communication transformation deals with the motivation, attitudes,
gratification beliefs and goals, the interest depends on some factors which are
the social environment past experiences, motivational needs, moods and
This topic provides
a comprehensive review of major work on communication transformation. It looks
at the Television Stations and the radio stations which brings the individual
to the happenings around them. Knowledge they say is power and to be informed
is to be transformed while to be uninformed is to be deformed.
is the bound that brings and holds societies together, without it there will be
no coordination, no cooperation and indeed no social organization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background to the Study
1.1 Statement of the problem
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 Research Hypothesis
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.1.2 History of Television in Nigeria
2.2 Empirical Review
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.3.1 Uses and Gratifications Theory
2.3.2 Selective Theory
METHOD OF STUDY
3.0 Research Design
3.1 Population of the Study
3.2 Sampling Technique and Procedure
3.3 Research Instrument(s)
3.4 Validity and Reliability of the Study
3.5 Method of Data Collection
3.6 Method of Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Summary of Findings
4.3 Discussion of Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4 Limitations of the Study
5.5 Suggestions for further studies
1.0 Background to the Study
There is no
individual or society that can survive without communicating, as no individual
or society can stand as an island. Communication is the bond that brings and
holds societies together, without it there will be no coordination, no
cooperation and indeed no social organisation.
lends credence to this view when he submitted that; "human beings are
usually referred to as social animals, without communication, human beings
could be isolated from one another. Most of the communication that takes place
in the society is aimed at establishing and maintaining meaningful
they say is power and to be informed is to be transformed while to be
uninformed is to be deformed. Nwuneli (1984) confirms this; if an individual in
a society fails to get information he needs in a well-coordinated fashion, he
loses confidence in the government and society. He becomes more fatalistic than
ever and does not believe he is part of the development effort going on in the
communication is central to human existence and all human activities, being the
most vital factor in creating a sense of belonging and attaining a social
time, human communication has received a tremendous boost because of
technological development. The innovation of the printing press,
telecommunication, radio and television broadcast, satellite and most recently,
the internet has extended man's ability to transmit and receive information,
ideas and messages. This has broken the barrier of diversity of cultural
beliefs and vast distance, thereby turning the world to a global village where
information travels from any part to another at an unprecedented pace.
Akinfeleye (2003) says "in terms of the acquisition, use, misuse and
management of TV for development, the entire world continues to be considered
by media researcher as a global village whereby everyone knows everyone, where
everyone is each other's keeper, and where every information about everyone
could be received and disseminated to everyone in that "global
village". The media of radio and television broadcast are widely used as
good means of communication because they reach a wide and scattered audience in
short time. As contained in the new Encyclopedia Britannica (1980); broadcast
is the transmission of radio and television programmes intended for general
public perception as distinguished from private signals to specific receivers.
In its most common form, one may describe broadcast as the systematic
dissemination of entertainment, information, education and other features for
simultaneous reception by individuals or in groups with appropriate apparatus.
In Africa, the
mass media, especially the television serves useful functions as an agent that
disseminates information and in that way helps in making Africans aware of
their cultural identity and their place in the modem world and such informative
programmes on television are broadcast news, documentaries, interviews, e.t.c. Television
provides necessary information for members of the public and helps in creating
awareness of the outside world. In the words of Onabajo (2001), Political
indoctrination, cultural innovation, character building and formation are part
of what television could be used to achieve.
premiership matches are watched every weekend all over the world on television
simultaneously as they are being played. Likewise on May 29, 2011, when
President Ebele Goodluck Jonathan was taking oath of office, the inauguration
ceremony was beamed to the whole world live; so also the 2005 MTV Base Europe
Award where Tuface Idibia won an award, Nigerian viewers witnessed the event
live from far away Lisbon, Portugal. All these are as a result of television
broadcasting, which combines the power of sight and sound.
features of television- the two dimensions of sight and sound enables it to
reflect reality of event to the viewers just as it is and as such attract
credibility than other communication media, because as the saying goes, seeing
is believing. The television medium performs more basic functions, one of which
is for education. Television with its value has been discovered to be an
educational force, which is a fundamental factor to a nation's development. In
a developing country such as Africa where we have a substantial number of
illiterates and also where there is an abnormal poor reading culture among the
illiterates, television and the radio media are thereby used to transmit,
inform and educate to the people. Little wonder the early founders of
television broadcasting in Africa put education first as their objectives.
