The Study habits of individual going through educational
process are what will determine the study skills such individual Would possess
and invariably determine the level of academic achievement or performance.
Study habits call be categorized Into either good or poor.
This study was embarked upon to find out various causes and
effects of poor study habits on students’ academic achievement. I also embarked
upon this study with the hope to contribute suggestions and recommendations
that would reduce these poor habits to the barest minimum if not totally
The population was JSS 2 Students from one public school
and two private secondary schools chosen from urban and rural areas of the
local government under study.
A total of 80 Students were randomly selected from the
schools as the Population sample. The research design for this study was
survey, descriptive as questionnaire was used to collect the necessary data.
The instruments used to collect the data were:
1. Ten item questionnaire that sought information on the
socioeconomic status of the respondents.
2. 40 item questionnaire that sought information on the study
habits of respondents.
The data was analyzed by the use of t.test Statistics
Method. The study tested three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The
analyses of the data collected revealed that there is a significant difference
in the study habits of students attending rural and urban schools, private and
public school and those from low and high socio-economic background. The Study
also revealed that there is no gender difference in terms of Study habits.
Differences revealed in the study habits of students from
rural arid urban school, high and low socio-economic background and high and
low fees paying schools is a challenge to the government. There is need to
improve infrastructures in rural areas, revamp the economic sector and reduce
the general poverty level among its citizens which is the common features in
these three groups of variables discussed above.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents
Background of the
Statement of the
Purpose of the Study
Significant of the
Limitations of the
Definitions of Terms
2.1 Study habits
2.2 Good and poor
2.3 Causes of poor
2.4 Effects of poor
manpower and poor productivity level
3.0 Introduction 46
3.1 Research Design 46
3.2 Area of Study 47
3.4 Sample and
Sampling Techniques 48
3.5 Instrumentation 49
3.6 Method of Data
3.7 Method of Data
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Study habit has been defined and explained in different
ways by many scholars. The ideas that feature in all the works could give a
summary which will make one define study habit as a constant or consistent
pattern of study which individual has adopted over a long period of time. Study
habit can also mean consistent, systematic and conscious tasks aimed at
acquiring specific knowledge items meant to achieve certain goals.
The type of study habits that an individual adopts will
determine the study skills such would possess. Therefore it is necessary to say
that study habits can be a desirable one (good) and undesirable (poor) one.
Desirable study habits include:
(a) Giving prompt
attention to assignment and homework,
(b) Making up for
lessons missed in school,
adequate attention to class room -activities,
(d) Spending extra
time at home to go through class activities
teachers assistance when necessary
(f) Having high
concentration level when reading and
(g) Making use of textbooks and other learning materials to Support
classroom works while studying.
The opposite of all that have been discussed above as
desirable stud habits will automatically mean undesirable Study habits.
I was motivated to go into this study because of the rate
at which students tend towards undesirable study habits nowadays. The situation
has degenerated to a point where most students don’t bother to study in a way
that can bring any reasonable academic achievement in career. My experience as
a teacher reveals that most students don’t want to study judiciously again.
The effects of poor study habits are glaring in the various
f6rins of examination malpractice being witnessed in various facets of
educational system in Nigeria.
The standard of academic achievement by most students has dropped drastically.
Those students who are still Studying hard these days are children from
well-disciplined and Godly homes.
The effects of poor study habits are glaring in the
attitude and various activities or students when writing externals examinations
like WAEC, G.C.E., JAMB etc. These examinations are highly characterized by
There has been an increase in the level of poor study
habits exhibited by students in the recent times. A large proportion of
students indulge in poor study habits without due cognizance of the consequence
of’ such habits on their future achievement and the society at large.
Garuba (1995) says education is a deliberate planned and
systematic process of effecting a permanent change in the behavior of human
beings, which are necessary-for full integration of such individual into the
society. Anyone who is not well educated cannot be fully integrated into the
society. It means such individual cannot contribute positively to his personal
life and the society at large. Such individual will even become a threat and
nuisance to self and the society.
