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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006747

No of Pages: 110

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The study featured the design and construction of a hydraulic particleboard compaction machine. The developed machine comprises of component parts like the frame and fixed platen, movable platen, premix mat platter and the prime mover (1.0 tonne hydraulic cylinder). The framework of the machine presented a respective permissible force, working stress, bending stress, operational deformation and platen thickness of 10,362.303N,103.005 N/mm2, 2,302.7Nmm2, 0.3605mm and 15mm.The machine was evaluated by using it to compact admixtures of rice husk and sawdust from a mat thickness of approximately 51mm to 25mm. Finished particleboards of relative dimensions of 1000mm×500mm×25mm were produced  from differently constituted base and adhesive materials. The resulting boards were dried and their physical characteristics were assessed and compared. The results show that the different categories of particleboards maintained evident variations in their physical characteristics. After drying the produced boards, it was observed that the “S+RP board” reduced most with a final length of 0.970m and the “S+RS board” reduced least with a final length of 0.990m. The “RP board” reduced most in width to 0.485m while “SS board” reduced least to 0.492m. The “S+RP board” reduced most in thickness to 0.015m and the “SS board” reduced least to 0.025m. The “S+RP board” has the least volume of 0.071m3 and the “SS board” has the highest volume of 0.21m3.  “The S+RP board” has the least weight of 1.400Kg while the “RS board” has the highest weight of 3.100Kg. The “RS board” is the highest dense board by 28.181 Kg/m3and the “SP board” is the least dense board by 12.000Kg/m3. The “Saw dust plus Rice husk (S+R) category of board presented a more strong and stable characteristics which could be attributed to the blend of the properties of two different base materials. Moreover, the study ventured into bridging the gap of little or no indigenously produced technologies used in waste handling and processing, especially as it concern rural and urban generated agricultural and lignocellulose materials conversion to useful engineering structural products like panel boards.

Title Page i
Certification ii
Declaration iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures           x
Lists of Plates xi
Abstract xii

1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problems 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Justification of the Study 5
1.5 Scope of the Study 7
1.6 Limitation of the Study 7

2.1 Trends in Particleboard Production 8
2.1.1 Historical trends on particleboards production 9
2.1.2 Particleboard composition 10
2.1.3 Potential particleboard manufacturing raw materials 12
2.1.4 Particleboard production processes 15
2.1.5 Particleboard classifications and application 19
2.2 Factors Affecting the Properties of Particleboard 24
2.3 Types and Properties of Adhesives used for Particleboard Production 28
2.4 Contextual Trends on Hydraulic Technology 35
2.5 The Fundamentals of Hydraulic Power 39
2.5.1 Pascal’s principles of hydraulics 40
2.5.2 Advantage of hydraulic power over other power source 42
2.6 Application of Hydraulic Principles and Technologies in Agriculture 44
2.6.1 Basic category of the application of hydraulic 48
2.7 Other Pressing Machines versus Hydraulic Presses 53
2.7.1 Different categories of presses 54
2.8 Compaction Characteristics of Biomass and their Significance 56
2.8.1 Effect of particle size 56
2.8.2 Effect of moisture 56
2.8.3 Effect of temperature 57

3.1 Description and Principles of Operation of the Machine 58
3.1.1 The frame 58
3.1.2 The fixed and movable platen 58
3.1.3 Premix mat platter 59
3.1.4 The hydraulic cylinder  59
3.2 Design and Material Selection Considerations 59
3.2.1 Design considerations 59
3.2.2 Fundamental design assumptions 62
3.2.3 Engineering material selection considerations 62
3.3 Design Calculations 62
3.3.1 The frame 62
3.3.2 Factor of safety (FOS) and hydraulic compactor tensile stress (σ_t) 63
3.3.3 Design of column 64
3.3.4 Design of movable platen 64
3.3.5 Bending stresses acting on platen 65
3.3.6 Design of movable platen holds spring 65
Shear force and bending moment diagram 67
3.3.8 Bracing form and inclination 68
3.4 Machine Construction Processes 69
3.4.1 Marking operation 69
3.4.2 Cutting operation 69
3.4.3 Drilling operation 69
3.4.4 Fastening and assembling operation 69
3.4.5 Finishing 70
3.5 Bill of Engineering Measurements and Evaluations 70
3.6 Materials Sourcing and Constitution 71
3.7 Particleboard Production 72

