QUALITY CONTROL PRACTICES OF CONSTRUCTION FIRMS IN LAGOS STATE.

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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00000625

No of Pages: 56

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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ABSTRACT

Quality Control plays a fundamental role into works and services. It deals with working systematically, taking step by step procedures to prevent or eliminate errors from occurring. Quality Control deals with a body reviewing the quality of all factors involved in production, in this case in construction organization. It is about ensuring that the finished product meets the standards set in the specifications and by various construction bodies. Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny product release. It is a set of procedure intended to ensure that a material used meets up with the requirement of the client.

The research design employed in this study was the descriptive survey, which was used to achieve the outlined objectives .Population of the study were the prospective respondents who are the architects, builders, quantity surveyors and structural / civil and service engineers that possessed the characteristics & knowledge through appropriate training before practicing, and this makes them most suitable for the particular study in question for the sample selected. A questionnaire was designed and randomly distributed to the contracting organizations which are the organizations where these professionals listed above. The selection was done using stratified random sampling. The data gathering procedure was done by administering the questionnaires to the respondents who are project participants in these organizations. In total a sample of fifty (50) questionnaires were distributed and forty (40) questionnaires were retrieved. The analyses of data generated were carried out with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (IBM SPSS data collection) in which mean, frequencies and percentages were used.

It was concluded that the study shows that the factors; human and material control, are very important when it comes quality control in a construction firm.

 







TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

COVER PAGE                                                                                              i

DECLARATION                                                                                            ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                    iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                   iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                              v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                       vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                             ix

ABSTRACT                                                                                                           x

 

 

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION…..………………………………...1

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY………………………………..…..1

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM………………..…...2

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS........................……………………….........3

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY........……………………...3

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………...….……4

1.6 SCOPE & DELIMITATION....................................................................5

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS…………………..…………...........5

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………...6

2.1 QUALITY CONTROL..…………………………………………………6

2.2 QUALITY CONTROL IN CONSTRCTION FIRMS IN NIGERIA...……7

2.2.1 QUALITY CONTROL HISTORY....……………………………......9

2.2.1.1 QUALITY CONTROL DEFINITION...............…………….…...11

2.2.2 FACTORS THAT AFFECT QUALITY........…….....……………...16

2.2.2.1 MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND LEADERSHIP.………..17

2.2.2.2 TRAINING............................................…………..….……………...18

2.2.2.3 COST OF QUALITY...............................…....………………...18

2.3 CONSTRUCTION QUALITY CONTROL PLAN & PRACTICES……...19

2.3.1 INSPECTION..............................................................................................21

2.3.2 PLANNING.................................................................................................22

2.3.3 TAKING ACTION.................................................................................….23

2.4 FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY CONTROL...............................……..23

2.4.1 HUMAN.......................................................................................................23

2.4.2 MATERIAL CONTROL..............................................................................24

2.4.2.1 MATERIAL PROCUREMENT................................................................25

2.4.2.2 MATERIAL TESTING..................................…….………………..........25

2.4.2.3 STORAGE.......................................................................................……....26

2.4.3 CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY.......................................26

2.4.4 CONSTRUCTION METHOD..........................................................................27

2.4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL.....................................................................27

2.5 CHALLENGES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY CONTROL.....29

2.5.1 LACK OF KNOWLEDGE.........................................................…………29

2.5.2 INDIRECT COSTS.....................................................................................29

2.5.3 NEED OF QUALIFIED TEAM................................................................29

2.5.4 REDUCTION IN PROFIT........................................................................29

2.5.5 PRODUCT PROBLEMS...........................................................................29

2.5.6 LACK OF SUPERVISION........................................................................30

2.5.7 UNREALISTIC DEADLINE.....................................................................30

2.6 QUALITY CONTROL REGULATION.......................................................30

2.7 EFFECTS OF QUALITY CONTROL IN CONSTRUCTION.....................31

 

3.0 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………......33

3.1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………...33

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN …………………………………………….……....33

3.3 RESEARCH AREA.................................................…..………………......33

3.4 POPULATION OF THE STUDY...........................……………………......34

3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE………………………………………………...34

3.6 SAMPLING SIZE...............................………………………………..…...34

3.7 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT AND PROCEDURES……………..34

3.7 TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS......................................................................35

3.8 DOCUMENT ANALYSIS................................................................................35

 

CHAPTER FOUR……………………………………………………………......36

4.0 ANALYSIS OF DATA AND FINDINGS OF THE STUDY..............…..…...36

4.1 INTRODUCTION..…………………….………………………..…….…....36

4.2 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS......................…………….…...36

4.2.1 RATE OF RESPONSE...............................…………………….…………...36

4.3 ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DATA......................................................................41

4.3 OBJECTIVE ONE.................................................................................................41

4.4 OBJECTIVE TWO...............................................................................................41

 

CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………………………….……..43

5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS……………………………………………....43

5.1 CHALLENGES TO QUALITY CONTROL TECHNIQUE....................................43

5.1.1 DETERMINANT OF QUALITY CONTROL PRACTICES.........................…....43

5.2 CONCLUSION...................................................……………………………...43

5.3 RECOMMENDAIONS..........................................................................................44

      REFERENCES………………………………………………………………..50

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Responses to questionnaires..............................................…………….…36

Table 4.2: Demography of Respondents..........................................……………….....37

Table 4.3: Demography of Organisational profile….....................................................39

Table 4.4: Descriptive statistics to the challenges to quality control techniques…….41

Table 4.5: Descriptive statistics to the determinants of quality control practices..........46