Full integration that can make individual to function
meaningfully in the society can only be a product of sound education.
An individual who will be well integrated into the society
must have good study habits, which will make such individual achieve good and
Anyanwu (1987) stated that it is through education that the
level of consciousness of’ individual and the society is raised. He further
says that education equip people with skills necessary for managing, sustaining
and increasing the quality of lives of individual and the society at large.
Education is the development in itself and as such, focuses
on how to manage or lessen dependency on others and improve the condition of
living of such individuals says Lehart (1979).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Poor study habits means sub-standard study habits. Good
Study habits are the only ways, which through academic excellence could be
attained. There is no short cut to academic success than to study hard and
appropriately. Most Students in Nigeria
today are found guilty of poor Study habits. They do not study enough to make
them achieve remarkable academic success in life.
Various forms of examination malpractice, which are
thriving in all facets of our educational system, are fast eroding the spirit
of good study habits. Students do not bother to study hard a-gain as the alternative
means to academic success, which is examination malpractice, is fast gaining
ground in Nigeria.
Poor study habits are problems that portend great danger to
the development of this nation. If poor study habits persist it simply means
the future leaders of this great country will be half-baked and mediocre. It is
an indisputable fact that a nation filled with mediocre cannot develop
economically, socially, politically and in other areas of human endeavors
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The reasons that prompted the study of this phenomenon are:
(a) To bring out those factors that are responsible for study habits
(b) To bring out
the effects of poor study habits on individual and
(c) This study also examined various factors that have contributed
to poor study habits and their effects on academic performance.
(d) This study also looked at how socio-economic background family
constellation, peer group influence, societal influence, political problems
have contributed to this dangerous trend in our nation.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant because good education is the
bedrock of any success. An educated mind is the enlightened mind. We can not
fold our hand and allow the educational standard in our nation to come to zero
level, because there would not be any nation called Nigeria again.
Other significance of this study include:
It will expose to the
authority, parents and students factors that are responsible for steady
increase in poor study habits.
It will show the
effects of Poor academic achievement on the overall development of individual
and nation at large.
It was also meant to
create platform upon which to make necessary corrections and adjustments in the
educational policy and their implementation.
It will show the
effects of poor study habits on academic performance.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. To what extent have poor study habits affect academic achievement.
2. To what extent does parents socio-economic status has contributed
to poor Study habits.
3. To what extent does the status of school contribute to poor study
habits in students.
4. To what extent does government policy contribute to poor Study
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. There will be no significant difference in the study habits of students
from high and low socio-economic status.
2. There will be no significant difference in the study habits of
male and female.
3. There will be no significant difference between the study habits
of students in public and private schools.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is possible that the report of this study may suffer
some weakness in sampling. Also there may be other factors like culture, orientation
and values in some areas that may affect the generalization of conclusion drawn
from this study to the whole country.
The application of the questionnaire was aimed at obtaining
some ideas about the current situation that can represent the generality of the
students in Nigeria.
It is a well-known fact that study habits of students may vary along so many factors
like socio-economic educational and family constellation of students among
Due to time and financial constraints this research used
only three schools in the local government area of study, therefore the results,
conclusions, Suggestions and recornmendations that emanated from this study
will be based on the data that was generated from the sample used for this study.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Study Habits: Charles (2000) explained study habits to mean constellation
of skills involved in the process of learning materials. For the purpose of this
study, study habits will be defined as consistent pattern of studying which
individual has adopted over a period of time.
Performance: Chase (1979) says that academic
performance means assessing performance of individual or group with a set
standard of performance which either makes the performance of individual
assessed poor or good. Academic performance will also be defined as the
performance of’ students in academic endeavor, which could be good or bad.
Achievement: Meherens & Lehmann (1978)
defined academic achievement as degree of learning achieved by students after exposure
to planned instruction and training. Perino (2006) defined academic achievement
as measure of what individual has learned that is the present level of academic
performance. For the purpose of this study academic achievement will be defined
as amount of academic knowledge attained by individual through exposure to formal
and informal education.
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