This research work investigated the
effect of Truancy on the performance of adolescent students; a case study of
secondary in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
The subject of this research comprised
one hundred (100) students randomly selected from five secondary schools in
Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Data Analysis was carried out by the
use of Chi-square with the independent samples used to test the significance
between grouped means of the hypothesis statistics.
Based on these findings, some
recommendations which could be of immense benefit to students, teachers,
parents and the community at large.
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Operational Definition of the Terms
2.1 Concept of Truancy
2.2 Common Defiant Offences
2.3 Truancy as an Act of Indiscipline
2.4 Truancy as an Act of Delinquency
2.5 Truancy of Adolescents
2.6 Theories of Delinquency
2.7 Causes of Truancy
1.1 The home as a cause of truancy
1.2 Peer group as a factor
1.3 School related factor and truancy
1.4 The society as a factor
1.5 General factors
2.8 Effects of Truancy on the Academic
Performance of Students
2.9 Treatment or Control of Truancy Schools
3.2 Population of Study
3.3 Sampling and Sampling Technique
3.4 Research Instrument
3.6 Reliability of Instrument
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Analysis of Personal Data
4.2 Hypothesis One
4.3 Hypothesis Two
4.4 Hypothesis Three
4.5 Hypothesis Four
5.5 Suggestions for Further
Appendix I – Questionnaire
Appendix II – List of Table.
1.1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
No one, not even a nation has ever
argued the fact that education is a veritable instrument for liberating people
from the shackles of ignorance, poverty, illiteracy and the likes. Longe (1999)
opines that "there is over-whelming evidence that education is a weapon in
the fight against poverty, there can be little doubt that educating the
children improves their changes of escaping poverty". In the same vein,
education is also useful to fight for one's right, itself being a basic natural
The role of education toward the
development of individuals in the society and the nation as a whole cannot be
over-emphasize, hence, there is the need to give proper, adequate and equal
education to everybody regardless of sex, race or tribe.
Yolah (2001) asserts that
"education is a harbinger expanding opportunities for the development of
human potentials so essential for full productive life".
Moreover, Anuforo (2007) says
"education is a process, product and a discipline. In order to transmit
norms and values of a given people'' .
Okafor (1987) opines further that
“education embraces all experiences through which and individual acquires
knowledge or ideas, develops his intellect and strengthens his will".
However, upon the great importance of
education to every individual, some students even with free opportunity to
education still run away from schools which made them to be known as truant
students. This issue of truancy has being a major concern of all and sundry
especially government and parents in our society.
Truancy is that abnormal acts in which
the rules and regulations of the school authority are violated by students.
Truancy can be described as an act where by secondary students especially
adolescents from school activities without permission and without genuine
reasons. Truancy, according to the US Department of Education, is the first
sign of trouble; students start giving up, skip school and find life outside
the school environment lively more than the school environment.
Research data tells us that students
who become truant and eventually drop out of school put themselves at a long
term problem in becoming productive citizens. Truancy has great implication in
that it has a broad effect in the general norms and value of the entire school
and the entire society, therefore it is important to note that the phenomenon
exist from the inception of generation.
Moreover, the subjection has been a
great concern for many Nigerians especially the teachers and the school
administrators. The effort of the government on education has been found
difficult to be ascertained because of truancy among students which has caused
a lot problem to the educational system. This has brought about backwardness
among the students, the educational policy makes and educational evaluators as
it affects their studies and also affects the policy of the government.
Truant students especially the
adolescents would leave their homes in the morning, but instead of going to
school, they enjoy visiting cyber cafes, going to boy or girl friends houses,
loiter on the streets either with school uniforms or may have changed into
mufti in a hidden corner. Truancy has led many children to commit crimes such
as armed robbery, rapes, and secret cults and pick pocketing. It is very
obvious that among the criminals paraded on Television by Police everyday
include students who have supposed to be in school. Many unwanted pregnancies
resulted into abortions are the results of truancy. Akinloye etal (1997)
reveals that truants will seek solace in drugs he or she becomes a tout,
addict, smuggler, area boy, armed robber, such a child then becomes a burden
and a threat to the society. This study is therefore geared into investing the
effects of truancy among adolescent students.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The importance of this work is to
investigate the effect of truancy on the academic performance of adolescent
students in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Ife Abodunrin (2011) quoted from
Erikson’s Theory of psychosocial development described an adolescent as a
student of 12-18 years of age.
This project work is particular about
adolescent students in the secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government.
Truancy has brought about career degeneration and backwardness in secondary
schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, because of their
irregular attendance and presence in schools. Truancy also brings about poor
academic performance in many schools.
