer/organization interactions. Anil (2013:28) “the successful application
of information technology that makes the “anytime-to-anyplace” communication
possible”. The technological advance allows increased mobility and extended
services even to remote areas. Since the introduction of short message services
SMS, they has been an increase in the use of SMS in advertising communication.
According Mbox inc. (2010), “the usage of SMS continues to grow because it is
simple, easy to use and has enormous reach. Ultimately, consumers like to have
choice in a way they communicate with business and increasingly consumers are
turning to SMS”.
(2012) “the history of global (GSM) in Nigeria is traceable to the deregulation
of telecommunication industry which gave birth to the GSM revolution from the
year 2001 till the present (11 years now) under the civilian administration of
president Olusegun Obasanjo”. Which is about 15 years to this year 2016. Before
the introduction of Global system for mobile communication (GSM), the Nigeria
telecommunication limited was saddled with the responsibility of providing
means of communication basically the landline which was bedeviled by corruption
and misappropriation of fund.
The foremost GSM network provider that
came on board was ECONET (now Airtel). It was formerly lunched on the 6th
August 2001 and MTN Nigeria follow suit almost immediately. It is imperative to
mention that the introduction of global system for mobile communication network
provider such as Etisalat, reformed Econet (Airtel Nigeria) and Global Com Nigeria
limited brought about huge transformation in the telecommunication industry.
Nigeria commenced commercial operation on 23rd October 2008 with a
promise to deliver innovation and quality service in Nigeria, since then
Nigerian gas continues to witness its innovative services. Etisalat redefined
speed with the roll-out of the urge 375G HSPA network and it has continued to
prove it innovative company keen to give its subscribers the best possible
experience at the most affordable price. This innovation led to the 12 million
subscribers. It covers 36 states. In March 2009, the National Communication
Commission (NCC) adjudged Etisalat as Nigeria best network and base on quality
of service induces measured by the regulatory body, in 2011 after a similar
assessment, Etisalat network was once again rated best. To date Etisalat
Nigeria has won several industry awards for its innovation and quality service
delivery. Some of these include; Brand of the year, fast growing GSM Company of
the year best marketing company (Lindedinhttps//www.now you are talking)
Visafone was incorporated in Nigeria on
June 20th, 2007 following the acquisition of cellom received its
unified access. Service license as a telecom operation form the Nigeria
Communication Commission (NCC) on August. Although each of these network
providers has its own peculiarity in terms of packages but all are also most
similar in tariff war or SMS advert.
SMS marketing or advertising is the use
of SMS medium as a communication channel between brands and end users that
guarantee direct interaction with users. It’s a cost effective advertising
strategy with unique, though streaming
selling point, as the readers, though forced to read the message, eventually
finds the words sinking into their mind sub-consciously. The advent of
telecommunication in 2001 has brought to many individuals the opportunity to
have a mobile phone. Due to the increase number of Nigeria population with
mobile business ventures and even the telecommunication providers adopt the use
of short message service to advertise their product and service.
Tarun Kant, et al (2010:98) “Advertising
is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or
service by any identified sponsored”. The aim is to stimulate consumer minds.
Many businesses have concentrated their resources on advertising in order to
stimulate demand of their products and services. Internet, telemarketing and
SMS advertisement have brought a drastic change in advertisement in an advent
of win-win strategy; SMS has become the recent best mean to advertise. This is
a result of consumer’s time management. Mbiadjo and Djeumene (2005:21) the
increasing penetration level of the use of mobile telephone in the world,
notably in developed economies since the 90s and the mobile technological
breakthroughs and means of communication are some of these elements
contributing to the birth of the mobile marketing concepts”. The use of bulk
SMS platform by individuals and organization has increase drastically. Banks
and other organizations engage in consumer relationship make use of SMS to sell
their products to potential customers. The telecommunication service providers
also make use of SMS to advertise some packages of the service providers.
