• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006755

No of Pages: 62

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



Sowing of seeds especially the smaller seeds is operated manually by small scale farmers which normally results in poor distribution of the planted seeds. In a bid to solve the problems associated with manual seed broadcasting, an affordable  manually  pushed authomated seed broadcasting machine was designed and constructed. The machine was made from locally sourced materials which comprises of hopper, shutter, shaft, bevel gears, supporting frame, pneumatic tyres, prime mover, handle, spreading disc, belt and pulley. The field evaluation of this machine was tested on soya bean, paddy, sorghum and millet. The capacity of the machine was 0.776m3. The device had a net mass of 82.4kg. The discharge efficiency increased with increase in the size of seeds broadcasted. The discharge efficiency was 98.82%, 98.24%, 96.76% and 97.35% for soybean, millet, sorghum and paddy respectively. The time of broadcasting when equal amount (3.4kg) of seeds were fed to the machine was 8min for 3.36kg of soybean discharged, 6min for 3.34kg of millet discharged, 5.7min for 3.29kg of sorghum discharged and 6.5min for 3.31kg of paddy discharged. The area covered by soybean was 3,220m2, millet was 2,520m2, sorghum was 2,215.08m2, and paddy was 2,643.84m2.The average bulk density was 1.14g/cm3, average particle density was 2.25g/cm3 and average porosity was 48.03% having no adverse effect on the soil.


Title Page i
Declaration Page ii
Certification Page iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Table of Content vi
List of Tables x                
List of Figures xi
List of Plates xii
Abstract xiii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                       1             
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study 2
1.4 Significance of the Study 3
1.5 Justification of the Study 3
1.6 Scope of the Study 4

2.1 Seed Broadcasting 5
2.2 Methods of Seed Sowing 5
2.3 Advantages of Seed Broadcasting 6
2.4 Disadvantages of Seed Broadcasting             6
2.5 Various Techniques of Seed Broadcasting                             7
2.6 Design 8
2.6.1 Machine design 8
2.6.2 Machine design procedure 9
2.6.3 Classification of machine design 9
2.7 Engineering Properties of Material 10
2.8 Soil Porosity 11
2.9 Soil Bulk Density 11
2.10 Relationship between Bulk Density and Porosity 12

3.1 General Description of the Mechanized Seed Broadcaster       13
3.2 Material Selection 13
3.3 Principle of Operation 13
3.4 Design Consideration 14
3.5 Design of Component Parts 15
3.5.1 Hopper design 15
3.5.2 Pulley selection             15
3.5.3 Power calculations 16
3.5.4 Key selection 17
3.5.5 Belt selection 17 Determination of center of contact 18 Angle of wrap         19
3.5.6 Gear shaft selection 22
3.6 Bending moment and shear force determination 23
3.6.1 Reactions at the bearings 23
3.6.2 Shear force calculations 25
3.7 Determination of the Machine’s Operation 26
3.7.1 Loading of the materials 26
3.7.2 Determination of swath width 27
3.7.3 Determination of the area covered 27
3.7.4 Determination of discharge efficiency 27
3.7.5 Determination of the capacity of operation 28
3.8 Soil Physical Properties Evaluation             28
3.9 Construction Process 29
3.10 Materials Used and Costing 31

4.1 The Developed Seed Broadcaster 33
4.2 Performance Evaluation 36
4.2.1 Swath width 36
4.2.2 Area covered 37
4.2.3 Quantity of seeds discharged 38
4.2.4 Time of broadcasting 39
4.2.5 Discharge efficiency 39
4.2.6 Capacity of operation 40
4.3 Soil Physical Properties Evaluations 42

5.1 Conclusion 43
5.2 Recommendation 43


2.1:       The angle of repose of some grains 11

3.1: Standard v- belt section       20

3.2: Construction procedures 29

3.3: Material costing and expenses 31

4.1: Average values of field evaluation 41

4.2: Summary of soil physical properties evaluation and their mean values 42


3.1: Belt and pulley connection showing the center of contact      20

3.2: Belt and pulley connection showing the angle of wrap 21

3.3: Diagram of the cross section of the belt with dimensions             23 

3.4: Free body diagram of the vertical forces acting on the shaft 27

3.5: Moment about the bearing points 27

3.6: Shear force (s.f.) and bending moment (b.m.) diagram 30

4.1 The pictorial view of the seed broadcaster  38

4.2: Isometric view of the seed broadcasting machine 39

4.3: Swath width of the various seed (m)               41

4.4: Area covered by the various seeds (m2) 42

4.5 Quantity discharged (kg) 43

4.6: Discharge efficiency of the four seeds (%)  44

4.7: Capacity of operation (kg/min) 45


1: Isometric front view of the mechanized seed broadcaster                                         53  
2: The hopper of the machine fully loaded with soybean before operation                       54