In Alimosho Local Government, students
seek academic work as a threat because of many factors within and outside the
school. It has become the order of the day, seeing students roam on the streets
when they are supposed to be at school. Many Alimosho Local Government
adolescent students have been arrested by the Surveillance of the State
Governor of Lagos State and have been taken to Welfare Centre for
rehabilitation. These adolescents falls between J.S.S 3 - SSS3 respectively.
They are the future of this great
nation, in so much that this problem has to be looked into for proper
correction. Furthermore, due to the adolescent students irregular attendance in
school and the general breaking down of law and order of schools, stealing,
thuggery and all sorts of delinquent behaviours have become a common
phenomenon, which is a result of student low interest in academic work among
others. It is therefore not going to be out of place to investigate the effect
of this social problem on the performance of such students.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study will seek to examine the
factors responsible for truancy in secondary schools and the effects such
factors have on the academic performance of the students. Hence the purpose of
the study will seek to assess the effects of truancy on the academic
performance of secondary students in an urban environment
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will help to make necessary
correction by which the educational system in Alimosho Local Government can be
restructure. It will help solve the problem of truancy and as well as reshape
the lives they would be useful for themselves, their parents and the society at
The finding of the study will help to
encourage the teachers to cultivate the habit of delivery their lessons in a
manner that would motivate students' interest. The finding and recommendation
will also help educational policy makes and planners in their planning
Furthermore, the outcome will enable
the parents to understand truants and know them. The study hopefully will also
act as a model or reference for subsequent research work by individuals who may
want to research this area. Teachers would be exposed to various juvenile acts,
the students which they might likely be involve in as a result of their
irregular attendance in school.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The extent to which there is a clear
relationship between students' academic performance and truancy is the focus of
The following research questions are
therefore, posed to be answered in the course of this study?
any significant difference between the academic performance of adolescent
students who are truants and those who are not?
any significant effect of home environment on adolescent students academic performance
and playing of truancy?
any significant effects of school factors and students playing of truancy?
any significant effect of peer group on students playing of truancy?
1.6 REASEARCH HYPOTHESES
In other word to answer major research questions four (4)
null hypotheses were raised thus:
H01: There is no significant difference between the academic
performance of adolescent students who are truants and those who are not.
H02: There is no significant effect of home environment on adolescent
students academic performance and playing of truancy.
H03: There are no significant effect of school factors and students
playing of truancy.
H04: There is no significant effect of peer group on students playing of
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study was carried out to find the
effect of truancy on the academic performance of adolescent students in
Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research study is limited to
selected secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Schools in Lagos State,
due to financial constraints, time factor, attitude of the respondents and
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
is a change that somebody or something causes in somebody or something else. It
is also a result or an outcome of something.
TRUANCY: It is described as a way whereby a
school pupil stays away from school without permission or reasons. It is also a
ACADEMIC: It is related with education,
especially studying in schools and universities. An act of reading and studying
PERFORMANCE: An act of how well or badly you do
something, how well or badly something works
ADOLESCENTS: A child who is developing from a child
into an adult, which falls between the ages of 13 and 18 and the problems they
face for example, boys and girls with their experiences.
ABORTION: This is the act of deliberate ending
of a pregnancy at an early stage, Tough a medical operation.
JUVENILE: This is related to young people who
are not yet adults. A young person either a girl or a boy.
DISCIPLINE: This is an act of training people so
that they will obey orders and control their own feelings and behavior. It is
also the method of training one's mind or body to control behavior; punishment
follows if they do not comply or obey those rules.
This is bad or criminal behaviour
usually of young people. It is an anti-social act or deviate, stealing,
bullying, rioting etc are delinquencies.
DEVELOPMENT: The latest in a number of real or
imaginary events. Gradual growth or somebody or something, so that it becomes
more advanced, stronger etc. it is also the process of producing or creating
something new or more advanced e.g a new product.
TRUANT: A child who stays away from school
without a good reason. A child who absent from school without a permission.
EDUCATION: It is an act of teaching and
learning. Way of acquiring knowledge. Ability b develop skills. Method of
imparting new experiences into somebody. It is also an agent of socialization.
ENVIRONMENT: The conditions in which you live and
work, that affect your life. The world that we live in. It is also the
conditions that affect the behavior and development of somebody or something.
SOCIETY: Group of people who live together
with shared ideas. People with a common interest. People in general, living
together in communities. The group of people who share the same customs, laws,
THUGGERY: An act of being violent. A violent
behaviour usually a criminal acts or behaviour. Brutal and hard.
Young people with their behaviour
showing a tendency to commit crimes, especially “JUVENILE DELINQUENT SOCIAL PROBLEM”. All the problems associated
with the society.