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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00004287

No of Pages: 60

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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This study centres on the problem of child abuse. Its effect as it affects the personality development of adolescent. It brings to the fore the growing and alarming incidence of child abuse and its attendant effects. It tries to identify those things that constitute, an abuse, the signs of abuse and the characteristics of child abuse perpetrators. It went further to describe the various types of child abuse. It concluded by proffering solution and recommendations aimed at stemming the malaise of child abuse and neglect.



Title page                                                                         ii

Certification                                                             iii

Dedication                                                               iv

Acknowledgement                                                    v

Abstract                                                                   vi

Table of content                                                       vii

Definition of terms.                                                  ix

List of tables                                                            x

List of figures                                                           xi


Chapter One          

1.1   Introduction                                                     1

1.2   Child’s right                                                     5

1.3   Statement of problems                                     8

1.4   Objectives of the study                                     8

1.5   Significance of the study                                  8

1.6   Research questions                                          9

1.7   Scope and limitation                                        9


Chapter Two

Literature review                                                     

2.0      Concept of adolescence                                    11

2.1      Epidemiology                                                   13

2.2      Recognition of child abuse                               15

2.3      Causes of child abuse                                      26

2.4      Risk factors for child abuse                             28

2.5      Effect of child abuse                                        29

2.6      Primary Prevention of child abuse                   34


Chapter Three

3.0   Methodology                                                    38

3.1      Research design                                               38

3.2      Research population                                                38

3.3      Sample and sampling technique                      39

3.4      Research instrument                                       39

3.5      Validity of instrument                                      39

3.6      Reliability of the instrument                            40

3.7      Method of data collection                                         40

3.8      Method of data analysis                                   40

3.9      Ethical consideration                                       40


Chapter Four

4.0   Presentation and data analysis                        42


Chapter Five

5.1   Discussion of findings                                     52

5.2   Conclusion                                                      53

5.3   Recommendation                                             53

References                                                       56

        Appendix                                                         58



In ancient times, general opinion accepted that children could  be beaten and abused. The industrial exploitation  of children after the middle ages was commonplace, with no widespread protest. The prevention of cruelty to children was beginning to be a matter of public concern in the 18th century.


The broader concept of child abuse (which includes battering) of recent origin. Its recognition have brought a spate of conferences, symposia and publications. The concept itself has been broadened to include not only physical violence, but sexual abuse, mental and emotional maltreatment, neglect, deprivation and lack of opportunity. The consequences of physical battering death, blindness, mental and emotional retardation, stunting of growth is only one part of the whole picture of child abuse. Some contributory factors of child abuse are poverty, alcohol and other drug abuse, loneliness, immaturity and a host of other factors.


The media is full of reports about child abuse that  you can’t  help but wonder how safe your child really is. While it’s a mistake to become  over protective and make your child fearful, it is important to recognize the  actual risks and familiarize oneself with the signs of abuse.


In Nigeria, the incidence of child abuse and neglect has been on the increase in recent years. Even though there is no official figure on this vexed issue, the degree of abuse has become so alarming. This prompted the wife  of the Nations vice president, Mrs. Titi Atiku to establish Non Government Organisation NGO with  the sole responsibility of fighting against all forms of maltreatment to children and women generally. (WOTCLEF) women trafficking and child labour eradication foundation. This NGO has  even some a step further by securing a legislative bill seeking to eradicate all forms of abuse against  children. 


Child  maltreatment encompasses a spectrum of   abusive actions, or acts of commission, and lack of  actions or acts of omission, that  result in morbidity or death. Child  abuse may be narrowly defined  as intentional injuries to a child by a caretaker that result in bruises, burns, fractures, lacerations, punctures, and organ damage. A broader definition would include shoot and long term emotional consequences effect. Physical neglect, and other acts of omission, may result in failure to thrive, develop, and learn.


In the USA, studies shows that more than 2.5 million cases of child abuse and neglect are reported each year. Of these, 35 percent involve physical abuse, 15 percent involve sexual abuse and 50 percent involve neglect, (American Academy of Paediatrics, child abuse is common. Studies show that one in four girls and one in eight boys will be sexually abused before they are 18 years old.

Child abuse or maltreatment includes physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychologic abuse, and generally medical and educational neglect.