3: The operator adjusting the seed cover during operation     55

4: Isometric front view of the machine
5: The hopper of the machine fully loaded with soybean before operation


Agriculture sector of any developing economy performs the critical role of provision of food to nourish the entire population (Njoku, 2000). In Nigeria, agriculture do employ about two- third of the labour force, contributing about 2.2% of its gross domestic product (GDP) and provides 88% of non- oil earning (World Bank, 2005).

Mechanization of agriculture in Nigeria has been the subject of discussion and analysis for over a period of time. Agricultural mechanization being the development, improvement, introduction and the use of mechanized assistance of all forms has to be encouraged at all levels of technological sophistication in agricultural food production.

Three levels of agricultural mechanization can be identified in Nigeria according to Onwualu et al (1995). They include the following; hand tool technology, draught animal technology and engine powered technology. There exist numerous types of machines that can be used in the planting of seeds in the soil and it includes seed drill, jab planter, seed broadcaster etc.

Crop planting is the placing of seeds in the soil, broadcasting seeds on the field surface or transplanting seedlings in the soil under optimum soil temperature and moisture conditions (Ojha et al, 2009). The common ways or methods used for sowing seeds are the broadcasting methods, dibbing method, seed dropping behind the plough, drilling, check rowing and transplanting methods.

Seed broadcasting which is the scattering of seeds has to be done on zero tillage or no till or minimum tilled field surface. Immediately after planting or broadcasting, they are covered by manipulating the soil or planking it over. Seed broadcasting is simple, cheap and can be done by bare hands or machines. It is also used for small seeds that require shallow sowing depth. In other to obtain equal sowing, fine or smaller seeds are mixed with sand up to 7 times the volume of the seeds (Wit,1995). Normally after broadcasting, a rake is used to cover the seeds to improve the contact the seeds have with the soils.

In some part of the country, old traditional seeds placing methods are still being in practice. Broadcasting and sowing of seeds at the back of disc plough are most common. According to Adamu et al (1999), the use of traditional sowing methods negatively affects the production and seed requirement per unit area.

Investigations carried out on the possible method of broadcasting or spreading seeds especially in the rural areas show that the only method available is mainly the manual method. In this method, the seeds are being broadcasted by using hand to spread or using hand to operate the crank that spreads the seeds. Experience has shown that this method is tiresome and painful.

One of the problems in crop production is poor planting operation; hence there is need of mechanized seed broadcaster to increase the production of agricultural produce in our locality. It is therefore necessary to invent mechanized means of seed broadcasting to enhance productivity and reduce human effort. This is a veritable contribution to mechanization of agriculture.

The aim of this study is to design and construct a manually pushed automated seed broadcasting machine.  The specific objectives of this study are:

to carry out a performance evaluation of the developed seed broadcaster,

to determine the effect of the seed broadcaster on some properties of the soil, and

to test the machine for performance.

Since Nigeria is well known all over the world as one of the agricultural producing countries in Africa, Nigeria should not rely on other nations for planting of her crops. It becomes very important therefore that through locally sourced materials, equipment are constructed which will bring planting to every farm gate and at prices that will be affordable to all and sundry.

The design and construction of a mechanized seed broadcaster was chosen following the need for reducing drudgery and planting on small acres of land. The idea comes from the need for a better and faster method of broadcasting seeds on the field instead of the manual method employed by some farmers. The manual method which is crude, old and time consuming, involving a lot of human labour does not go well for commercial purposes.

In Nigeria presently, seed broadcasting with simple tools or by hand is labour intensive and time consuming. Thus, there is a need for the design of a mechanized seed broadcaster for intensive and commercial farming system in Nigeria. The task of employing a labour force when using simple tool or by hand is very high in commercial farming system.

In order to overcome timelessness in planting, technologies are needed for inventing a mechanized seed broadcaster which is simple to operate and cheap enough for farmers to afford and which cannot cause negative effect on the soil porosity, particle density and bulk density on the land being worked upon.

Given the challenges highlighted above, it is justified to design and develop an efficient mechanized Seed Broadcaster which will be cost effective as well as technically efficient for planting.

This study is limited to the design, and construction of a hand push automated seed broadcasting machine that is portable.

Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment