This research work aimed at examining
instructional materials used for effective teaching and learning of Economics
in Senior Secondary Schools.
problem observed in the research work was that, there should be provision for
the maintenance of the instructional materials and there should be adequate
information to teachers on the availability of ready made Instructional
the purpose of providing the theoretical framework and background for the
study, the researcher reviewed various literature such as books, magazines,
journals and unpublished past projects which directly relate to the research
a structured questionnaire was deigned to collect data based on the review. The
questionnaire was divided into two
sections (Aand B) section A dealt
with biographical data of the respondents while section B dealt with research
statements. The data obtained in section
B was analyzed using percentage scores and other statistical means such as pie
chart, bar chart, line graph and chi-square. Having analyzed the data
thoroughly, my findings, showed that instructional materials create lasting
impressions on the part of the learners and it enables the students to grap the
meaning of concept being taught fast and easily.
on the outcome, the researcher therefore recommended that government should
intensify efforts in providing maintenance for instructional materials provided
in the secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of contents vi-vii
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problems 2 1.3 Justification for the Study
3 1.4 Limitations of the Study 3
Significant of the Study 3 1.6 Research Questions 4
1.7 Definition of Terms 4
1.8 Hypothesis 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 General concept of Instructional Resources 8
2.3 Classification of Instructional
2.4 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Instructional
2.5 Importance of Instructional
2.6 Problems Associated with the use
of Instructional 22
2.7 Selection of Instructional
Material for Effective Teaching 29
2.8 Strategies for Effective use of Instructional
Material in 32
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Research Design 34
3.3 Research Instrument 34
3.4 Population 35
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques 35
3.6. Data Collection Procedure 35
3.7 Method of Analysis 36
3.8 Reliability and Validity of the Study 36
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.2 Analysis of Respondent Bio-data 37
Analysis of Research Questions 39
Discussion of Findings 60
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Introduction 62
5.2 Conclusion 62
5.3 Recommendation 63
growth of labour sector inevitably necessitates a definite relationship between
union and management, this relationship broadly speaking concerns the continued
existence of an organization in order to achieve the purpose for which it was
established. The attainment of this goal is largely influenced by the type of
relationship between the employer and the employees. Issue such as the
determination of general condition of services, discipline, maintaining a
suitable workforce, keeping production high, adjusting to technological change
and providing welfare for workers are of paramount importance.
recognition of this interest not only formalizes the labour management
relationship but also shows that the relationship between the parties can be
sustained indefinitely. An employee’s participation in the affairs of an
organization is largely determined and specified by the contract of employment.
The major link between the workers and the company, there, remains what he/she
gets in return for task completed within the periods stipulated. To assume a
past in any organization or company automatically involves a workers subjection
of his person to an infinite set of instructions and commands.
in itself is a power relationship embodying conflict and consensus after nature
of task, values and rate of remuneration. In the light of the above that Whiter
(1984) asserts that the employment relationship out of which industrial
conflict arises. Industrial conflict therefore, has long been a central public
issue on the field of labour and a subject of vital concern to managers and
great deal of industrial relations centers around the resolution of conflicts,
hence, it is believed that conflict is a permanent feature of industrial life.
The issue therefore, is not one of completely eliminating conflict, but rather,
it is one of accommodating and managing conflict effectively. To achieve this,
it has been advocated that rather than the fighting approach to issues, a
problem solving approach to decision making in industrial relations should be
any organization, there is bound to exist conflict of interest, however, each
party has its own interest, aspiration and temperaments. For instance the
management’s main interest within an organization is that of possible profit
maximization, which means, it will serve to produce at the lowest possible
cost, while the concern of the workers union is to secure and maintain the
highest and best condition of service for workers. This kind of situation can
lead to conflict. Conflict is a process, which begins when one party perceives
that other party has frustrated or is about to frustrate some of its concerns
or interests. Conflict is a state of mind, it has to be perceived by the
one or more parties are not aware of a conflict, then no conflict exist. In any
organization conflict are inevitable. Hence, sometimes conflict is functional
in the sense that it improved the quality of decision, stimulate creativity and
innovation, provides a way of airing grievances, releases tensions and
encourages self-evaluation and change. These result are best gotten where
conflict is managed well, but if not, it becomes dysfunctional, which means it
will breed discontent, dissolve common ties, lead to the destruction of the
group, retard communication reduced group cohesion, individual interest,
supplant group effectiveness and threaten group survival. When such situation
occurs and no proper machinery is used they can lead to strike, lock outs,
a nutshell, the way and manner conflict is managed goes a long way in
determining the effective and efficient performance of the organization.
Therefore, when conflict occurs in an organization both union representatives
and management should put head together to dialogue to seek lasting solution to
the causes of the conflict. They should begin concessionally or just use
integrated bargaining where each party does not need to be too rigid on its
interest. This means, where there is need to compromise; they should do that on
time because a stich in time saves nine.
following are some procedure employed in conflict management in an
is assumed that these rules or procedure should be followed by employees and
employers so to guarantee industrial peace and harmony necessary for efficiency
critically examine conflict management and organization development in large
scale organization I have decided to embark on the study of the experiences of
mobile producing Nigeria.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
producing Nigeria Unlimited as an organization recognized the need maintain
highly productivity and industrial harmony at all work locations and expect its
management to cooperate always with the recognized workers trade unions namely:
(NUPENG) Nigeria Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas (PENGASSAN) Petroleum and
Natural Gas Senior Staff Association of Nigeria. However, the ineptitude on the
part of management and the complicated procedures of setting disputes as well
as lack of effective communication between the management and the workers
unions have often led to industrial conflict. Holt N. Whiter (1985) defines
industrial conflict as collective aggressive action by employee acting through
formal organizations of unions. Since conflict is a permanent feature of
industrial life, the issue therefore is not of complete elimination of conflict
but that of managing conflict effectively. The purpose of this study is
therefore to examine the concept of industrial conflict vis-à-vis management –
Union relationship within the context of the desirability of effective
communication between management and union as a means of reducing industrial
conflict. Furthermore, we shall seek also to examine this relationship in the
context of employees collective action against the employers through formal
unions and how the employees have been able to cope with conflict.
