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Product Code: 00005635

No of Pages: 72

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This project examines Effects of sales promotion on marketing of real estate in Nigeria, with reference to Federal Housing Authority. In order to achieve the objective, two specific objectives, two research questions and two hypothesis were raised. Frequencies and percentages were used in presentation of personal data and answering research questions. A probability sampling technique was adopted as it ensures equal chance for all elements. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) questionnaires were administered, but only eighty (80) were returned. This means that approximately 81 % of the administered questionnaires were retrieved. Statistical tools such as correlation, regression and analysis of variance were employed for this study using statistical package for social scientist (SPSS) while Frequency distribution table were used in the analysis and presentation of socio-demographic data of the respondents. Regression analysis was used in order to estimate the effect of some independent variables on the dependent variable were used to text the two hypotheses. l Based on the responses elicited by the respondent and the result from the two tested hypothesis, it was established that There is no significance relationship between sales promotional tools and strategy in marketing of real estate and also that There is no significance relationship between Estate Surveying adoption and sealing real estate market. The findings also revealed that there is The study found that there is no relationship between sales promotional tools and strategy in marketing of real estate with a value r = 0.592 which signifies that change in Sales promotional tools really cause change strategy in marketing of real estate to a large extent as well as  Sales promotional tools does not have any effect on strategy in marketing of real estate. 47.6% of the variation recorded in real estate is accounted for by the promotional tools. In conclusion, the business world today is a world of competition. A business cannot survive if its products do not sell in the market. Thus, sales promotion has to be undertaken to increase sales. From these literatures, sales promotion can help you provide information to potential customers that aid them in making a decision.







Title page                                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                                 iii

Declaration                                                                                                               iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                   v

Abstract                                                                                                                     vi

Contents                                                                                                                    vii-x



1.1       Background information                                                                             1-5

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                            5-7

1.3 .     Objectives of the study                                                                               7

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                7

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                  7

1.6       Scope of the study.                                                                                     8

1.7       Limitations of the study                                                                             8-9

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms                                                               9-10



2.0       Introduction                                                                                                  11

2.1       Conceptual Review                                                                                      11-13

2.2     General Marketing                                                                                        13-15

2.3     Estate Marketing Practices                                                                           15-18 

2.4     Challenges of Estate Marketing                                                                  18-20

2.5     Measures Against the Challenges of Estate Marketing                           20-22 

2.6       Attributes Required for Estate Marketing                                                            22-23

2.7       Empirical Studies on Estate Marketing                                                    23-26

2.8       Conceptual framework                                                                                26

2.8.1   Sales Promotion Tools                                                                                27-30

2.8.2   Sales Promotion Strategies                                                                         30-32

2.8.3   Factors influencing sales promotion                                                         32-34

2.8.4   Dependent Variable (Real Estate Market)                                                           34-36

2.9       Brief History of Federal Housing Authority in Nigeria                         36-38

2.10    Summary                                                                                                       38



3.0       Introduction                                                                                                  39

3.1       Research Design                                                                                           39

3.2       Study Population                                                                                          40

3.3       Sample Size and Sampling Techniques                                                    40

3.4       Sources Of Data Collection                                                                                    40

3.5       Instrument Of Data Collection                                                                   41

3.6       Method Of Data Analysis                                                                           41

3.7       Validity And Reliability Of Research Instrument                                   41-42



4.0       Introduction                                                                                                  43

4.1       Demographic Information of Respondents                                              44-45

4.1       Analysis of Respondents’ Bio data                                                           45-47

4.2       Analyses of Respondents’ Responses                                                      48-56

4.3       Hypotheses Testing                                                                                     56-63

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                63-64



5.1       Introduction                                                                                                  65

5.2       Summary                                                                                                       65-66

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                    66-68

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                       68-69

5.5       Suggestions  for  Further  Study                                                                 69-70

References                                                                                                    71-72

Appendix                                                                                                       73



Table 3.1: Descriptive Statistics                                                                                              44

Table 3.2: Gender                                                                                                                   45

Table 3.3: Age of the respondents                                                                                          46