Also, television provides entertainment programmes, which contributes
significantly to people's cultural survival, thereby preserving the cultural
heritage to be transmitted to subsequent generations. More so, it performs
entertainment functions which are full in value, that it helps to distract
people's attention from social strains and violence, and also it fulfils
recreational functions to relief one of daily upheavals. Such entertainment
programmes includes drama, musicals, sports, e.t.c.
station is a broadcasting house, a place where broadcasting signals are
propagated via transmitting antennas into the space, for the air wave to
transmit the signals to the receivers sets of various audiences who are located
and scattered in remote places across the reception area. The television
station which houses the TV studio and the control room is stock with both human
and material resources in order to achieve its objectives and it is only when
these objectives are achieved that it can generate funds to be reinvested and
to make more profit.
resources of a television station are the people that are employed by the
station and they include the general manager, the producers, cameramen,
presenters, engineers, public relation officers, marketers, accountants,
receptionists, editors, e.t.c. Onabajo (2001) simply puts them as
"broadcast personnel” that are essential for the smooth running of any
organisation". While .the material resources of the television station are
those equipments that are necessary for transmitting broadcast programme after
being produced. Such equipments, which is quite expensive, determines the
quality of programmes, the strength and the quality of signals of the station.
equipments are; the studio &control room, the transmitters, antenna, video
camera, audio consoles, microphones mixers and switchers, microwaves e.t.c.
These equipments have to be handled by professionals and also they should be
maintained and upgraded regularly because of technological innovations.
Traditional television broadcasting begins in a television station (studio)
except in cases of large spectator events. First, the camera picks up an image
to be transmitted; a device in the camera called a sync generator makes sure
the camera pick up tube is synchronized with the display tube in the television
receiver. It does this by producing signals, which stimulate coils in the
camera, this creates electronic beam that goes through designated motions and
scans the image.
uses two kinds of electromagnetic waves; AM and FM. The FM waves are used to
transmit audio signals while the AM waves are used to transmit video signals.
For colour television transmission, a technique called Multiplexing is used. It
allows colour images to be transmitted without a larger channel width. These
waves travel from studio transmitter separately, but simultaneously; at the
transmitter they are modulated separately then they combine at the diplexer.
The diplexer then sends them as one signal to the antenna where the waves are
transmitting antennas are mounted in the television station; the antennas are
positioned in high places, so they can easily receive signals. The purpose of
the antennas is to intercept signals that are headed into space and then
redirects them downwards to individual antennas (usually on homes). A
television coverage area depends on several factors;
The capability of
the transmitting antenna.
frequency, which could either, be on VHF (Very High Frequency) or UHF (Ultra
television broadcast signals also requires the audience to have receiver's
antenna that could be placed on top of buildings and pointed towards
transmitters. From these antennas the signals are then sent to receiving
apparatus (television set). It is the effective management of these activities
(human & material resources) that however help generate funds for the
television station, as it will attract advertisers particularly for the private
stations who basically survive on spot advertisements. In Lagos state, there
are television stations whose signals are received by television audience
across the state and these stations are owned by;
government owned stations are the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA 2 Channels
and NTA 10). They operate public service broadcasting and are funded by the
Federal government through subventions. They sometimes generate funds through
spot advertisements or sponsorships. The NTA stations which seem to be a symbol
of Nigeria Unity has been in existence since its establishment in 1977.
NTA 2 Channels 5
whose slogan is, "your reach out station" is situated at Television
house, Ahmadu Bello way, Victoria Island. Lagos. It operates on VHF with
frequency 175.25 MHz.
NTA 10 (the
station for the nation) also operates on VHF, with frequency 210.]5 MHz. It is
situated at Tejuosho Avenue, Surulere, Lagos.
says, "prior to 1992, private individuals and organisation were not
allowed to operate broadcasting in Nigeria. The right to operate radio and
television stations were vested only in the Federal government of Nigeria and
the state governments", but since deregulation in 1992 under the Decree
number 38 by the General Ibrahim Babangida's administration, private investors
have being legalized to partake in broadcasting and this has brought about
proliferation of television stations in the country.
All of these
stations are for commercial purposes which are aimed at making profit by
meeting with the desires of its audience. They are run by entrepreneurs and
their money comes from (i) spot advertisements (ii) programme sponsorship (iii)
joint ventures promotion.
of the Problem
years, television has become a source of entertainment as well as a good medium
for keeping oneself updated with informative and enlightening issues, This is
largely due to the fact that it has audio-visual characteristics i.e., the
unique ability to see and hear thus appealing to the senses of sight and sound.