OF THE PROBLEM
conflict is a phenomenon commonly associated with industrial establishments
where sizable proportion of workers depend on their wages for survival, the
effect and causes will be valuated.
lacks of adequate strategies in the management of industrial conflict affect
the rate of industrial conflict in Mobile Producing Nigeria.
measures adopted on strike resolution affects management in an Organization.
on Union issues affects management in an Organization.
insensitive strategic policy e.g salary structure, affect the level and
management of conflict in an Organization.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
history of the study of industrial conflict is not alien to the Nigerian
Industrial development. This is because
majority of the citizens of these country have been directly or indirectly
affected by the action of the organized labour. However, this is to bring to
the public the following:
subject matter of industrial conflict
causes and a thorough x- ray of the effectiveness of industrial conflict
resolution process in Nigeria.
evaluate the impact of industrial conflict on the productivity and success.,
determine how best industrial conflict could be managed to ensure efficient and
effective organization performance.
make useful conclusion and
recommendation for a viable system which will help an organization.
of workers participation in management decision affect conflict management in
on union issues affects management in an organization.
RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS
what extent would lack of adequate strategies in the management of industrial
conflict affect an organization?
what extents do measures adopted on strike resolution affect conflict
management in an organization like Mobile Producing Nigeria?
has lack of participation of workers in management in organization? Affect
conflict management in organization.
what extent would insensitive strategic policies e.g salary structures affect
conflict management in an organization like Mobile Producing Nigeria?
what extent would disagreement on union issues affect conflict management in
Mobile Producing Nigeria?
Main hypothesis of the study can be summarized in the following hypothesized
Organizational performance is not directly related to the
level of industrial conflict.
H0: organizational performance
is directly related to the level of industrial conflict.
THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
scope of this study will be limited to Mobile Producing Nigeria. Therefore, the
data that will be used in the course of the study will be obtained from Mobile
Producing Nigeria for the analysis and interpretation of the result findings.
finding of this study will be used for large scale organization especially
manufacturing industrial like beverage industries, textiles industries and
brewing/bottling industries in managing conflict to the best optimization of
organizational goals and success.
THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
scope of this study will be limited
to Mobile Producing Company Nigeria and will also touch large scale
organization. The data will be used in
the study will be obtain from company environment for the analysis,
interpretation and presentation of the result finding.
result obtains from the research will be used in multi-national company
especially manufacturing industries e.g textiles and bottling industries.
research will try to solve problem of conflict in an organization and minimize
the outcome of any futuristic conflict then create a simple way for
organization success and development. It is also aimed at improvement of
productivity in company performance and creates a peaceful and unity atmosphere
for employees and employers.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Industrial Conflict: This may be defined as the
dis-enhancement or dissatisfaction arising from the interaction between labour
and management in the work place.
Productivity: This may be defined as the efficiency
of an organization or enterprise.
Organization: Breech (1963) defined organization as
the framework of the management process as formed by the definition of the
responsibility by means of which the activities of enterprise are dispersed
among managerial, supervisory and specialized personnel employed in its
Collective Bargaining: According to 1998 Convention of
International Labour Organization, Collective bargaining is defined as the
voluntary negotiation between employers or employees organization with a view
to regulate terms and conditions of employments by collective agreement.
Dispute: Trade dispute decree No. of 1976
defined trade dispute as any dispute between employers and employees or between
workers which is connected with the terms of employment or condition of work of
trade dispute Act 1976, defined strike as temporal cessation of work by
a body of person, employed acting in combination or concerned refusal under a
common understanding of workers to continue to work for an employer or to
accept terms of employment and physical condition of work.
Lock-outs: The trade dispute Decree No. 7 Section 37 of
1976 defined lockout to mean closing place of employment or the suspension of
work or the refusal by an employer to continue to employ any number of person
employed by him to accept terms of employment and physical condition of work.
Industrial Action: This is the reaction of either party
(employer or employee) to the conflict in an attempt to make the other party to
succumb to its demand.
Trade Union: May be defined as the legitimate
representative of employee’s interest at work with the right to challenge the
right management to manage. Simply put, it is an association of worker, the
purpose of which is to regulate the terms and condition of employment of its
Integrated Bargaining: In recent times, there has grown an
interest in new forms of negotiation Act been variously term “integrated”
win-win” “mutal gains” bargaining (see Fisher in Vry, 1981) or the desire is to
make bargaining less adversarial and labour relation more harmonious. Hence,
industrial parties that engage in integrative bargaining basically desire or
seek to understand the other party needs, focus or problems and evaluate range
of alternative solution while ultimately concentrating on the generation of the
solutions that mutally meet the need of both parties (Stranss 1988: 673-675).
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