This research work is based on
conflict and conflict management in Niger Delta region: implications for
educational productivity using practical situations to investigate if really
education can be productive in regions associated with persistent crisis. Moreover,
it sought to highlight some of the problems the people of Niger- Delta region
have suffered as a result of the crisis, to find out why the conflicts have
persisted and the ways by which these conflicts can be managed or controlled for there to be
educational development in the Niger-
Data were collected from the
administration of questionnaire, oral interview and group discussion used for
literate adults, illiterate adults and local gatherings of Niger Delta adults
Findings revealed that the crisis
in the Niger-Delta region has tremendous negative effects on the economic,
social, political and overall development of the area. Furthermore, it was
shown that there is a falling standard of education in the region. In addition,
it was discovered that lack of employment opportunity, illiteracy and the poor
and unhealthy living conditions of the Niger Deltans have promoted the
conflicts in the region. Moreover, it
was revealed that all round development in the Niger Delta region will help
promote peace and stability.
Finally, recommendations were given
in an attempt to proffer solutions to the persistent conflicts in the Niger-
Title page i
Table of content v-vi
List of tables vii
Introduction/Background of the study 1-4
1.1 Statement of the problem 5
1.2 Purpose of the study 6
1.3 Research Questions 7
1.4 Research Hypotheses 8
1.5 Significance of the
1.6 Scope of the study 9
1.8 Definition of terms 15
2.0 Review of related
2.1 Concept of conflict 16-22
2.2 Perception of
2.2.1 Economic factors
of conflict 23-24
2.2.2 Social factors of
2.2.3 Political factors of conflict 26-29
factors of conflict 29-32
2.3 Concept of education 32-35
2.4 Implications of conflict on education 35-37
2.5 The Concept of Conflict Management 37-43
3.1 Design of the Study 44
3.2 Population of the Study 44
3.3 Sample and sampling
3.5 Method of data
3.6 Method of data
4.0 Result 47
4.1 Presentation and
Interpretation of data 47-54
4.2 Discussion of
5.1 Summary 59-60
5.2 Findings 61
5.3 Conclusion 62-63
5.4 Recommendation 63-65
5.5 Suggestion for
further research work 65
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.2.1 Distribution of
Table 4.2.2 Summary table of
analysis of variance
showing the effect of
and cultural factors
on the Niger Delta
Table 4.2.3 Summary table of
analysis of variance
Showing the effect of conflict on the
Educational programmes of students
in the Niger Delta region.
Table 4.2.4 Summary table of
analysis of variance
Showing the effect of
On the Niger Delta
Table 4.2.5 Summary table of analysis of variance
Showing the effect of dialogue on the
Niger Delta conflicts.
Table 4.2.6 Summary table of analysis of
Showing the effect of
managing the conflict in Niger Delta.
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
is part of human existence when there is need for social change, but the
conflicts that breed unhealthy killings, deprivation and affects social security
is inhuman and should be resisted and rejected.
a population of about 140 million and more than 250 ethnic groups, Nigeria is
Africa’s most populous nation.
Niger-Delta region is a network of creeks, lagoons, and mangrove swamp forests
with deposits of hydrocarbons. It is estimated that about 2.5 million barrels
of crude oil is produced daily from Niger-Delta region. This productivity level
puts Nigeria as Africa’s largest oil producer and sixth largest in the world.
In addition, these findings and production contribute to make Niger-Delta
responsible for almost 95% of Nigeria foreign exchange earnings and 90% of it’s
revenue (CBN, Annual report 2003). Invariably, Niger-Delta is very important
and strategic to Nigeria and the international community.
Niger-Delta region comprised only six states of Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross
River, Delta, Edo and Rivers states spread across the coastal fringes of Nigeria.
Today, the term Niger-Delta region has come to symbolize all the states
producing crude oil with Abia, Imo and Ondo states added to the previous six.
to the complexity and multifaceted nature of the situation of the oil-producing
communities in Nigeria, it is more apt to describe it as one with “crisis
within crisis”. Inter and intra community relations in the Niger-Delta have, of
recent, been characterized by a high level of conflict and violence. Beginning
in December 1992, the conflict between Ogonis and the oil infrastructure
escalated to a level of greater seriousness and intensity on both sides.
Military repression escalated in May 1994. On May 21, Soldiers and mobile
policemen appeared in most Ogoni villages. On that day, four Ogoni chiefs (all
on the conservative side of schism within MOSOP over strategy) were brutally
murdered. In May 1994, nine activists from the movement which would become
known as ‘The Ogoni Nine’ among them Ken Saro-Wiwa, were arrested and accused
of incitement to murder following the death of four Ogoni elders. Saro-Wiwa and
his comrades denied the charges, but were imprisoned for over a year before
being found guilty and sentenced to death by a specially convened tribunal,
hand-selected by General Sani Abacha, 10th November, 1995. The
activists were denied due process and upon being found guilty, were executed
through hanging by the Nigerian state.