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

        1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Quality issues have been of great concern throughout the recorded history of humans. During the New Stone Age, several civilizations emerged, and some 4000-5000 ago, considerable skills in construction were acquired. In Egypt, the king of Babylonia (1792-1750) BCE codified law, according to which, during the Mesopotamian era, builders were responsible for maintaining the quality of buildings and were given death penalty if any of their construction collapsed and their occupants were killed. According to Juran, J. M. (1995) China’s recorded quality history can be traced back to earlier than 200 BCE. During the middle ages, Guilds took the responsibility for quality control upon themselves. Guilds and government carried out quality control and their involvement in quality was extensive. The guilds established specifications for input materials, manufacturing process, and finished products, also methods of inspection and testing. At the time of First World War, manufacturing process typically became more complex with larger numbers of workers being supervised. The systematic approach to quality started in industrial manufacturing during 1930s, mostly in the U.S., when some attention was given to the cost of scrap and rework (Walter A. Shewhart). In the 19th century, the approach to manufacturing in the United States tended to follow the craftsmanship model used in European countries. The beginning of the 20th century Walter Shewhart introduced statistical quality control process. His concept was that quality is not relevant to the finished products but to the process that created the product. In Europe quality was considered as a cultural issue first and a technical issue second. In 1950’s and 1970’s countries like Germany had reputation for superior product quality. According to Thomas Pyzdek (2001) state that in the last century, quality has moved through four distinct ‘quality eras’: inspection, statistical quality control, quality assurance, and strategic quality management.

How history of Quality is applied today, the value of learning and understanding the history of quality with respect to construction provides a sound foundation to all current and future quality programs in construction. Primarily, recognizing the core principles that have been established through practice over the past millennium enables us to maintain our focus on the fundamentals, the basics do not change, and they only get better through application and culture. Quality Control plays a fundamental role into works and services in construction organizations in Nigeria. It deals with working systematically, taking step by step procedures to prevent or eliminate errors from occurring. Quality Control deals with a body reviewing the quality of all factors involved in production, in this case in construction organization. It is about ensuring that the finished product meets the standards set in the specifications and by various construction bodies. Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny product release. It is a set of procedure intended to ensure that a material used meets up with the requirement of the client.

        1.2     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

During the past decades the construction company has been criticized for its poor performance and productivity (Alarcon &Ashley, 1992). Many of the management practises used to support construction are being challenged where clients demand improved quality services, faster building and innovations in technology (Carayon & Smith, 2006). Establishment and achievement of acceptable levels of quality in construction projects has long been a problem (Arditi & Gunaydin, 1997) but despite a significant amount of projects are still encountering numerous quality problems (Heravitorbati, et al., 2011). According to Xiao (2002), poor quality performance that results in increased rework and has significant impacts on cost and schedule is among the major defects experienced in construction projects. There have been instances of building failures in different parts of Nigeria, cases of abandonment of housing projects mid-way and projects failing to meet the requirements even after execution. All these have been attributed to various causes but the success of projects can only be measured in terms of the achievement of quality, quality control being defined as the ability of products and processes to conform to established requirements.

The adoption of quality control management in construction companies has increasingly helped as an initiative in solving quality problems and to meet the needs of final clients (Kanji & Wong 2000). Compliance to quality standards in public housing projects is therefore a very critical factor if the management and execution of such projects is to be a success. As such, this research work intends to determine the effects and roles of quality control standard in the management of projects in construction firms in Nigeria.

 

        1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research intends to provide adequate answers to the following questions:

1.      What quality control practices are adopted in construction projects?

2.      What problems are encountered in the implementation of these quality control practices?

3.      What the level of importance are adopting quality control practices in construction firms?


        1.4    AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The principal aim of the study is to discuss the role of quality control in construction organizations, the risks involved, who it benefits and the steps to take influencing project quality. Highlighted below are the objectives of the study;

1.      To identify quality control practices adopted by construction firms.

2.      To determine the challenges in the implementation of quality control practices.

3.      To determine the level of importance of quality control in construction firms.


        1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Quality control is critically important to a successful construction project and should be adhered to throughout a project from conception and design to construction and installation. Inspection during construction will prevent costly repairs after the project is completed. The inspector, engineer, contractor, funding agency, permit agency, and system personnel must work together to inspect, document, and correct deficiencies.

The significance of this study is show how quality controls methods monitor and adjust the cost, schedule and scope of a project to ensure that it is completed within budget, on time and as planned. Quality controls check to make sure that corrective actions are carried out appropriately so that the result of the work meets the requirements and expectations of the clients.

It is of benefit to the contractor in terms of better planning, better communication skills, increased profit and production, improved organization skills and outstanding performance attracting future contracts. It also benefits the client in terms of work being performed to plans and specifications, work done on time, within a defined budget (cost).


        1.6     SCOPE & DELIMITATION

The scope to the study of quality control in building construction projects evaluates the project results (output and delivery) to ensure the process being taken comply with quality standards.

It covers various participants involved in the construction of buildings generally. These include the client, consultants, contractors, subcontractors and end-users whose individual and collective level of compliance to quality standards contribute to public housing project delivery.


        1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Quality Control: Quality control is the part of quality management that ensures products and service comply with requirements. It is a work method that facilitates the measurement of the quality characteristics of a unit, compares them with the established standards, and analyses the differences between the results obtained and the desired results in order to make decisions which will correct any differences. In the construction industry, quality can be defined as meeting the requirements of the designer, constructor and regulatory agencies as well as the owner.

Quality Assurance: This includes activities in a planned system of review procedures conducted by personal involved in the inventory compilation process

Practice: The actual application or the use of an idea, belief or method as opposed to theories relating to it.

Construction Professional: These are the principal players retained by the client in a construction project.

Project Delivery: This is a system used by an agency or owner for organizing and financing design.

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