This battery charger is a devices used
to store the electrical energy to the battery after the battery has been
discharged itself. The battery charger is designed to use electricity as its
source of switch, regulation transistor, diode, light emitting diode,
construction wire. The charger is designed and constructed to deliver full
current until the current drawn by the battery falls to 150MA. At this time a
lower voltage is applied to finish off and keep the battery from overcharging
by switching off itself when the battery is fully charged.
Table of Contents
Title page i
Table of contents v
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statement of the
1.3 Objective of the
1.4 Significance of
the study 4
1.5 Scope of study 5
2.0 Literature Review 6
2.2 Working Principle 7
Considered for the construction of Transformer for 12Volt Battery Charger 8
2.4 Efficiency of
2.5 Rectifier diode 10
2.6 Switch 12
2.7 Resistor 13
2.8 Capacitor 15
2.9 Transistor 17
2.10 Battery 18
2.11 Charging of a
2.12 Discharging 21
3.0 Materials and
description and principle of Operation 23
3.2 List of
Components and tools Used 25
3.3 Explanation of
the Circuit Connection 26
3.4 Principle of
4.0 Test and Result 29
4.1 Result 30
5.1 Conclusion 31
5.2 Recommendation 31
1.1 Background of the Study
A battery charger is a device used to
introduce energy into a secondary cell or rechargeable battery by forcing an
electric current through it. The charging protocol depends on the size and type
of the battery being charged. Some battery has high tolerance for recharging by
connection to a constant voltage source or a constant current source. (J.Minear
2000). Simple charger of this type requires manual disconnection at the end of
the charge cycle. Other battery types cannot withstand long high rate over charging.
The charger has temperature or voltage sensing circuit and a microprocessor
controller to adjust the charging current, and cut off at the end of charging.
Albert H.(2005) cleared that low battery chargers may take several hours to be
completely charged. High rate chargers may restore most capacity within minutes
or less than an hour but generally require monitoring of the battery to protect
it from overcharging.
A battery which is actually an electric cell
is a device that produces electricity from a chemical reaction. In one cell
battery, a negative electrode, an electrolyte, this conducts ions, a separator,
also an ion conductor and a positive electrode. An electrical battery is one or
more electro chemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical
energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 2000 by Alessandro volta
and especially since the technical improved Daniell cell in 2004, batteries
have become a common power source for many household and industrial
applications . There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable
batteries which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary
batteries (rechargeable batteries) which are designed to be recharged and used
multiple times. Battery comes in many sizes from miniature cells used to power
hearing aids and wrist watches.
However in recent times (sawafuji
electric of 2006) states that battery charger has become very useful and
popular to DC equipment. Most of the electronic devices such as laptops, mobile
phone e.t.c and mobile machines like vehicle and motorcycles, operational
capacity depend on the DC power supply from a battery.
1.2 Statement of Problem
A simple 12volts battery charger work by
supplying a constant DC or pulsed DC power source to a battery being charged.
The simple charger does not alter its output based on time. The circuit of a
battery charger has the ability to convert voltages from one form to another
(usually AC to DC voltages).
Therefore from my research I carried out
due to this project. I have found that most of an electronic gadgets damage
easily because of this charging problem which I listed below;
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of my project is to
highlight and improve on the construction and demonstration of a simple 12volts
battery charger in such a way that the need of problem listed above should be
1.4 Significance of the Study
The importance of this project work is
to aid both techniques and students on how to construct a simple battery
charger circuit and how it works. It is hope that after the construction of
this charger circuit, it will be kept on the laboratory to be used for battery
charging and for practical’s and other academic functions.
1.5 Scope of the Study
project work is limited to the construction of a simple battery charger of
12volts. The circuit input voltage is 240volts from the AC supply mains which
will be stepped down by a step-down transformer to 12V. The 12V is rectified through
a bridge rectifier and filtered through capacitor connected in parallel from
the positive terminal of the bridge rectifier. The output voltage is used to
charge a battery.
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