Table 3.4: Educational level of respondents                                                                           46

Table 3.5: Work experience of the respondents                                                                      47

Table 3.6:  Department in organization                                                                                   47

Table 4: There is force in sale promotional tools in real estate marketing                               48

Table 5: There are Deemed Appropriate Tool for Enhancing Effectiveness of

   Sales Promotion                                                                                                       48

Table 6: Would you rate your level of satisfaction with sales promotion strategies

   used in real estate marketing                                                                                    49

Table 7: Considering all the quality of sales promotion in real estate

   marketing, is it promotional tools                                                                            50

Table 8: Sales promotions strategy is being practiced in real estate marketing                      50

Table 9: There is marketing strategy for sales of real estate                                                   51

Table 10: There is great quality tool in real estate marketing in  Federal Housing

    Authority                                                                                                                52

Table11: Marketing of Federal Housing Authority affect real estate marketing                    52

Table 12: There is endorsement  for effective real estate marketing                          53

Table 13: Effectiveness of good marketing multiplies  Federal Housing Authority

     in real estate marketing                                                                                          54

Table 14: The adoption of estate survey on different strategies seals real estate deals          54

Table 15: Surveying adoption of real estate strategies impair the effectiveness of

     Marketing                                                                                                               55

Table 16: Real  estate survey aids different strategies in sales promotion                              55

Table 17: Federal Housing Authority improve sales promotion in real estate                        56





Fig 2.1: Relationship between variables                                                                                 26









1.1       Background information

The business environment has become very competitive in the 21st century due to the growth in technology, infrastructure and access to information around the globe. This has made the environment very complex and consumer preferences keep changing because of the low switching cost in the market. Due to this increasing demand of consumers in the market, management of business organizations have to increase their resources with attention focused more on attracting and retaining its customers (Kotler, 2013).

The ever increasing competition in the global market has prompted organizations to be determined and ensure satisfaction of customer needs and wants more efficiently and effectively than ones competitors (Kotler, 2018).Sales promotion is an initiative undertaken by organizations to promote and increase sales, usage or trial of a product or services (Aderemi, 2013). Sales promotion refers to the provision of incentives to customers or to the distribution channel to stimulate demand for a product. It is an important component of an organizations overall marketing strategy along with advertising, public relations and personal selling. Sales promotion acts as a competitive weapon by providing an extra incentive for the target audience to purchase or support one brand over the other. It is particularly effective in spurring product trials and unplanned purchases (Aderemi, 2013).

Sales promotion is a marketing activity that adds to the basic value proposition behind a product (i.e. getting more for less) for a limited time in order to stimulate consumer purchasing, selling effectiveness or the effort of the sales force (Aderemi, 2013). Thisimplies that, sales promotion may be directed either at end consumer or at selling intermediaries such as retailers or sales crews.

Estate  marketing  is  an  important  aspect  of  the  practice  of  Estate Surveying and Valuation. Oni and Adebayo (2012) established that the problems associated with estate agency and marketing must be addressed if  the  profession  of  Estate  Surveying  and  Valuation  will  continually  be relevant.   The   scholars   buttressed   further   that   estate   agency   and marketing  is  the  aspect  of  the  profession  with  the  highest  presence  of charlatans  and  quacks.    The  other  aspects  of  the  profession  of  Estate Surveying and Valuation are; property valuation, property management, feasibility and  viability  study  and  property  development.  All these aspects of the profession are interdependent.  There is need for the establishment of value before a property can be marketed. Also, the final stage of property development is marketing of property either for sale of to let.  The interdependence of  the  aspects  of  the  profession  of  Estate Surveying and valuation necessitate the need for continuous research on all the aspects of the profession.   

Estate marketing is a type of marketing that fits into the broad definition of  marketing.  Anyanwu  (2013)  opined  that  marketing  consists  of business activities that seek to anticipate demand, help in developing and making  the  products  or  services  available  to  the  satisfaction  of  the consumers  (users  and  at  a  profit  to  the  organization).  Kotler  (2014) described  marketing  as  a  social  and  managerial  process  by  which individuals and groups obtain what they want through creating, offering and exchanging products of value with other.  Olakunori and Ejionueme (2017)   described   marketing   activities   as   the   identification   and satisfaction of people’s needs through the exchange process. It can be inferred from the above definitions of marketing that the satisfaction of clients should be of paramount interest to a marketer. 