4.1 The Developed Machine 73
4.2 Characteristics of the Particleboard Produced 75
4.2.1 Rice husk particleboard 75
4.2.2 Sawdust particleboard 76
4.2.3 Saw dust plus rice husk particleboard 76

5.1 Conclusions 79
5.2 Recommendations 80


2.1: ANSI Classification of Particleboard     22

2.2: European Classification of Particleboard     23

2.3: Shipment of Hydraulic Equipment per Applicable Field 38

3.1: Bill of Engineering Measurements and Evaluations 70

3.2: Particleboard Material Physical Constitution    72

4.1: Physical Characteristics of the Rice Husk Particles 75

4.2: Physical Characteristics of the Saw Dust Particleboard 76

4.3: Physical Characteristics of the Saw Dust plus Rice Husk Particleboard   77


2.1: Flowchart of Particleboard Production Processes 16

2.2: Steps for Converting Typical Lignocellulose Materials into Board 20

2.3: Interplay of the Various Properties Variables Affecting Particleboard Production      26

2.4: General Effects of Conditions on Adhesive Penetration       33

2.5: Hydraulic Application Trends and Milestones 36

2.6: Innovational Breakthroughs on Hydraulics   37

2.7: Illustration of Pascal’s Law       39

2.8: Pascal’s Principle of Force Multiplication       40

2.9: Categories of Hydraulic Applications       48

2.10: An Automated Hydraulic System in a Hitched Backhoe   49

2.11: A Modern PTO Hydraulic Auxiliary System 49
2.12: Tractor-Hitched and Controlled Implements 50

