abuse is one of the major problems confronting the nation today especially
among the youth. Incidences of drug/substance and alcohol abuse and related
anti-social behaviour have tremendously increased in recent years. This has
become a matter of concern to the government, parents, teachers,
non-governmental organisations and all other relevant agencies. The Nigeria
government has recognised the seriousness of the drug/substance problem, this
is the reason why most of the drugs are prohibited by law and there national
and interenational agencies established for the purpose of monitoring and
controlling illegal drug trade.
In 1980, the Federal Government
established the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) to fight drug
abuse and trafficking in the country and initiated the National Campaign
against Drug/substance Abuse (NACADA) in early 2001. This present study found
that drug/substance use and abuse among youth are increasing despite the
control mechanisms that have been put in place. The study recommended that, as
a first step to prevent and control drug/substance abuse, parents should be
sensitised on the dangers of drug/substance abuse, the attendant problems and
their functions as role models. Furthermore,
schools should have a drug/substance prevention curriculum from
Kindergarten onwards teaching that drug/substance use is wrong and harmful.
There is also the need for initiation of rehabilitation programmes for
drug/substance dependent persons.
Title page i
Copy right iii
Table of content vii
Background of study 2
Statement of the problem 4
Purpose of the study 4
Research question 4
Significance of the study 5
Scope of the study 5
Definition of terms 6
OF RELATED LITERATURE 7
Concept of drug/substance abuse 7
Common drugs/substance abuse by youth in Ilorin metropolis 8
Reasons for drug/substance abuse 11
Theory on drug/substance abuse 14
Structural strain theory 15
Theoretical theory 15
Research design 16
Population sample and sampling techniques 16
Instrument of data collection 17
Validity of the instrument 17
Reliability of the instrument 17
Procedure for data collection 18
Method of data analysis 18
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 19
Summary of finding 32
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 33
Suggestion for further study 36
1.1 Background to the Study
This research work investigated the effects of drug/substance/substance
Abuse among youths in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. It is a case study of
Sango area in the state capital.
According to Laver (1978)
drug/substance abuse simply means the improper use of drug/substances to the
degree that the consequences are defined as detrimental to the user and or the
society. The World Health Organization (WHO (2006) also defined drug/substance
abuse as a “state” of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the
individual and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a
drug/substance (natural or synthetic).
patterns include all aspects of drug/substance usage by the youths ranging from
how much, how often and what sort of drug/substances, where who, with, what
circumstances and so on. The analysis of contemporary social problems has
consistently proved more and more controversial because of the
variables involved in their analysis, with the incidence of drug/substance
abuse, being of utmost concern to the user himself, his family, the government
and the entire society in which he lives. This situation seems to have caused a
lot of embarrassment to the government including most especially the damage
done to the image of Nigerian abroad. It is obvious that custom officials in
the United States of America and indeed the entire nations of Europe subject
the people of Nigeria traveling to their countries to a more thorough and
embarrassing checks. This type of degrading and humiliating checking of
Nigerians according to them is because they want to crack down on drug
smugglers of which Nigerians are the chief suspects due to the hard
drug/substance trafficking posture exhibited by many greedy Nigerians.
Nigerian society has defined some drug/substances as acceptable while others as
not acceptable without reference to their effects on mental and physical
wellbeing of the users. For instance, our society considers the use of alcohol
and nicotine as acceptable; hence those who take these drug/substances do so
freely in public without fear of arrest or societal stigma. In the society as a
whole, crime, promiscuity, armed robbery and other vices are all linked to
drug/substance abuse. Therefore this study is motivated by the controversy that
surrounds the effect of drug/substance abuse among youth in Ilorin metropolis
of Kwara state.
addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a dependence on a legal or
illegal drug or medication. Keep in mind that alcohol and nicotine are legal
substances, but are also considered drugs. When an individual is addicted, he
is not able to control his drug use and he may continue using the drug despite
the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. The
individual may want to quit, but most people find they can’t do it on their
own. It can also lead to serious, long-term consequences, including problems
with physical and mental health, relationships, employment, and the law.
things influence the development of an addiction. While we do not yet know how
these various influences combine to form an addiction, we do know there are two
basic types. One type of influence is biological forces, such a person’s
genetics. The second type is environmental influences. This includes people’s
life experiences. Early life experiences, interpersonal relationships, and
culture can heavily influence us.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
abuse in Ilorin metropolis in the contemporary time has become one issue that
cast a gloomy shadow to the entire Nigerian society especially among youths.
