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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006629

No of Pages: 42

No of Chapters: 1-5

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This project presents the design and construction of Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system with an apparent power of 2.5kVA. This was achieved by the use of transformer, rectifier, inverter circuit and filtering was implemented by the use of smothering circuit using capacitors. We used an inverter that deliver an alternating current (AC) of 220V, 50Hz and the output voltage made to have enough power to drive the load connected to it. The output from the inverter is synchronized in frequency and magnitude with the external power supply so that at power outage, the battery back-up with inverter supply power to the load ensuring that the supply to the load is uninterrupted. This project provides a clean dependable supply of alternating current free surges, frequency variation and transients and it is also used as back-up for electrical appliances to maintain a continuous supply of electric power. 


Cover Page i
Title Page ii 
Declaration Page iii
Certification iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgements vi
Table of Contents      vii-viii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
Abstract xi

1.1 Background of the Study 1-2
1.2 Problem Statement 2-3
1.3 Significance of the Study 3-4
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study 4
1.5 Work Organization 5

2.1 Historical Background 6-8
2.2 Types of UPS System 8
2.2.1 On-line 8
2.2.2 Standby (off-line) 9
2.2.3 Line interactive UPS 9
2.2.4 Rotary 9
2.3 Applications 9-10
2.4 Steps Involve in Building the Project 11

3.1 Materials 12
3.1.1 Rectifier 12
3.1.2 Battery 12
3.1.3 Inverter 12
3.1.4 Static switch or transfer switch 13
3.2 Block Diagram of an Uninterruptible Power Supply 14
3.2.1 Function of each block in the block diagram 15 Charger 15 Delay 15 Battery 15-16 Inverter 16 4069 inverter oscillator 16-17 Step-up transformer 17-18 Change over 18
3.3 Circuit Diagram of Uninterruptible Power Supply 19
3.3.1 Principle of operation 20
3.4 Comparison between Inverter and UPS 21-22

4.1 Results 23
4.2 Discussion of the Results 23-24
4.3 Testing of the  Model 24
4.3.1 Open circuit test 24
4.3.2 Short circuit test 24
4.3.3 Continuity test 25
4.4 Applications 25-26
4.5 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) 26-27

5.1 Conclusion 28-29
5.1.1 Warning for UPS 29
5.2 Recommendation 29-30
Reference 31


4.1 Bill of engineering measurement and evaluation 27


3.1 Block diagram of an uninterruptible power supply 14

3.2 Circuit diagram of an uninterruptible power supply 19


An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment, by supplying power from battery when utility power is not available. A UPS is connected between the sources of power and the load, which is to be protected. (Metha, V. K and Metha, S. (2001). When a power failure, surge, over or under voltage occurs, the UPS will effectively switch from utility power to battery power through relay action. UPS are not limited to any particular type of equipment they are typically used in computers, controls, telecommunication systems, where an unexpected power disruption could cause damage or fatalities serious business disruption or data loss. While inverters are mainly used to invert DC to AC which are suitable for domestic and industrial uses.  
Previously, uninterruptible power supplies were very expensive and hence most likely to be used on expensive computer systems and in area where the power supply is interrupted frequently. However, UPS supplies are presently more affordable, and have become essential pieces of equipment for data centers and business computers, entertainment system and more. 

In Nigeria, particularly, the electrical power is under increase strain especially during heavy demand and sometimes insufficient Megawatts generated, due to scheduled outage. In order to prevent total blackout, Electrical utilities will from time to time use a process known as LOAD SHEDDING. This process reduces the amount of power being sent to the consumers but sometimes it dose eliminate it entirely from more than hours. This drop in voltage over an extended period of time is called brownout (under voltage), while for instantaneous drop in voltage is called voltage sag. A UPS will protect equipment by using its internal batteries to correct it from voltage sag, brownout and other abnormalities. 
 A UPS is not to be confused with an emergency or standby generator, which does not provide protection from a momentary power interruption, before or when the generator will eventually switched into service, weather manually or automatically to continue supplying to the equipment. However, such generators are typical placed before the ups to provide cover for the lengthy power outage.

In the mains power supply there are many interruptions in different forms. These fluctuations may cause damage to sensitive electronic equipment and data. The best solution for this is the use of UPS. Some corruptions in mains power supply are stated below:

Voltage fluctuations: In mains power supply, the voltage generally increases or decreases than rated voltage. 

Transient impulses: The original sine wave of alternating supply can be disturbed by any reason which will result in instant increase or decrease in amplitude. These disturbances are known as Transient Impulses. The instant increase in amplitude is known as spike and instant decrease in amplitude is known as notch.

Voltage surges: When a heavy load is connects to power supply, the voltage of whole system may increase or decrease for a small time. These variations are known as Voltage Surges.

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Noise:  A distortion in alternating sine wave which comes for small duration is known as Noise. The main causes of addition of noise are Radio and TV transmission and poor grounding. Noise may cause damage to data or equipment.

Frequency variation: The instantaneously change in load may cause the variations in supply’s frequency which may cause damage to useful data.

Black outs: Instant failure in mains power supply due to any reason is known as black outs. In the case of black outs, UPS maintain continuously power to load from batteries.  

Brown outs: The planned power cuts imposed due to over loading of power are known as brown outs. The power supply can be maintained from other sources during brown outside

The merits of Uninterruptable power supply (UPS) are inexhaustible. It is indispensable for efficient and operation of electric appliances (domestic and commercial).

Uninterruptable power supply is very important where power loss, noise or fluctuation will have detrimental effect and result in costly and time consuming remedial measures. It is essential where continuity of power supply has to be maintained. 

The main aim of the project is to design and construct 2.5KVA uninterruptable power supply which can be capable to act as power backup for electrical appliances. The objectives are to obtain a reliable efficient electrically stable system that will provide a clean dependable supply of alternating current power free of surges, frequency variation and transients for powering electrical appliances.

Design a device will be capable of switching ON automatically whenever there is outage in power supply.

Design and construct a system that will be reliable to industrial, commercial or domestic application and withstand the work load.

Design and construct a device that will solve the problems encountered in our society due to frequent unexpected power interruption form the power supply authority.

Design and construct a device or system that will maintain a continuous supply of electric power to the connected load by supplying power from a battery when utility power is not available.

Design and construct a system that will provide a clean dependable supply of ac from of surges, frequency variation and transients.

In this project, the design and construction of 2.5kVA Uninterruptable power supply is presented. Background information of Uninterruptable power supply is presented in chapter one, a literature review and types of Uninterruptable power supply is presented in chapter two; Chapter three describes the materials and methods. Chapter four our presents the results and discussion of the system; while chapter five is the concluding chapter which also proffers future recommendations.    

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