 The  performance  evaluation  of  an  estate  agency  department  in  an  Estate  Surveying  and  Valuation  firm  depend  on  ability  to  sell  or  let properties  in  their  portfolio  (Ogedengbe,  2016).  As  result  of  this, Estate  Surveying  adopt  different  strategies  in sealing  real  estate  deals.  The  scholar  buttressed  further  that  it  is pertinent   for   Estate   Surveying recruit professional  marketers  to  execute  their  real  estate  brokage  business. Araloyin and Olatoye (2011) established that consumers of real estate are now sophisticated  with  high  expectations  from  the  agents.  The scholars  identified  the  following  as  the  need  of  consumers;  courtesy, provide  service  as  promised,  frequent  communications,  exact  time services would be performed, and personal attention. 

There  are  different  methods  employed  by  Estate  Surveying  and  Valuation  firms  to  market  properties.  Sani  and  Gbadegesin  (2015)  identified five common methods of marketing real estate in Nigeria as;  site/billboard, direct mailing, press marketing, brochure/bulletin, and personal contact. The scholars rated site billboard as the most common means of advertising real estate.  The study did not put social media marketing into consideration.  In addition to all these methods of marketing real estate, the scholars identified some important attributes that  facilitate  the  marketing  of  real  estate.  The  first  ten  attributes  are; good track records, big client base, reputation, creativity in marketing, professionalism in dealings. Up-to-date with property trend, dedication and total commitment qualified and experienced team, ability to provide good service and ability to achieve the desired result. 

 The expectation of real estate consumers concerning estate marketing is high and the challenges plaguing the practice are enormous. The level of Sophistication expected from an Estate agent by  a consumer cut across other  aspect  of  the  profession.  A  consumer  needs  a  professional  to supply  the  sale  value,  rental  value  and  purchase  value  of  a  property.

Also,  a  consumer  needs  information  about  the  cost  implication  of property maintenance for property purchase or sale. This assertion was corroborated by  Araloyin  and  Olatoye  (2011).  Ability of an Estate Surveyor to fulfill this required  mandate  will earn the  surveyor a trust which will facilitate real estate marketing. 

 There are ethical provisions in the Nigeria Institution of Estate Surveyors and professional guidelines guiding the practice of Estate agency and marketing. However, despite this ethical guideline, there are cases of contravention of rules which arise as a result increase in competition among   Estate   Surveyors (Akomolede,   2006).   These contraventions  are  having  negative  impact  on  the  practice  of  Estate agency and marketing. These contraventions also give a bad image to the practice of the profession of Estate Surveying and Valuation in Nigeria.

Unethical practices and other factors negatively affect the estate agency and  marketing  function  of  an  Estate  Surveyor.  In  order  to ensure  the  continuous  relevance  of  the  profession  of  Estate  Surveying and  Valuation,  it  become  imperative  to  examine  the  practice  of  Estate marketing which is a major aspect of the profession of Estate Surveying and Valuation. This study aimed at achieving the following objectives; to assess  the  estate  marketing  methods  adopted  by  Estate  surveyors  in practice,  to  examine  the  cost  implication  of  the  various  methods,  to assess  the  challenges  of  estate  marketing  in  the  study  area,  and  to examine the mitigating measures of reducing the effect of the challenges.

According to Kotler (2013), Sales Promotion is a key ingredient in marketing campaigns and consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase particular products or services by consumers. Sales promotions programmes are those activities other than stimulate consumer purchase.

1.2   Statement of the problem

Real estate market needs to provide offerings or services that satisfy consumer needs and expectations to ensure the company’s economic survival. In order to achieve this feat, they need to understand consumer buying behavior to help them evaluate their service offerings.

There have been many attempts in the past to study the effectiveness of sales promotion tools. According to Timadeyin (2019) sales promotion tools used strategically not only increase brand awareness but also encourage consumers to buy new product.