2.13: Hydraulic Control Valves 50

2.14: Hydraulic Press Juicer 51

2.15: Hydraulic Palm Oil Press 51

2.16: Engineering Workshop Applications 52

3.1:   Movable Platen 60

3.2:   Frame and Fixed Platen Assembly 60

3.3:   Premix Mat Platter 61

3.4:   Cylinder Base 61

3.5:   Force Diagram 67

3.6:   Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram 68

4.1:   Assembly Drawing of a Hydraulic Particleboard Compaction Machine 73

4.2:   Orthographic Presentation of a Hydraulic Compaction Machine       74


1: Front View of the Developed Machine     93

2: Side View of the Developed Machine     93

3: Collected Sawdust 94

4: Milled Sawdust 94

5: Collected Rice Husk 95

6: Milled Rice Husk ` 95

7: Sourced “Para Tree Sap” 96

8: Sourced Starch 96

9: Weighing of Samples 97

10: Constituted Sample 97

11: Loading of Premixed Material on Mat Platter 98

12: Compaction Operation 98


The borne of technology and the advancement in scientific revolutions have continued to promote mechanization in agro-products handling and engineering, diversification and extensive value addition to raw agricultural products. It facilitates recycling and re-utilization of agricultural unit operation generated by-products, effective agro-based forecasting and propositions and reliable agro-allied services rendering and consultations. Excessive increase in population and the consequent need to adequately providing a complementary quantity of food for the teeming population have led to present-day technological development. Engineering mechanics, hydraulics, aerodynamics, and so many other scientific and engineering-related principles are applied to modern technological artifacts so that they can be suitably adopted in diverse discipline, especially in agriculture, to reduce drudgery, optimize operation efficiency, improve timeliness in operation, and maximize production in the embodying operations and practices.
The concept of hydraulics is based upon the essence of fluid power which according to Durfeeet al. (2015) is the transmission of forces and motions using a confined, pressurized fluid. Hydraulic technology is fast replacing other environmental threatening and hazard-prone power transmission options. It is usually simple and compact in configuration but highly power yielding. The development of modern hydraulic components is principally aimed at increasing the transmitted power, reducing the energy intensity, minimizing the environmental pollution and increasing the technical life and machine reliability (Tkáčet al., 2008; Tóthet al., 2014; Asaffet al., 2014). Hydraulic components are widely used in powerful mechanisms of feudal agricultural and forest machines as well as in modern agricultural resource handling and processing unit-operations and processes. Specifically, hydraulic technologies have been applied to such agricultural subdivisions like irrigation and control, drainage direction and control, agrochemical spraying, material pressing and extractions, material compaction and consolidation, material impact and crushing, etc.
Particleboards are produced from materials that are usually of plant and crop post-harvest bye-products origin. It is a composite and woody material that is adhesive-bonded together (Stanton, 2008). Structurally, particleboard consists of two main components usually referred to as 'filler' and 'fibrous' material. Hninet al. (2011) maintained that the filler plays an important role in the generation of good strength of the board. Almost 80 years after its invention, particleboard still represents the by far most important group of wood-based panels (Stefan et al., 2012), thereby being among the fastest-growing wood-based industries, along with other engineered woods. Like other composite wood products, particleboard is extensively utilized in structural applications like load-bearing support structures, sub-flooring layers and, furniture and upholstery frameworks. It also finds application in non-structural applications like interior covering panels.

Compaction entails the process of mechanically increasing the density of agricultural and biological materials. This is usually achieved by pressing and impact action. MultiQuip (2011) reported that the principal reasons for compaction are to increases load-bearing capacity, prevents settlement and frost damage, provide stability and reduces the settling of the constituting materials. Several compaction methodologies have been utilized to ensure proper compaction. Mechanical roll-on compactors have been utilized to consolidate materials for centuries throughout the world (Maher et al., 1998) but they present complicated configuration when applied to such ventures like pressboard forming and compaction. GAPS (2015) observed the term 'pressboard' as a generic term for any board made from woody pieces that are glued together and pressed and it encompassed plywood, chipboard, particleboard, and fiberboard. The invention of hydraulic cylinder aided technological improvisations in agricultural material pressing, crushing, compression and compaction unit operations. Hydraulic cylinder actuating presses and compactors are usually portable and easy in operation and control. 
Hydraulic compaction technologies are principally made up of a static platform for placing of particleboard premixed material, a movable superimposing platform for surface pressure engagement, a hydraulic cylinder that primes the compaction operation and the frame that provides structural supports to the entire constituting parts. After mixing the base material and adhesive to specified mix-ratio, the compactor tends to consolidate the pre-mixed material into structurally firm and rigid boards.

The need to eradicate the full dependence on alien and foreign technologies and products juxtapose the essence of indigenous technologies in a nation's strives for technological emancipation. If developing countries like Nigeria can strategize on measures to effectively promote their indigenous machine development and simulations, their dependence on imported machinery will reduce and their technology will begin to attract due attention, concern, and patronage. With this, material and waste handling technologies will be available even at the grass root level as rural farmers will be able to afford to procure such technologies against their very expensive foreign options.
Particleboard production industries have principally relied on wood and timber as their fundamental raw materials. This practice has led to the indiscriminate felling of trees without a complementary afforestation scheme. Any place that is subjected to such ill-fated practice becomes susceptible to the adverse effects of lack of optimal vegetative-covering, which include escalated erosion menace, poor global air purification, wild species extinction, and general unfavorable climatic variation and inconsistency. To these human and ecosystem threatening impasse, there is dire need to drastically reduce the dependence on wood and timber raw materials for particleboard production that would promote deforestation. The sampling of other options like the use of post-harvest waste for particleboard production becomes paramount in this regard.