Warri ethnic war between the Ijaws and Itsekiris which started in March 1997
claimed hundreds of lives, violence and conflict have also been reported
between the Urhobos and the Itsekiris,
and between different Isoko communities in Delta state different Ijaw
communities in Bayelsa state. The Ogonis have also clashed with the Andonis
while the Ijaws have clashed with the Yoruba communities in Ondo state. Inter
community violence has also been reported in Akwa Ibom State. The level of
hatred and suspicion among the different communities in the Niger-Delta has thus
been on the increase since about 1990 onwards. In an article titled “The coming
war in the Delta”, Ken-Saro Wiwa (1990) had indeed forewarned about the
festering of inter-communal conflicts in the Niger-Delta area. As he put it
…..About three weeks the smouldering war in the
Delta claimed its first lives, six
dead I, twenty injured. I had foreseen it way back in 1988, and given
ample warning. I fear that war is to come if action is not taken promptly to
diffuse the situation…. I must warn the Delta communities to abjure violence in
the just struggle for their rights…
‘worse is to come’ that Saro-Wiwa warned about has not only indeed arrived, it
has deteriorated to a situation where the various communities in Niger-Delta
are characterized by tension, violence, mistrust and attempts by each community
to demonstrate that it is first among the exploited and despoiled victims of
drawing attention to the increase in the level of inter and intra community
violence, it needs to be emphasized that the relationship between the
communities in the Niger-Delta was characterized by conflict.
researcher is interested in investigating the conflicts in the Niger Delta
region and see how the conflicts in the Niger-Delta areas can be effectively
managed by the eradication of the problems faced by the people in the zone.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
people of Niger-Delta region have suffered gross social and economic
infrastructure neglect, poverty, frustrations, ecological catastrophes and
other deprivations despite their contributions to the Nigeria prosperity. It is
important to note that the persistent crisis in the Niger-Delta region has
affected educational productivity to a great extent. Conflict puts the
vulnerable children at terrible risk. It can displace children, destroy schools
and break down educational system. Without intervention, children can be denied
access to good and safe education. Good education rarely survives major
conflicts as seen in the Niger-Delta region. Students and teachers often have
to flee as school buildings are destroyed or taken over by armed forces,
essential education financial resources get diverted towards military action,
teachers’ salaries are diverted and materials stop reaching the schools. In the
Niger-Delta region, conflict has forced many families to flee their homes, and
end up living in temporary accommodation where there is no access to schools.
The constant movement creates problems for education making it impossible to
establish schools. As the conflict continues, the hope of going to school
fades, and the need for educational development slows down as attention is
shifted on how to resolve the conflict. This study is designed to investigate
the implications of conflict on the educational productivity in Niger-Delta.
1.2 PURPOSE OF STUDY
study centred on the implications of conflict on the educational productivity
in the Niger-Delta regions. Although, there are many reasons and counter ones
for these conflicts, the investigator showed the root cause of the problems and
how to effectively curb the problems of the inhuman activities occurring in the
zone. This study found out if such conflicts are necessary. Therefore, the
The reasons for conflicts and the effects on the educational productivity in
the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria.
The ways by-which these conflicts can be managed or controlled for there to be
educational development in the Niger-Delta region.
The role of education in reducing the persistent conflicts in the Niger-Delta
following research questions were answered during the course of the study:
Are socio-economic and cultural factors responsible for the conflict in the
Is political factor the reason for the conflict in the Niger-Delta region?
Is attitudinal factor the reason for the conflict in the Niger-Delta region?
Has conflict affected the educational programmes of students in the Niger-Delta
Is provision of employment in the Niger-Delta region a solution?
Is dialogue among factional leaders a solution to the Niger-Delta conflict?
Is rehabilitation of families of the areas in Niger-Delta a solution?
Can education help in reducing the persistent conflict in the Niger-Delta
1.4 THE HYPOTHESES
following hypotheses were used for the study to corrobate the findings of the
research questions thus:
Socio-economic and cultural factors have no significant effect on the
Conflict has no significant effect on the educational programmes of students in
the Niger Delta region.
Provision of employment has no significant effect on the management of
conflicts in the Niger-Delta region.
Dialogue among factional leaders has no significant effect on the Niger-Delta
Education has no significant effect in managing the conflicts in the
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
this study centred on the implications of conflicts on the educational
productivity in the Niger-Delta region, it’s findings will help enlighten the
society on the effects of conflict on educational development and what to be
done so as to manage the situation in order for there to be development in the
society at large.
study will help awaken in the government the need to critically look into the
plight of the Niger-Delta people. Furthermore, this study will intimate and
alert the Niger-Delta people that conflict is not good for educational productivity
and development of the area, as well as provide useful information for those
who wish to research into this field of study.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study is limited to only the Niger-Delta indigenes, the ‘youths and adults’
such as parents, married and singles alike resident in Niger-Delta region.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
following theories were used in the course of this study.
Human Needs Theory
Abraham Maslow (1954), was noted with the hierarchy of needs in which he
categorized human needs according to their order of urgency as follows:
physiological needs; safety needs; aesthetic needs and self actualization
needs. He believed that all people are driven by the desire to attain
fundamental human needs. But conflict theorist like Herbert Kelman and John
Burton adopted Maslow’s ideas to conflict theory when they ascertained and
suggested that these needs underlie many deep-rooted and intractable conflicts.
