This study examined the
distribution and utilization of educational resources in two state schools and
two federal government owned schools in Lagos State.
Relevant and extensive literature were reviewed in this study. The descriptive
survey design was used in the study. To ascertain the opinions of the selected
respondents the use of the questionnaire was adopted. A total of 150
respondents were involved in this study while the population of the study of
the study are all teachers in state and federal government owned secondary
schools in Lagos State. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this
study using the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient at 0.05 level of
significance. At the end of the study, it was observed that there is a significant
relationship between resources allocation and standards of education in
secondary schools in Lagos
State (both state and
federal government) and that there is a significant relationship between
distribution of resources and their utilization and academic performance of
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
and Background to the Study 1
of the Problem 3
of the Study 4
Significance of the Study 6
Scope of the Study 7
Definition of Terms 7
TWO: Literature Review 9
Concept of Resource Allocation 10
Procedure Adopted for Resource
Distribution of Resources Within the
Education Sector 12
Adequacy of Resources for Education 15
Strategies for Measuring Efficiency of
Resource Allocation 20
Use of Budgetary Processes to Evaluate
Performance of the
Educational System 24
Political Processes for Evaluating
Allocation to Education 27
Disparity in States’ Allocation to
Public Budgeting System as Resource
Allocation Strategy 32
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 33
Research Design 33
Population of the Study 33
Sample and Sampling Technique 33
Research Instrument 34
Procedure for Data Collection 34
Procedure for Data Analysis 35
CHAPTER FOUR: Data
Analysis and Interpretation of Results 36
Analysis of Bio-Data of the Respondents used in this Study 36
Descriptive Analyses of Research
Questions and Responses from the Questionnaires 39
of Hypotheses 49
of Findings 51
FIVE: Summary, Conclusions,
Recommendations and Implications 52
of the Study 52
Implications of the Study 56
Implication for Planning and
Implication for Further
Introduction and Background to the Study
Interest in the study of how resources
are allocated at variety of levels within educational system grew rapidly
during the 1970’s and 1980’s (Adeleke, 1994). According to Adeleke, the desire
to learn more about the internal allocation of resources for education has not
been limited to decentralization of the schooling systems such as in the United States, Canada and Nigeria. Even
in highly centralized school governance systems, considerable variation exists
at local levels on how educational resources are ultimately distributed and
utilized. Studies have began to examine these internal distribution practices
in wide variety of nations around the world (Allenson, 2000).
Otis (1997) states that in Nigeria, the
early work on education resources allocation dates back from the early
twentieth century and this focused on the availability, apportionment and
utilization of the resources among constituent local Education Agencies or
The distribution and utilization of
education resources witness challenges such as how much resources are allocated
to various schools, how has the population of the schools commensurate with the
resources allocated to them. There is interest on what happens to the resources
allocated for distribution to various educational levels of primary, secondary
and tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Also, there is an interest on the type of programmes run by the schools and the
type of students admitted. These determine to a large extent whether the
resources allocated to the schools are well utilized or not (Anyamele, 2001).
According to Obadina (1998), there is
the desire to learn more about what educational managers do with the resources
allocated to their schools. Also there is the desire to learn more about these
internal resources allocation.
According to Uzoma (1994), the budget
allocation for education is nothing to write home about, a situation where less
than 10 per cent of fiscal allocation is given to education, a sector that
requires enormous or huge expenditure. This has resulted in low salary
structure of teachers, lack of full remuneration by teachers and even the
standard of education in the country has been affected.
Another problem of allocation and
utilization of educational resources is the corrupt practices of the managers
of the resources and their lack of vision and misplaced priorities they give to
certain areas of education sector which ought not to be so.
Research examining inequalities within
schools is hardly new. Analysis such as Abel (1999), for years have been
concerned with the phenomena such as the tracking of students by academic
specialization or the grouping of students for instructional purposes.
According to them, there have been studies of high school tracking where
findings suggest that students assigned to the non-academic track are seriously
discriminated against. There has also been studies of instructional grouping
where the findings reveal substantial inequalities in the amount and character
of the instructional resources that are supplied (Breaben and Oakes, 1991).
This study among other things will
treat the availability, distribution and utilization of resources to various
levels in the state and federal government owned schools.
of the Problem
According to Anyanwu (1990), education
has not been well treated in terms of location and utilization of resources.
For instance, the state and federal government owned schools suffer the problem
of low funding which is as a result of low budget allocation of below 10 per
cent to the education sector, whereas education ought to be given a lion share
of the fiscal allocation from federation account. The inadequate allocation and
poor utilization of the education resources has resulted in the low
remuneration of the teaching personnel as well as low or poor availability of
instructional materials for effective teaching and processes. This has affected
the standard of education negatively. Many schools lack current materials in
their libraries, poor equipment in science laboratories and poor maintenance of
available infrastructure and in some cases even lack of manpower to utilize the
scarce material resources that are available in schools. This has been the
greatest problem of our school system, and has impacted negatively on our
schools generally. The problem of this study therefore, is on poor distribution
and utilization of educational resources in Lagos State
Secondary Schools and Federal Government Colleges
in Lagos State.
of the Study
This study examines the distribution
and utilization of education resources in two state schools and two federal
government owned schools in Lagos
The specific objectives of this study
to determine whether education resources have been
distributed well in Nigerian schools.
whether the resources allocated to schools are utilized
effectively by educational personnel.
to compare and contrast between the allocation and
distribution of resources to both states and federal government owned schools.
to examine the problem of ineffective distribution and
utilization of education resources in our schools.
The following research questions will
be answered during the course of the study:
Have education resources been well distributed in Nigerian
To what extent is the resources allocated to schools
Does the government allocate adequate resources to the
education sector in Lagos
To what extent can we compare and contrast the allocation
and distribution of the resources in both the federal and the state owned
What are the problems of resource allocation, distribution
and utilization in Nigeria
The following hypotheses will be tested
in the course of the study:
There is no significant relationship between allocation of
resources and educational standard in Nigerian secondary schools (both Lagos State
and Federal Schools).
There is no significant relationship between distribution
and utilization of resources in schools.
of the Study
This study will
benefit teachers, principals and school authorities at both the state and the
federal levels of our schools system. For instance, teachers would find out
this beneficial because it will give them an insight on the low level of funds
and other resources allocated to educational sector. Also, the government
especially at the federal level will through this study understand that the
budgetary allocations given to education is inadequate and may have a change of
policy or a rethink on the issue of budgetary allocation to education in
Nigeria. the study will be an important reference material to new researchers
and students as well as the general public.
of the Study
attempts to investigate the distribution and utilization of educational resources
in two state owned schools and two federal government owned schools in Lagos State
operational terms have been defined as they will be used in this study:
Distribution: This refers to
the way and manner in which educational materials (resources) are shared or
sent to various arms of our educational system to be utilized in order to
sustain growth and educational development.
Utilization: This refers to
the usage of the shared educational resources for a practical purpose of
developing the entire school sector.
Resources: This could be
human or material resources in education. It is the human or material resources
that are needed to enhance the growth and development of a country’s
educational system. Human resources are the personnel
(principals/teachers/other staff), while material resources are the funds and
other educational materials used in schools.
Allocation: This is an
amount of money and or space that is given to a particular school for a
specific purpose. This is the act of giving instructional material to a
particular school for the aim of achieving desired goals or objectives.
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