Agricultural post-harvest and processing operations generate a huge amount of waste which includes rice husk, sawdust, bagasse; groundnut shells, etc. These wastes have continued to pose serious environmental pollution menace due to lack of formidable waste disposal and recycling scheme across the globe, most especially in the developing countries. According to the study conducted in 2002, Nigeria is the largest rice-producing country in the West African sub-region by accounting for 57% of the total rice-producing area in the region. As a result heap of rice husk thereby constitutes an environmental nuisance in the areas where they are disposed of as waste (Markson, 2007). Rice husk constitutes approximately 20% of annual world rice production for 2007 (FAO, 2008) and amongst the agricultural wastes, it has a very high potential for the production of very effective secondary raw material (Mohamed, 2011), there is need to focus attention on the development of such technologies that will aid the extensive utilization of wastes generated from post-harvest operations, especially those from rice production.
If the international crusade on green technology will be enforced in a country like Nigeria, there is a need to indigenously promote the application of such green technological primer like hydraulic technology in agro-related operations. A hydraulic particleboard compaction machine will pose no adverse effect on the environment and remains reliable in its function throughout a manufacturing operation.
The continual reduction in forest and woodland resources in developing countries could be likened to the running down of resources, and in developed countries as a result of indiscriminate deforestation practices and conversion of the forest areas into industrial and recreational areas. Consequently, there is substantial pressure on the remaining forest resources occasioned by the high demand for wood in the forest industry due to the increasing population and new application areas. It is therefore imperative to embark on such research works that project the utilization of alternative resources to substitute wood raw material.

The main objective of the study is to design and constructa hydraulic particleboard compaction machine. The specific objectives are to:
i.  develop a particleboard compaction machine; and
ii. carry out performance evaluation of the machine using premixed samples of sawdust and rice husk. 

Particleboard production substitutes agricultural waste for valuable engineering resources. Particleboard production creates many micro-enterprise opportunities making the compaction from locally available materials, supplying materials, supplying materials and producing the boards, selling and delivering the boards.The abundantly available agricultural and wood processing wastes can efficiently be used for resolving raw material availability problems to a significant extent by adopting proper measures.
Hydraulically powered devices have a wide application in powerful mechanisms of agricultural and forest machines as well as in many other areas. Recent  improvements on themis aimed at increasing transferred power, decreasing energy severity, minimizing environmental pollution, and increasing technical durability and machine reliability (Tkáčet al., 2008). These equipment has found wide applications used in many agricultural resource handling and processing unit-operations and processes. The current trends in the advancement ofhydraulic components is principally aimed at increasing the transmitted power, reducing the energy intensity, minimizing the environmental pollution and increasing the technical life and machine reliability (Tkáčet al., 2008; Tóthet al., 2014; Asafet al., 2014). 

Muruganandamet al. (2016) reported that in recent years, there is a growing tendency towards recycling of the waste products and utilizing them for the production of composite products like particleboard. The use of renewable materials for manufacturing particleboards could contribute to the solution of raw material shortage for the particleboard industry (Ghalehno and Nazerian, 2011).Using of residues of various products in the production of particleboards is very profitable in economic and environmental terms (Madurwaet al., 2013).

With highly efficient indigenously or locally fabricated compaction machines, the most suitable, reliable and dependable compaction methods will be those based on available waste as raw materials. Low-cost and low-pressure techniques are presently advocated for harnessing agricultural process residues to useful engineering construction finished products like particleboards and briquettes. The manufacturing operations should be done in locally made hand-operated compactors and naturally sourced adhesives applied for binding function, to maintain cost to a readily affordable range.

The research study is beneficial to the government; small, medium and large scale cereal crops processing industries; and rural farmers in their respective endeavors in post-harvest residue handling and recycling. With such machines as hydraulically powered particleboard compaction machines, the gaps of rice production solid waste recycling, environmentally friendly technology, and indigenous technology adaptation shall be bridged subjectively. 

The study is focused on the design, construction, and test-run of a hydraulic particleboard compaction machine. The undertakings of the study is limited to fundamentaldesign computation, material selection, machine fabrication and test running using different compositions of sawdust, rice husk, and adhesive materials.
Due to limited time and resources (fund) available to the researcher, the study was principally focused on the development of a material compaction machine that is powered by hydraulics principles. The test-run of the machine is specifically on cold-press and open sun drying operations of constituted admixtures of agro-processing wastes and biological resins. Structural analysis of the produced particleboard was not carried out to fully evaluate the machine performance.

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