A denial of one or more of these essential human needs will, therefore, result in
conflict and the affected victims will however; fight indefinitely to ensure
the achievement of and attainment of the needs.
is however imperative for society to adjust to the needs of people and not the
other way round. Burton (2006), said ethnic minorities must be given an
autonomous status if violence is to be avoided; decision-making systems must be
non-adversarial if leadership roles are to be collaborative
must be noted that there is a distinction between individual interest and human
needs. Man is noted to be aggressive in the pursuit of material (physical)
acquisition, which gives room for conflict as a result of the costs involved. Due
to this, there is the introduction of the necessary legal and bargaining
institutions and established processes. There are however, non-material needs
that do evoke aggression whenever there is injustice and these include needs of
recognition and identity. There is no form of bargaining or compromise as found
with the material acquisition that is possible with respect to the human needs.
For example, what kind of compensation is to be paid in return for youths that
are unemployed in a given area, knowing fully well that if they are employed,
they will be able to meet some of their personal needs? The non-provision of
employment however, does lead the youths into getting involved in anti-social
behaviours that are destructive.
to the structural theory, further insight into the interplay between people,
power, structure and resource exploitation and degradation in the Niger-Delta
could be gained by employing the theory of structuration. Its major benefit is
that it reveals the dynamics of forces in relation to the individual. The
theory of structuration is a complete view of society by Anthony Giddens (1979,
1981, 1992, 1984; Chokor1988). It analyses society and social relations in
social system is composed of reproduced relations between actors that may be
individuals, groups, companies or collectives. Relations are created through
organized rules or social practices. Structures are seen as recursively
organized rules and resources which people draw on and reconstitute in
day-to-day activities, which enables a system to function. Agency concept
relates to the role of the individual within the society, especially in the use
of structure. There is duality in the structure in the sense that it is both
enabling and constraining. Thus the individual agent may as a result of
unbalanced distribution of power in society, be limited in expressing and
attaining goals. For example, the goals of owning and controlling oil resources
are both hampered by federal laws and legal sanctions but at the same time,
people individually or collectively are not entirely helpless and could modify
structures in the social system by seeking to recognize the rules (e.g. current
and past agitation over the Niger-Delta issues led to the revision of 3%
derivation to 13% as provided for in the 1999 constitution). Space-time on the
other hand, simply demonstrates the fact that actions and decisions have
space-time associations, demonstrating the need to take seriously the influence
of space and time on human relationships. The Niger-Delta, for example, has a
terrain which local people have mastered over time, enhancing thus their
capacity to modify structures by using them to their own advantage in the
process of negotiating social relations and in resisting unfavourable external
proponent of the theory is Lederach (1995). The theory assumes that conflict is
caused by real problems of inequality and injustice. This inequality and
injustice is however, expressed by competing social, cultural and economic
frameworks where allocation of resources is often not enough to satisfy all
involved (George, 2000; Solomon and Mngqibisa, 2000). Conflict transformation
arises as an alternative to paradigm of conflict resolution. So, it seeks to
address questions usually neglected by conflict resolution experts such as
structural culture and cultural identity and the role individuals can play in
diminishing the intensity and duration of conflict (Miall, Ramsbotham and
(1995) and Rupesinghe (1995) affirmed that conflict transformation emphasizes a
multi-track approach in which it recognizes the need to involve multitude of
actors in a number of roles, in order to establish long lasting peace. The main
goals of the theory include: to change structure and frameworks that cause
inequality and injustice, to improve longer term relationships and attitudes
among the conflicting parties, and also develop processes and systems that
promote employment, justice, peace, forgiveness reconciliation and recognition.
The theory additionally makes possible to address the complexity of the
conflict. Conflict transformation theory recognizes the need to transform the
conflict at a number of levels as identified by Varynen (1991), thus: context
transformation, structural transformation, actor transformation, issue
transformation and individual and group transformation. This theory further gives
recognition to the different roles that grassroot actors perform or contribute
to the process of conflict transformation. The grassroot actors are believed to
play a fundamental role in the process of reconciliation and the promotion of
peace. It is these grassroot organizations that are responsible for the
initiation of reconstruction of properties that are damaged, holding prayer
meetings and vigils, holding commissions, organization of festivals of culture
and art, promotion of contacts amongst parties to the conflict and even
assesses the needs of the community. In carrying out the above, there is the
need to have an evaluation of the underlying assumptions of cultural
differences, foster an environment that encourages forgiveness and equality,
and provision of forum for communication.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
following terms have been operational defined as they were used during the
course of study.
Conflict is a situation in which people, groups or countries are involved in a
serious disagreement and argument. It is also the argument related to the
Political, Religious, Judicial, Economy and other spheres of the society.
This is a formal process of teaching and learning usually at school, college or
3 Conflict Management:
It means the various ways to bring to an end the raging war or dispute among
warring factions such as groups, society, states or even nations.
4. Adult: An adult is a person that is
physically mature. It is also, a person that is not less than 18 years. That
is, someone that is 18 years and above.
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