SMS advertisement include: Get brand new songs by MC galaxy. For GO gaga, FT
Cynthia Morgan, Text 0032206 to 4100, or for Komolop Cholop; Text 8 to 4100 to
get “ celebrity Girlfriend” by Falz FT Reekado; season 2 just get better find
out what happens when SAINTS get involved in scandals in scandals amongst saint
Season 2, a digital soap opera on MTN mobile newspaper. Etisalat SMS
advertisement include: Breaking local news free for 7 days to get it text BC to
655 for May.com. now #30/weekly afterwards for more products Dial *655#; Dear
…. Health is wealth. Get 5 free days of Health and wellness sms and then #50
5days text SUB to 38777 at no cost.
SMS advert include: Reply bible to 54884 to confirm in daily study of the word
of God; Enjoy chatting on Twitter Wechat, 2go, Eskimi, Facebook and other
social networks with for #200 for 30days dial *990# now.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There has been observation by GSM users
in Nigeria of the frequent advertisement dropping into the mobile phone of customers.
This observation has brought different perception from customers of GSM
operators. Some GSM customers have accused GSM operators of sending incessant
adverts with short message services thereby interrupting them. Other also
accused GSM operators for allowing individual business organizations for using
the GSM SMS to advertise their products and services. These allocations have
given them liberty to bombard the GSM customers with unending and repetition of
advert through short messages services.
While accusing the GSM operators for
sending deceptive SMS advert which after application GSM customers would be
unfoundly charge to subscribing to the adverts, customers have been complaining
that the interruption such as alerting for unnecessary attention; disturbing
meetings; disturbing sleep and running of mobile phone battery. The problem
posed by these accusations can only be solved by investigating the customer’s
perception of GSM interruptive advert in Nigeria. This study, using the
questionnaire will look into the perception of customers towards GSM adverts.
1.3 Objective of the study
This study has the overall purpose of
investigating the customer perception of GSM interruptive adverts in Nigeria.
It will specifically, study the following
ascertain the frequency of GSM adverts sent to GSM users by GSM operators
the nature of interruption of GSM advert to GSM users.
determine the attitude of GSM users towards GSM adverts
find out the perception of GSM users towards interruptive GSM adverts.
1.4 Research questions
The research questions of this study seek
to put the research work in a frame of work that is position to guide the
research. The following are the research questions of this study.
is the frequency of GSM adverts sent to GSM users by GSM operators?
is the nature of interruption of GSM advert to GSM users?
is the attitude of GSM user towards GSM adverts?
What is the perception of GSM user towards interruptive GSM adverts?
1.5 Significance of the Study
study will be beneficial to GSM operators and business organization that
advertise their products and service to their prospect and existing customers.
It will form a handy material of customer’s perception on telemarketing and
teleadvertising for advert and strategic marketing communication planning. It
will enhance GSM operator’s articulations of SMS advertising and the impact on
GSM customers. The research will also provide an opportunity to study the
impact of GSM in Nigeria economy.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In examining the perception of customers
of GSM towards the interruptive GSM advertisement, the study will focus on the
GSM users in Abraka. Since it will not be possible to study all the GSM users
in Nigeria, this study will be confined to the study and investigation of
Abraka population. Reasoning being that Abraka is a town with complete
population demography which students, workers, elders, adults and teenagers
etc. Investigation will be confined to cover this environment.
1.7 Definition of Terms/Concepts
1. Customers: Person
who patronize an organization’s goods and service.
2. Perception: The
attitude which people develop towards something or person.
3. Advert: Creation
of public awareness of a particular product and services by an organization to
This is regarded as a motive to halt a process.
5. GSM: Global
service for mobile is a telecommunication network provider for cell phones
6. SMS: This
is an acronym to short message service platform for texting message through
7. Telecommunication: Communication
through telephone wireless.
8. Mobile phone: The
cell phones that is handy for telecommunication.
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