The height of drug/substance trafficking in Ilorin was witnessed in 2015 during
the political campaigns. During that period, it was mostly the youths that were
involved in drug/substances abuse, despite the decree No. 20 of 1984 that was
promulgated against the drug/substance abuse. Unfortunately, politicians looked
at it as normal tools for campaigning.
of drug/substance either by the youths or other members of the larger society
in all its ramifications appears to be a social problem. This problem is
widespread and it affects all and sundry. In other words, this wide spread use
and abuse entice people from all walks of life and beyond the human destruction
caused by drug/substance dependence is the damage to traditional values and
lifestyles. Studies have also shown that drug/substance abuse wrecks the
individual, shatter families and weakens the entire society with its burden of
economic looses, health cost, increased
lawlessness and crime. In addition, drug/substances undermines ability of
youths to learn meaningfully.It also contradicts societal values of physical
experiments with drug/substances because they seem to hold the promise of
fulfillment. However, the fulfillment is generally elusive, since greater and
greater quantities are consumed and ultimately the person suffers both physical
and psychological deterioration. The drug/substance abuser also experiences
problems of interaction and such interactional problem is encountered inside
his immediate family and stress is invariably created in the family situation
of drug/substance abuse (Hoffman, 1990).
drug/substance abuse may entail a lot o social problems ranging from lateness
to lectures, family neglect, deviance behaviours, involvement in crime etc
(Earl 2000). In terms of economic cost, it includes the more money required to
deal with the undesirable effects of the drug/substance abuse, the less money
for services and programmes that enhances the quality of life (Earl, 2000).
the factors militating against the eradication of drug/substance abuse among
our youths is that of security agencies, such as the police force, and the
National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies among others these have not done enough
to check this scourge. Another factor militating against the eradication of
drug/substance abuse among Nigerian youths is the problem of corruption among
the men and women officials
of these aforementioned agencies.
end and judging from the problems outlined earlier, this research was aimed at
ascertaining the effect of drug/substance abuse on the youths of Ilorin
metropolis of Kwara state, using Sango as a study area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The primary purpose
of this study was to determine
influence of drug/substances abused on youths in the society.
Found out the drug/substances that are commonly abused by youths in Ilorin
Found out the implications for youths involvement on drug/substance abuse.
Determined the extent of drug/substances abuse by the youth in Ilorin
Identified strategies/measures aimed at eradicating the drug/substance abuse
problems among youths in Ilorin metropolis.
To ascertain the reasons why drug/substances are been abused by the youths in
1.4 Research Questions
research questions were answered:
are the common drug/substances used by the youths in Ilorin metropolis?
are the major reasons accountable for engagement of youths in drug/substance
abuse in Ilorin metropolis?
are the likely implications for youth’s involvement in drug/substance abuse? In
4. What are the measures that should
be used to eradicate drug/substance abuse among youths in Ilorin metropolis?
extent do youths in Ilorin use drug/substance abuse?
1.5 Significance of the Study
results of the study may help in creating awareness in the society on the
general negative effects of drug/substance abuse on their health most
especially the youths.
make youths to realize that excessive or even small intakes of these items
(drug/substances) have inhibitory effects on their brain and general wellbeing.
result of this study may also be used in making consumers to have a second
thought before partaking in their uses.
go a long way in modeling their behavior which the general awareness has
from this study may go a long way in reducing the numerous health problems
encountered as a result of the misuse of drug/substances or the intake of hard
from the study could also help young researchers or educators in solving some
problems of drug/substance abuse, thereby ensuring good health of the youths in
general and social harmony in the society.
all the social ills in the society as a result of the effects of drug/substance
abuse among the Youths in the society will be drastically minimized.
of the Study
The research work
was carried out to investigate the effects of substance abuse among the youths
in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state a case study of Sango area. The scope of
this study is limited to drug/substance abuse by the youths of Sango area
Ilorin during the period of this research work.
Definition of Terms
(a) Drug/substance: A
drug/substance is a chemical substance capable of altering the physical and
psychological function of the body such as India hem, Marijuana, cocaine etc.
(b) Abuse: This means the
misuse or over use of something. It can also be described as the illegal use of
(c) Drug/substance Abuse: This
is the misuse of drug/substances. It could be defined as the illegal use of
substance which interferes with the human behavior.
(d) Effects: This could be
defined as consequences. It is also the power to produce result.
(e) Youth: The period of existence preceding maturity or age; the whole
early part of life, from childhood, or, sometimes, from infancy to manhood.
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