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Product Code: 00005967

No of Pages: 58

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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects gender discrimination and misconception on the involvement of female students in sporting activities in Ambrose Alli University. The descriptive survey research method was used in carrying out this study. A total of one hundred (100) students from all seven (7) departments in the faculty of education were selected through simple random sampling technique. A self-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. The study found that the study found that religion, culture, family background, home training/development, and peer group are the major causes of discrimination in sports among female undergraduates, the study also revealed that female athletes are experiencing media discrimination, less attention from school authorities/management, and misunderstanding (role confusion/gender crisis). As young ladies who are passionate about sports are sometimes viewed as women trying to become men. It was recommended that government should encourage participation in sports by providing scholarship and other incentives to female athletes who excel in any sports competition. Mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the socio-cultural factors hindering women’s involvement in sports. School management should give more attention to female participation in sports, both in budgeting and in personnel management.





Title Page-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Certification-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Dedication-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Acknowledgement-    -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Abstract-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           viii


Background to the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           1

Statement of problem-            -           -           -           -           -           -           3

Purpose of the Study- -           -           -           -           -           -           4

Research Questions-   -           -           -           -           -           -           5

Scope of the Study-    -           -           -           -           -           -           5

Limitation of the Study -        -           -           -           -           -           5

Significance of the Study       -           -           -           -           -           6

Definition of Terms-   -           -           -           -           -           -           6


Concept of Discrimination-    -           -           -           -           -           7

Types of Discrimination-        -           -           -           -           -           13

Concept of Misconception-    -           -           -           -           -           16

Sports and Sporting Activities-          -           -           -           -           18

Discrimination and Misconception about Female in Sports-  -           20

Common misconception against female participation in sports-         26

Discrimination and Misconception on female sports in Ambrose Alli University

-          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           35

Summary of Literature Review-         -           -           -           -           36



Research Design of the study -           -           -           -           -           38       

Population of the study-         -           -           -           -           -           38

Sample and Sampling Technique-       -           -           -           -           39       

Research Instrument-  -           -           -           -           -           -           39       

Validity -         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           39       

Reliability-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           39

Method of Data Collection -  -           -           -           -           -           39

Method of Data analysis -      -           -           -           -           -           39                                                          


Discussion of Findings -                     -           -           -           -           40       


Summary         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           48

Conclusion-     --          -           -           -           -           -           -           50       

Recommendations -    -           -           -           -           -           -           50       

REFERENCES-         -           -           -           -           -           -           51                       

Appendix-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           54       








Background to the Study

Discrimination against women in the workplace has been a widespread topic throughout society for quite a few years. According to the National Partnership for Woman and Families (2017), women make 80 cents for every dollar paid to men. While this number statistically represents the wage discrimination women face throughout all industries, it is also important to look at other discriminatory factors women face as well. More specifically in the male-dominated sport industry, we see women represented in extremely low numbers. While women may lack the interest to occupy jobs in this profession, this does not entirely explain the underrepresentation. In 1972, Title IX was passed which set out to promote equality in federally funded educational institutions and was later applied to athletics. Before this law was enacted, females coached 90+% of women’s teams. By 2014, that number has dropped to 43.4% (Acosta & Carpenter, 2014). There are several factors that contribute to this steep decline, most result from the stereotypes society instills in males and females from a young age. The way men and women are raised influences interests, careers, socialization, and views of the opposite gender. Due to these societal factors, stereotypes are made and sexism becomes evident. This leads to the low representation and ultimately alienation of women in the good ole’ boys club, referred to as the sports industry.

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, discrimination is defined as “the act of making or perceiving a difference” (Discrimination, 2017). The phrase, “perceiving a difference” is the challenging part of this definition because it is rather arbitrary. Another difficult part of this concept of discrimination is where is the line drawn? What is considered discrimination and do intentions matter? It is quite easy to see the difference between a male and a female. Because it is easy to see this difference, men and women are often raised differently, causing them to associate differently, and are ultimately treated differently. So is it considered discrimination if men make a difference because a woman is present, even when they are trying to avoid being inappropriate? The concept of discrimination is not a black or white, or a yes or no, matter, it seems quite subjective the more you look into it. Which is why it is such a controversial subject across all industries in the workplace. Looking into a male-dominated industry such as the sports industry makes it even more complicated. In the sports industry, there is this good ole’ boys club and many Human Resource rules are thrown out the window.