Now, the influx of cable stations and TV makes the array of choices wider.
earlier, Emenaku (2003) says, "Prior to 1992, private individuals and
organisation were not allowed to operate broadcasting in Nigeria. The right to
operate radio and television stations were vested only in the Federal
government of Nigeria and the state governments", but since deregulation
in 1992 under the Decree number 38 by the General Ibrahim Babangida's
administration, private investors have being legalized to partake in
broadcasting and this has brought about proliferation of television stations in
the country. Because of this, people now had choices to pick from as there were
specialized stations that provided for specific and targeted viewership.
But as they
say that everything that has an advantage also has its own disadvantage.
Programming contents started to seem diluted and more commercially oriented.
There was more focus on the advertising probabilities and the money to be made
than on the content of program. It is now impossible to watch a 30 minute
program without being attacked by different adverts and commercials at 10
As ides this
fact, there are more entertainment program on TV than there are educational and
informative program partly due to the commercial viability and advantage to the
stations and then their audience. Yet, this defiles the essence of the medium.
People want to get entertained while they get informed and educated along side.
The ability to strike a balance is suddenly missing.
the actualization and realization of the aims and objectives placed before
television stations are bound to produce certain reactions from its audience
who are its primary public. Viewers represent distinct group of people who
watch television. The viewers of mass media come about as a result of the media
programmes and activities. Such programmes draw criticisms or support from the
programmes of television stations are either for information, education or
entertainment purposes. Through news, interviews and documentaries, they
satisfy the information needs of people. Documentaries and some special
programmes on sciences fulfil the educational function of television, while
sports, musicals, drama and cartoons all play the entertainment role of
television. All these programmes pull certain number of audience who use
television for gratification. But all of them cannot pull the same number of
audience at the same time. Emenaku (2003) says, "One element that has been
introduced by deregulation is variety and this in tum, has created competition
because stations need to retain their viewers". In other words, the
viewing pattern of one programme of the different stations by the people will
be different and such different viewership pattern of the television station
can be attributed to some factors.
preference of one television station over another is not arbitrary. According
to Paterson (1980), "certain psychological variables, such as self
credibility can influence media preference of television. Therefore, the
competition becomes high where there are many television stations around. This
study therefore intends to investigate the audience preference for television
station among the youths in Lagos State i.e. television stations that young
ones view most. This study will also look into the reasons why they have a
preference for these stations and how the programming contributes to their
1.2 Research Questions
1. What television station(s) do youths in
Lagos metropolis prefer to watch?
2. Why do the youths in Lagos metropolis
choose these television station(s) as their preferred?
3. What do the youths in Lagos metropolis
use television medium for?
1.3 Research Hypothesis
Ho: Economics of communication Transformation
does not contribute positively to the youth.
Hi: Economics of communication Transformation
does contribute positively to the youth.
1. To find out the television station(s) youths in Lagos
2. To find out the reason(s) why youths in
Lagos metropolis prefer these station(s).
3. To find out what these youths use these
1.5 Significance of the study
significance of this study lies in its potential for contributing immensely in
the area of research as it is a recent study on "audience preference for
television stations among youths in Lagos metropolis".
will be of immense benefit to Mass communication scholarship where students
would find it interactive and would provide a basis for future studies in the
area of television broadcasting. It would also serve as a guide for future
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of
this study could have being wider and more detailed but for the constraint of manpower and adequate financial
resources on my part, it will be difficult to generalize my findings.
Therefore, this study has been limited to the youths in Lagos metropolis alone.
The youths range from the ages of 15 to 24 and this study is going to
concentrate on those ones that live in the urban places in Lagos state. These
youths are either students; those leaving their parental home and establishing
new living environments; completing their full-time education; forming close,
stable personal relationship outside of the family, often resulting in marriage
and children; testing the labour market, finding work and possibly settling
into a career.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Audience: A group of people that watch or listen to the
The choice for one thing at the expense of another.
The transmission of radio and/or television programmes by airwaves or cables to
Electrical impulse conveying sound and visual information in communication
system television- Electrical telecommunication system used for instantaneous
transmission of live or recorded sound and visual image to airwave or cable to
modulation used for transmitting audio signals.
modulation used for transmitting video signals.
Contents of the television medium. Things shown on television.
The period between childhood and adult age.
The capital or Chief city of a country or region; A very large and densely
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