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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007149

No of Pages: 49

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Investigation of microorganism associated with the spoilage of banana and pawpaw were carried out. The isolation of bacteria from the banana and pawpaw was carried out on Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and salmonella shigella agar while that of fungi was on Sabouraud Dextrose agar. A total of seven (7) bacteria and two (2) fungi isolates were obtained. The bacteria isolates were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureusPseudomonas spp, Klebsiella spp, Enterococcus spp, Salmonalla spp  and Shigella spp. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus flavus and  Aspergillus niger  The highest occurring bacterium was Escherichia coli (40%),and the least were Salmonella and Shigella spp (10%) Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Pseudomonas spp (25%), Klebsiella spp, (25%), Enterococcus spp (20%). The highest fungus was Aspergillus flavus (25%), and   the least was Aspergillus niger (15%). The result showed that pawpaw and banana from Ndioru market  has the highest bacteria count of 6.6 x102cfu/ml, 5.3 x 104cfu/ml and fungal count of 2.9 x 104cfu/ml. The comparison showed that all the bacterial and fungal isolates associated with the spoilage are present in the pawpaw except Shigella spp and Aspergillus niger which were absent in the banana. It also showed that the bacteria isolate were most predominant compared to the fungal isolates. The presence of these bacteria and fungi present a health risk factor to people who consume fruits without washing. Consumers should avoid consumption of spoilt fruits to avoid health implications that may lead to death.



Title                                                                                                                                    Pages

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Tables                                                                                                                          vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  viii                  


1.1       Preamble                                                                                                                     1

1.2       Aim and Objectives                                                                                                    3


2.1       Banana (Musa species)                                                                                                4

2.1.1    Health  benefits of banana                                                                                          5

2.2       Pawpaw (Carica papaya)                                                                                           10

2.2.1    Cultivation                                                                                                                  11

2.1.2    Propagation                                                                                                                 12

2.1.3    Habitat restoration                                                                                                      12

2.1.4    Fruits                                                                                                                           13

2.1.5    Health benefits of pawpaw                                                                                         13

2.3       Molds                                                                                                                          18

2.5       Bacteria                                                                                                                       19

2.6       Bacteria Spoilage of Banana and Pawpaw                                                                 20

2.7       Fungal Spoilage of Banana and Pawpaw Fruits                                                         21

2.7.1    Other fungal spoilage of banana                                                                                 22

2.8       Control of Bacteria and Fungi Disease of Banana and Pawpaw Fruits                     23


3.1       Materials                                                                                                                     25

3.2       Sample Collections                                                                                                     25

3.3       Preparation of Media                                                                                                  25

3.4       Enumeration of Fungi and Bacteria                                                                            25

3.5       Purification of Bacteria Isolate                                                                                   26

3.6       Purification of Fungal Isolates                                                                                    26

3.7       Characterization and Identification of Bacteria Isolates                                            26

3.7.1    Gram staining technique                                                                                             26

3.7.2    Motility test                                                                                                                27

3.7.3    Catalase test                                                                                                                27

3.7.4    Coagulase test                                                                                                             27

3.7.5    Indole test                                                                                                                   28

3.7.6    Citrate test                                                                                                                  28

3.7.7    Sugar fermentation                                                                                                     28

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS                                                                                           29


5.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   35

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  37

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                      38

            References                                                                                                                  39







Table                                            Title                                                                          Pages

1             Isolation and identification of bacteria                                                        30



2             Cultural and morphological identification of fungi                                     31



 3            Percentage of occurrence of microorganisms isolated from pawpaw

               and banana sold at five(5) different markets in Umuahia                           32



4             Microbial counts of pawpaw and banana samples in cfu/ml                       33                   


5             Comparison of microorganism isolated from pawpaw

               and banana sold in five (5) different markets in Umuahia.                         34              







1.1       PREAMBLE

Food spoilage refers to the various changes in which the food becomes less palatable or even toxic to consumers. These changes may be accompanied by alterations in taste, smell, appearance or texture .Numerous microbial defects of agricultural crops are characterized by the type of microorganism responsible for their deterioration (Akinmusire, 2011).

