EMITTING DIODE (LED)
(Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor)
SUPPLY UNIT STAGE
CYCLE BATTERY (DCB)
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
CELL (PVC) TESTING
TEST AND RESULT
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Electricity is the principal force
that powers modern society. It lights buildings and streets, runs computers and
telephones, drives trains and subways and operates all variety of motors and
machines (“Powering a Generation”, 2014).
It is important to recognize that
electricity is not mined or harvested, it must be manufactured. Since it is not
easily stored in quantity, it must be manufactured at the time of demand.
Electricity is a form of energy, but not an energy source. Different generating
plants harness different energy sources to make electrical power. Some of these
sources are thermal plants, kinetic plants, geothermal power and solar
photovoltaics (“Generating Electricity”, n.d.).
Since, the demand for electricity in
this area of the world is alarming, there is the need for the production or
generation of constant electricity, due to the epileptic condition of
electricity in the country. This gives rise to the design and construction of a
5KVA pure sine wave Uninterruptible Power Supply(UPS). UPS is an acronym which
stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply. Sudden interruption of power sometimes
throws the nation as a whole into darkness for hours. The effect is that, the
nation as a whole experiences a great harvoc that also affects social economic
life of the nation. Due to all these problems caused by the sudden interruption
of power supply, it became a great concern to engineers and technicians to find
solution to the problem since they are the world problem solver who convert
dreams to reality. Hence, the need for an Hybrid Uninterruptible Power Supply (HUPS).
As the name implies, a UPS maintains continuous supply of electricity to our
system when there is power failure. It also ensures that there is no damage to
the electronic equipment or home appliances when there is power surge. All
functions performed by UPS earn it to be defined as a device that serves as an
alternative source of power when there is power failure. It is majorly used as
a backup for computer systems and some household appliances. The
uninterruptible power supply finds its use in hospitals, schools, offices and
also in various houses (“Uses of UPS”, 2011).
The hybrid Uninterruptible Power
Supply (UPS) has more than one means of charging the battery. Apart from
charging the battery through mains, it is also incorporated with solar panel
(photovoltaic cell) hence the name hybrid. The solar panel (PVC) is able to
charge the battery with the help of charge controller which regulates voltages
from the solar panel to the require voltage needed to charge a 24V dc battery.
The UPS are of two types, the rotary
and static type. The rotary UPS uses an alternating current motor (AC motor),
and alternating current generator (AC generator), these two are coupled
together for the power needed by the AC load. The AC motor aids the continuous
driving of the AC generators so as to give continuous power supply when its
need arises. The static type UPS has no moving parts, it is highly efficient
and provides continuous power supply at the time primary AC power fails.
UPS is classified as ON-LINE and
OFF-LINE according to their voltage and frequency fluctuations. The ON-LINE UPS
is constantly ON. It is required where there is a wide range variation in
voltage and frequency that are needed to be stabilized.
The OFF-LINE UPS takes its supply
from the mains and is passed through a stabilizer at the same time it is
charging the battery. It is also refers to as standby UPS. Off-line UPS is used
as back-up in areas where fluctuation of voltage and frequency is less (“Classification
of UPS”, 2012).
Sunlight, a natural form of energy
generates DC current to power solar panel by both infrared and ultraviolet ray
in the electromagnetic field spectral as it radiates on to the solar panel.
However, UPS deals with its use with
respect to how it is being trapped to generate DC current for human use, the
solar energy could be trapped into a panel already designed to attract electron
being ionized from their ground orbit and then flow into the UPS that convert
it into AC current by inversion. The energy generated in this form is being
stored in batteries in form of charges so that it can be used at a later time (“Photovoltaic
Solar power is the conversion of
sunlight into DC current. Sunlight can be converted directly into usable energy
using photovoltaic cell (PVC) or indirectly with Concentrated Solar Panels
(CSP) which normally focuses the suns energy. A solar cell or photovoltaic cell
(PVC) is a device that converts sunlight into DC current using the photo
electric effect (“Solar Energy”, 1999).
Solar cell produces direct current
(DC) power which fluctuates with the intensity of the radiated light. This
usually requires conservation to certain desired voltage or alternating current
(AC) which requires the use of INVERTER for inversion (“Photovoltaic Cell”,
An inverter is used to produce an
uninterrupted 220V AC supply to the device connected as the output load. The
inverter gives constant AC voltage at its output when the AC mains power supply
is not available (“How an Inverter Works”, 2008).
Multiple solar cells are connected
inside modules. These modules are then arranged together to form arrays, which
are wired to an inverter which produces power of a desired voltage according to
the specification of the inverter, for AC frequency/phase use (“Solar Energy”,
A UPS system ensures continuous
power supply to the load. It is achieved by using solid state circuitry which
employs a battery and solar energy as the alternative energy source. Typically,
the basic system consists of rectifier circuit, inverter circuit and static
switch and the PV. Under normal operation, power to the load is fed through the
circuit. Unavailability of the public mains supply for any reason, then the
load is fed from the battery/inverter, as shown in fig. 1.1 (“Uninterrupted
Power Supply”, 2017).
The uninterruptible Power Supply
provides clean and reliable power to vulnerable electrical equipment. The basic
concept of the UPS is to discharge energy during normal operation.
The UPS system has the technology
for inverting the DC source from the battery to AC sine wave to supply the
load. Inverter system has advanced over the years. The earlier circuit resulted
in square wave output clearly requiring a large filter and a poor dynamic
performance with development in circuitry and availability of switching
devices, step wave systems were developed with an increase in system dynamic
performance, with development in circuitry, sine wave has been achieved, with
an increased in system dynamic performance (“Uninterrupted Power Supply”,2017).
To provide uninterrupted power
supply to domestic appliances and lightings where there is public mains supply
failure and also generates a stable source of power supply.
The objectives are:
v To avoid noise in the surrounding which is produced by gasoline
engines such as diesel and petro generators.
v To save cost of fueling and maintenance of gasoline engine
v To reduce damage of electronic appliances as a result of unstable
v To ensure that, there is continuous power supply.
v To generate 220V AC output from a 24V DC source.
The UPS was designed for loads not
exceeding 5KVA, pure sine wave at 220V, 50Hz using PIC16F877 with a 24V/200AH
UPS systems are the best when it
comes to back-up since they can come up very fast and they generate little or
no noise unlike generator. Even in an area with constant power supply, power
outage due to natural cause and faults are usually unannounced. It is therefore
very important having a reliable back-up power installed.
v It cannot support a load that consumes power that exceeds the rated
v The wave form of the output voltage is DC, there is need for the
construction of an inverter.
v Getting the actual time that will come ON and OFF to be able to
maximize the battery usage.
Fig. 1.1 Block Diagram of
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