ABSTRACT
This project is centered on enhancing the performance of three phase induction motor. The MATLAB/SIMULINK function program that makes use of the Runge-Kutta fourth order numerical method to solve a set of first order differential system of equations describing electrical and mechanical models was developed. MATLAB m-files were developed and used to solve the Runge-Kutta fourth order method for both transient and steady state respectively. The transient motor differential equations are expressed in rotor reference frame with flux linkage as state variables. The motor used in this thesis is a 3-phase, 4.5 KW, 50Hz, 2-pole, 210V induction motor. The dynamic behaviors of the motor under varying voltages (210 - 250V), varying poles (2 - 6) and load torque (20 – 50) were studied. By digital simulation of the resulting differential equations, typical transient responses of the motor were represented. Results reveal that increase in voltage leads to increase in motor speed and rotor resistance, increase in poles leads to increase motor speed and reduce in rotor resistance. Also, as load torque increase motor speed increase rotor resistance increases.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Declaration ii
Dedication
Certification iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of Content vi
List of Tables vii
List of Figures ix
Abstract x
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 2
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research 2
1.4 Scope of the project 2
1.5 Project Outline 2
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REWIEW
2.I History of Induction Motor 4
2.2 Classification of Induction Motor 5
2.2 Construction of Three Phase Induction 7
2.3 Principle of Operation of Induction Motor 8
2.5 Review of Related Work 9
CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials 17
3.2 Methods 17
CHAPTER 4: COMPUTER SIMULATIONS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Computer Simulation 22
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMNDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion 60
5.2 Recommendations 62
REFERENCES
LIST OF TABLE
3.1: Motor parameters for Three Phase Induction Motor. 20
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1: Types of Electric Motors 6
3.1: dq0 equivalent circuit of an induction motor 19
4.1: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time.
4.2: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time (c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time.
4 .3: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time.
4. 4: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time
4.5: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time (c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time.
4. 6: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time (c) Graph of ics against Time
4. 7: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time.
4. 8: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time (c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time.
4.9: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time (c) Graph of ics against Time
4.10: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time
4.11: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time. 28
4.12: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time (c) Graph of ics against Time.
4.13: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time.
4.14: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time.
4.15: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time.
4.16: Graph of Rotor resistance against Time. 31
4.17: Graph of Stator resistance against Time. 32
4.18 :Ias, ibs, ics against Time. 32
4. 19: Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time. 33
4.20: Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time. 33
4.21: Graph of Speed against Time. 34
4.22: Graph of Motor Speed against Time. 35
4.23: Graph of Shaft Torque against Time. 35
4.24: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time.
4.25: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time (c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph
ofiqs against Time.
4.26: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time (c) Graph of ics against Time.
4.27: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time.
4.28: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time (c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time 39
4.29: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 39
4.30: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time. 40
4.31: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time. 40
4.32: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 41
4.33: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time 42
4.34: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time. 42
4.35: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 43
4.36: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time
4.37: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time. 44
4.38: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 44
4.39: Graph of Stator resistance against Time 45
4.40 : Graph of Rotor resistance against Time 45
4.41 : Ias, ibs, ics against Time. 46
4.42: Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time 46
4.43: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 47
4.44: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time. 47
4.45: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time. 48
4.46: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 48
4.47: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time. 49
4. 48: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time. 49
4.49: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 50
4.50: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time. 51
4.51: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time 51
4.52: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 52
4.53: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time 52
4.54: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time 53
4.55: (a) Graph of ias against Time (b) Graph of ibs against Time
(c) Graph of ics against Time. 54
4.56: (a) Graph of ids against Time (b) Graph of iqs against Time
(c) Graph of idr against Time (d) Graph of iqs against Time 54
4.57: (a) Graph of Rotor speed against Time (b) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Time (c) Graph of Electromagnetic Torque against Rotor speed (d) Graph of Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time. 55
4.58: Graph of resistance against Time 56
4.59: Graph of Rotor resistance against Time. 56
4.60: Ias,ibs,ics against Time. 57
4.61 : Electromagnetic Torque against Time 57
4.62: Mechanical Rotor Speed against Time 58
4.63: Graph of Speed against Time 58
4.64: Graph of Shaft Torque against Time. 59
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Induction motor is defined as a type of brushless electric motor in which an alternating supply fed to the windings of the stator creates a magnetic field that induces a current in the winding rotor. Rotation of the rotor results from the interaction of the magnetic field created by the motor current with the field of the stator. (Collins English Dictionary) .The poly phase induction motor is by a very considerable margin, the most widely used ac motor (almost more than 90 percent of mechanical power used in industry is provided by 3 – phase motors).The reasons are low cost, simple and rugged construction, absence of commutator, good operating characteristics (reasonably good power factor, sufficiently high efficiency and good speed regulation). An induction motor of medium size may have an efficiency as high as 90 percent and power factor of 0.89. It is substantially a constant speed with a shunt characteristic; a few percent speed drop from no load to full load. The physical size of such a given motor for a given output rating is relatively small as compared with other type of motors (Gupta, 1999). The steady state mathematical modelling of Induction machines is not new and has received a considerable attention from researchers dated far back as the machine itself. On the other hand, the transient mathematical modelling of induction machines continues to receive enormous attention and will continue to do so because of the vital effect the transient behavior of the induction machine has on the overall performance of the system to which it forms a component part. Unlike the steady state modelling, transient modelling proves to be more difficult both in the definition of suitable forms of equations and in the application of appropriate numerical methods needed for the solution of same. However, appropriate mathematical transient models for most machine types were found when the generalized d-q axis theory was developed and the space vector theory evolved. With the advent of digital computers, digital simulation techniques of these models appear most suitable for the analysis because numerical methods must be used, as the resulting differential equations are non-linear (Okoro, 2003).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Most of Industries are faced with the problems of how to controls the speed of Induction motor which have affected productivity and product quantity. To eliminate this problem that is why I model and simulate the mechanical and electrical equation of Induction motor and study the sensitivity of the parameters by varying it.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The main aim of the proposed research is to enhance the performance of Induction Motor The objectives include:
i. To review related works on Induction Motor.
ii. To develop transient and dynamic equations of Induction Motor.
iii. To model electrical and mechanical equations of Induction Motor.
iv. To simulate the electrical and mechanical models of Induction Motor.
v. To study sensitivity of Induction motor parameters to its operation.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE THESIS
In this research, we intend to enhance the performance of Induction motor by modeling and simulating the mechanical and the electrical equations of Induction motor. The parameters are varied to study the sensitivity.
1.5 THESIS OUTLINE
Chapter Two presents a comprehensive survey of previous work done on the simulation and modeling of Induction Motor. The proposed Electrical and Mechanical simulation using dqo reference frame model is presented in Chapter Three. The determination of the dynamic behavior of the motor under varying parameters and discussion of results of the proposed model are shown in Chapter Four. Conclusion and recommendations are summarized in Chapter Five.
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