A fruit is the edible part of a mature ovary of a flowering plant. It is usually eater raw. When matured, they may be either fleshy or dry. Fleshy fruits are further classified into berry (orange, tomatoes, pineapple, pawpaw, and banana), drupes (plume, coconut, almond, cherry) and plumes such as apple and pear. The dry fruits, unlike the fleshy fruits which have unlayered  pericarpe are classified in to dehiscent (pod, follicle and capsule) and indehiscent fruits like achene, samara, cashew etc (Jay, 2000).

Fruits and vegetables are vital sources of nutrient to human beings. They give the body the necessary vitamins, fats, minerals and oil in the right proportion for human growth and development. Fruits and vegetables are however, have serious changes to their existence. These incline changes in climatic conditions, pest and microbial attack. Over the years, there has been the need to isolate the microorganisms associated with the spoilage as a way of finding a means of controlling it (Akinyele and Akinkunmi, 2012).


Susceptibility of fruits and vegetables is largely due to differential chemical composition such as Ph and moisture contents are associated with greater predisposition to microbial spoilage. The occurrence of fungal spoilage of fruits is also recognized as a source of potential health hazard to man and animals. This is due to their production of my mycotoxins (naturally occurring toxic chemicals often of aromatic structure) which are capable of producing aflatoxins in man following inhalation or ingestion.        

Banana and Pawpaw are botanically called Musa sapientum and Carica papaya. Their spoilage is due to biotic factors and being that they are perishable fruits. Pawpaw fruit can be fleshly eaten or cooked. It can be used in the preparation of jellies, juice and jams. It has a great application in the preparation of fruit salad and desert (Mitra, 1997). Banana contains about 75% water, 23% carbohydrate and 3% protein. Banana without the peel is a good source of vitamins, potassium and fiber. Banana fruit may be eaten raw or cooked. The fruit can also be processed for a number of products. Ripped fruit can be pulped for puree for a variety of products including ice cream, yoghurt, cake bread, m Green (unripe banana) can be fried and sliced as chips.


Banana leaves are not eaten but maybe used for wrapping food in cooling. The banana foliage and pseudo stem are used as cattle feed during dry period in some banana producing areas. Banana has a good source of energy but need to be supplemented with proteins.

These fruits are usually displayed on benches and in baskets for prospective customers in the open market until sold, thereby exposing them to further microbial infection beside those associated with these whole fruit surface and those from adjacent infected fruits (Baiyewu et al., 2007).

In developing countries, post harvest deterioration are often more severe due to inadequate storage and transportation facilities. Microbial fruit infection may occur during the growth season, harvesting, handling, transport and post harvest storage and marketing conditions, or after purchasing by the consumer. Fruits contain high levels sugar and nutrient elements and their low pH values makes them particularly desirable to fungi decay (Singh and Sharma, 2007). Studies by Li-cohen and Bruhiri (2002) shows that fungi can survive and grow on fresh produce and that the nutrient content (carbohydrate, protein and fat) of fresh produce support pathogens.


Fruits are affected by a wide array of microorganisms causing its decay. Spoilage microorganisms can be introduced to the crop on the seed itself, during crop growth in the field, during harvesting and post harvest handling or during harvest and distribution (loading and offloading) (Barth et al., 2009).

Those type of soil born spoilage microbes that occur on produce are the same spoilage microorganisms that are present oh harvesting equipments, on handling equipment in the packaging house, in the storage facility and on food contact surfaces throughout the distribution chain.


Therefore, early intervention measures during crop development and harvesting through the -use of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) will provide dramatic reduction in the yield loss due to deterioration at all subsequent steps in the food (Barth et al., 2009).



1.                  To determine the bacteria present in the spoilage of banana and pawpaw.

2.                  To determine the fungi present in the spoilage of banana and pawpaw.

3.                  To compare the microorganisms associated with the spoilage of banana and pawpaw.



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