Although men dominate the sport industry, the few women in the industry tend to heavily occupy jobs in a limited number of fields, which is referred to as gender clustering. Gender clustering into particular fields in the sports industry is evident as well; “significantly more males are responsible for facility and event management, media relations, and marketing across all NCAA divisions, while females were disproportionately found in academics and compliance” (Lumpkin, Dodd, Mcpherson, 2014). Careers in academics and compliance seem to be stable, with less travelling and more typical eight to five schedule; which is great for women who are held to their family obligations. Not surprisingly, women are far underrepresented in the athletic directors’ position, which happens to be one of the most powerful positions in intercollegiate sports (Quarterman, Dupree, & Willis, 2006). In 2014, only 22.3% of athletic directors were women.

Furthermore, in Division I universities, only 10.6% of females held the position of an athletic director (Acosta & Carpenter, 2014). According to the Federal Affirmative Action standards, the workplace should reflect the population. Obviously in the case of the athletic director position, this standard does not hold (Lapchick& Baker, 2015).

In many other positions throughout the sports industry such as coaches, assistant coaches, and sports information directors, women are still far underrepresented (Lapchick& Baker, 2016). According to research conducted by Jerome, Aimee, and Willis (2006), the number of women in the workplace has increased, however the number of women in management positions has not maintained the same pace. These authors also cited a study done by Rosenfield (1988), who found four consistent challenges women faced when seeking to achieve top-level management positions. The challenges were: competition, family obligations, being a woman, and the stereotype that women were not willing to give enough time and effort needed to be in management positions. (Rosenfield, 1988). These challenges make it quite difficult for women to occupy a position in this industry, especially a higher management position. Based on the underrepresentation of women and the association of masculinity and sports, I hypothesize that discrimination plays a key role in women’s ability to achieve and maintain a career in the sport industry. While women as a whole may lack interest in this area, the barriers that women face when pursuing these types of careers keep women from moving up into higher level positions.

Statement of Problem

Gender discrimination is as old as man himself right from the onset of ancient civilization women have been streamlined into playing deputy and assisting roles in everything else apart from cooking and birthing children. Although man has come a long way and civilization is creating major alterations to systems that have  been idolized for ages, the effect of gender discrimination still lingers in our society and more so in sports than any  other sector. The foregoing depicts the world situation and surely in developing nations (among which Nigeria finds herself), the case is rather worse. Right from the home the female child is raised by default to avoid certain kinds of activities such as playing football, running around with males, engaging in native combat plays like traditional wrestling for children. This innocent upbringing creates in the girl child a consciousness of delicate living and anything that requires energy from her is a ‘’no go area’’. This eventually influences her line of interest and career choice. In our secondary schools, for example there are all kinds of sports competitions for the male child and the female child seems to be relegated to track events and match-past. The researcher therefore has observed that the level of involvement of females in sports is very low. As female athletes accounts for less than 30% of all athletes in the university. For example, in the 2017 Nigerian university games held at Benue state, the school only had female representatives in athletics (1500m races and short-put) and handball. Thus the researcher believes can be traced to misconceptions and discriminations experienced at earlier stages of life by students. As a result of the foregoing, the researcher thought it necessary to investigate gender discrimination and misconception as it relates to sports involvement among students in Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine gender discrimination and misconception on the involvement of female students in sporting activities in Ambrose Alli University. Specifically, the study aims at:

1.      Identifying the causes of discrimination in sports among female students in Ambrose Alli University.

2.      Finding out the common misconceptions in sports among female students in Ambrose Alli University.

3.      Examining the effect of gender misconception on the involvement of female undergraduates in sporting activities in Ambrose Alli University.

Research Questions

1.      What are the causes of discrimination in sports among female undergraduates in Ambrose Alli University?

2.      Are there misconceptions on the involvement of female students in sporting activities?

3.      What are the common misconceptions on the involvement of female undergraduates in sporting activities in Ambrose Alli University?

4.      How do these misconceptions affect the involvement of female undergraduates in sporting activities in Ambrose Alli University?

Significance of the study

It is expected that this study will be beneficial in the following ways;

            It will provide necessary information and create awareness on the causes of discrimination in sports among female students, the common misconceptions on the involvement of females in sports, the effects of these misconceptions, and the way forward

Scope of Study

This study is limits itself to examining gender discrimination and misconception onthe involvement of female students in sporting activities in Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma.


Limitations of the Study

The researcher envisages some likely problems in the course of this study such as:  Inability to get the appropriate information from respondents, Failure, of respondents to return all administered questionnaire, and Irregular completion of the questionnaires which may lead to rejection

Operational Definition of Terms

Discrimination: The act ofdiscriminating, discerning, distinguishing, or perceiving differences between people of things.

Misconception: A mistaken belief, a wrong idea.

Sport: any athletic activity that uses physical skills often competitive.

Undergraduate: A student at a university who has not yet received a degree.

Gender:  A socio-cultural phenomenon that divides people into various categories, such as “male and female”, with each having associated dress, roles, stereotypes. etc.

Involvement:The act of engaging thoroughly in an act or activity

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