Promotion go through a cycle of decision making processes before making a purchase decision which define their behavior in the real estate marketing from these organization. The sales promotion process is a complex matter as many internal and external factors impact on the buying decision of the consumer (Aderemi, 2013).

The consumer makes a purchase decision by examining alternatives before making the purchase. Sometimes, the purchase may differ from the purchase decision reached earlier. There is always a post purchase evaluation by the consumers after purchasing and consumption of the service. Specific factors that may lead to altered consumer buying behavior are size and composition of the evoked set of alternatives, perceived risk, brand loyalty and attribution of dissatisfaction. The consumer determines whether he was satisfied or not with the services rendered. This actually will be an important information reference point to the consumer in determining their behavior in the next purchase (Kotler, 2016).

Sales promotion employs the use of some sales promotion tools like; free trial, where they invite prospect customers to try the products without cost. This method is ideal for products like fragrances and make-ups since the results are immediate, but this technique is not very effective for items like; acne fighting products or skin repair products which usually takes longer period for the results to be seen. Another tool is the use of free samples of assorted creams and fragrances, which is a technique only directed to the sales consultants who have accounts to purchase the products and sell at a profit to the customers.

Most of Sales promotion is usually directed to the sales consultants, it would be more effective if they implement better sales promotion tools that will be directed towards the consumers, since they are the end users of their products. And even if they use sales promotion tools to the consultants they should strategize them in a way that it will be effective on the general sales.

This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of sales promotion as a strategy in marketing of real estate in Nigeria Housing Authority.

1.3 . Objectives of the study

The general objective of this study was to assess the effect of sales promotion on marketing of real estate.

1.      To examine the relationship between sales promotional tools and marketing of real estate.

2.      To evaluate the relationship between Estate Surveying adoption and sealing real estate deals.

1.4       Research Questions

The following are the research questions:

1.      What is the relationship between sales promotion and marketing?

2.      Does estate survey affect the strategies in sealing real estate deals

1.5       Research Hypotheses

The research will have significance to the following different parties;

Ho1:  There is no significance relationship between sales promotional tools and strategy in marketing of real estate

Ho2:   There is no significance relationship between Estate Surveying adoption and sealing real estate market.

1.6       Scope of the study.

The study was carried out at Federal Housing Authority main office in Festac Town, Lagos to study the effects of sales promotion as a strategy in marketing of real estate. For the purpose of this study, the Federal Housing Authority were divided into six different departments.

1.7       Limitations of the study

The following are the limitations that the researcher encountered while carrying out the study;

Time constraint

Time allocated for this study was not adequate and at best stressful. This is because the researcher had seven other units to handle, a full time job, family and social commitments. This limitation was, however, overcome by proper planning. The lecturers were also very supportive and understanding and this made it easier to manage everything.


There were some respondents who feared sharing out information for fear of being reprimanded by their managers for giving out information that they may have considered confidential. However, the researcher assured the respondents of the confidentiality of the information that they provided. The researcher also obtained permission from the management of Federal Housing Authority to undertake the research in the organization.

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

In order to make this study readable to all, especially those whose academic bent is not in the area of this investigation that is marketing all key unfamiliar terms and conceptions are alphabetically arranged and clearly defined as follows:

Sales Promotion: is a short term incentive to initiate trial or purchase  and one of the elements of the promotional mix.

Coupon: Are vendors attached to goods for sales indicating that payment will be made.

Exhibition: Is the displaying of items of values in order to stimulate awareness and interest about a product or service.

Marketing Mix: Is the term used to describe the combination of the four element of a firm’s marketing system and they are product, price, place and promotion.

Mass Production: Is the production of a product in large quantities.

Strategy: is a general plan to achieve one or more long-term or overall goals under conditions of uncertainty

Real Estate: is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature.

Premium: Is an extra sum of money which is paid in addition to the normal cost of a product or service.

Trade deals: Is the offers of free merchandise, special displays, buying allowance and discounts on some combinations.

Federal Housing Authority (FHA): a wholly owned agency of the Federal Government of Nigeria.

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