It is not always easy to recognize when a child has been abused, children who have been mistreated are often afraid to tell anyone because they think they will be blamed or that no one will believe them. Because of the deteriorating effect of child abuse, reports must be made to prevent it before it actually occur.


Not only do children suffer acutely from the physical and mental cruelty of child abuse, they endure many long-term consequences, including delays in reaching development  milestones, refusal  to attend school and separation anxiety disorders. Other consequences include an increased likelihood of future substance abuse, aggressive behaviours, high–risk health behaviours, criminal activity, somatization depressive and affective disorders, personality disorders, post- traumatic stress disorder, panic attacks, schizophrenia and  abuse of their own children and spouse. Recent research has shown that a loving, caring and stimulating environment during the first three years of a child’s life is important for proper brain development. This funding implies that children who receive maltreatment in these early years may actually have sub optimal brain development. 



One of the most encouraging signs of our times is the awakening of the public to the needs and rights of children. The needs of children and our duties towards them are enshrined in our constitution, the relevant articles are:

a.           Article 24 prohibits employment of children below the age of 14 in factories,

b.          Article 39 prevents abuse of children of tender age, and

c.           Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years.



The year 1959 ushered in a new era in child welfare. To meet the special needs of the child. The general assembly of the United Nations adopted on 20 November 1959, the General Declaration of the Rights of the child. Nigeria is a signatory to this Declaration.

1.          Right to develop in an atmosphere of affection and security and, wherever possible, in the care and under the responsibility of his/her parents.

2.          Right to enjoy the benefits of social security, including nutrition, housing and medical care.

3.          Right to free education.

4.          Right to full opportunity for play and recreation.

5.          Right to name and nationality.

6.          Right to special care, if handicapped.

7.          Right to be among the first to receive protection and relief in times of disaster.

8.          Right to learn to be a useful member of society and to develop in a healthy and normal manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity.

9.          Right to be brought up in a spirit of understanding, tolerance, friendship among people, peace and universal brotherhood.

10.      Right to enjoy these rights, regardless of race, colour, sex, religion, national or social origin.

A breach of any of these child’s rights is considered an abuse

The spectrum of child maltreatment

Child maltreatment encompasses acts of commission, or abuse, and acts of omission, or neglect by a caretaker that adversely affect children. The act can be physical or emotional. The boundaries between these areas are indistinct and emotional, physical abuse and neglect overlap and may exist at the same or various times in the child’s life. Physical abuse that has emotional components. Physical abuse and neglect invariably have short and long term emotional consequences and may persist long after the physical wounds heal.


In recent times the incidence of child abuse has reached an alarming stage so much that, non governmental oragnisation, individuals and the government have woken up to the need to reduce the occurrence to the barest minimum if not totally preventing its occurrence. Hence the need for a work of this nature to throw more light on what constitute an abuse, it causes consequences, prevention and management.



1.          To identify those things which constitute an abuse.

2.          To highlight the causes and risk factors of child abuse.

3.          To determine the effect of child abuse on the adolescent.

4.          To highlight some preventive measures.



The outcome of this research would enable the abused child parents and society to recognize an abuse.

It would afford the society to acquire knowledge about the causes of child abuse. It also would give an insight into the affect of child abuse and finally, it would help to prevent and possibly manage child abuse.



1.          Is there any relationship between high poverty rate and child abuse?

2.          Is there any relationship between personal history of abuse as a child and child abuse?

3.          Is there any relationship between high crime rate and child abuse?

4.          Is there any relationship between unwanted pregnancy and child abuse?

5.          Is there any relationship between lack of parenting skills and child abuse?



The research study is carried out in the somolu local government of Lagos state. A total of 100 questionnaire was administered to teenagers, young adults and adults which cut across the segment of the community.

Despite all these, I believe much could have been achieved if the research had enough fund and enough documented evidences.



1.          Hysteria: A state of extreme excitement, fear or anger in which a person or a group of population loses control of their emotions and starts to cry, laugh.

2.          Epidemiology: The scientific study of the spread and control of diseases.

3.          Adolescent: A young person who is developing from a child into an adult. This falls between the ages 1 3 and 18.

4.          Puberty: The period of a person’s life during which their sexual organs develop and they become capable of having children.

5.          Metamorphosis: A process in which somebody or something’s changes into something different.

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