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Product Code: 00007257

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Staple foods remain the major source of foods in Nigeria and West Africa. However, due to challenge of diseases, there have been a lot of setbacks in its farming and processing. The study investigated if application of fungicide affects nutritional composition of cocoyam. Fungicide was applied foliarly, and farming season lasted for 8 months. All farming conditions for proper growth of the cocoyam were achieved. At the end of farming, amino acid analysis, phytochemicals and nutrient composition were determined using standard protocols. Result obtained showed reduced phytocompounds in the normal cocoyam when compared to the group treated with the fungicide. Alkaloid (1.72+0.55, 3.07+0.18), flavonoid (3.96+0.95, 4.31+0.03),Tanins (0.65+0.22, 0.17+0.05), saponin (1.81+0.01, 3.00+0.05), Glycoside (5.26+0.10, 9.23+0.20), oxalate (0.58+0.03, 1.98+0.16) and phytate (0.31+0.03, 1.51+0.10) in control and test group respectively. Result for proximate composition showed reduced crude fibre (3.43+0.24, 1.12+0.07), starch (20.33+0.32, 15.50+0.57), amylose (6.72+0.16, 4.97+0.09) and lipid content (1.85+0.28, 0.96+0.09), reduced vitamin content, reduced amino acid content and increased mineral contents in the group applied fungicide when compared to normal cocoyam. This suggests that fungicide used affected the nutritional composition of fungicide impacted cocoyam.


Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              ix

Abstract                                                                                                                      x                                                                                                                     

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                                          1

1.1              Background of the Study                                                                               1

1.2              Objective of the Study                                                                                   2

1.2.1    Specific objectives of the study                                                                      2

1.3              Justification of the Study                                                                               2

1.4              Statement of the Problem                                                                               3


CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                              4

2.1       General Overview                                                                                           4

2.2       Fungicides                                                                                                       6

2.2.1    Functions of fungicides                                                                                  6

2.2.2    Role of fungicides in disease management                                                     6

2.2.3    Application methods                                                                                       7

2.3       Nutritional Composition of Cocoyam                                                            7

2.4       Phytochemicals                                                                                               8

2.4.1    Saponins                                                                                                          9

2.4.2    Tannins                                                                                                            9

2.4.3    Flavonoids                                                                                                      9

2.4.4    Alkaloids                                                                                                         10

2.4.5    Phytates                                                                                                          10


CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                   11

3.1       Materials                                                                                                         11

3.1.1    Planting material sampling                                                                              11

3.2       Methods                                                                                                          11

3.2.1    Cocoyam planting                                                                                           11

3.2.2    Fungicide Application                                                                                    11

3.3       Mechanism of Action                                                                                     12

3.4       Phytochemical Content Determination                                                           12

3.4.1    Alkaloids determination                                                                                 12

3.4.2    Saponins determination                                                                                  13

3.4.3    Tannins determination                                                                        13

3.4.4    Phenol determination                                                                                      14

3.4.5    Oxalate determination                                                                                    15

3.4.6    Phytic acid determination-                                                                              16

3.5       Proximate Contents Determination                                                                16

3.5.1    Moisture content                                                                                             17

3.5.2    Ash content                                                                                                     17

3.5.3    Crude fibre content                                                                                         18

3.5.4    Crude protein content                                                                                                 18

3.5.5    Fat content                                                                                                      19

3.5.6    Carbohydrate content                                                                                     20

3.6       Determination of Vitamins                                                                             20

3.6.1    Retinol determination                                                                                                 20

3.6.2    Thiamine determination (B1)                                                                           21

3.6.3    Riboflavin determination (B2)                                                                        22

3.6.4    Niacin determination (B3)                                                                               23

3.6.5    Determination of ascorbic acid (Vit.C)                                                          23

3.7       Determination of Minerals                                                                              24

3.7.1    Calcium and magnesium determination                                                          24

3.7.2    Phosphorus determination                                                                              25

3.7.3    Sodium and potassium content determination                                               26

3.8       Amino Acid Profile Determination                                                                27

3.8.1    Deffating sample                                                                                            27

3.8.2    Nitrogen determination                                                                                   27

3.8.3    Hydrolysis of the sample                                                                                28

3.8.4    Loading of the hydrolysate into analyzer                                                       28

3.8.5    Methods of calculating amino acid value.                                                      29

3.9       Statistical Analysis                                                                                          29


CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                    30

4.1       Results                                                                                                            30

4.2       Discussion                                                                                                       37



5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      42

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                          42

References                                                                                                      43

Appendices                                                                                                     54






1:         Phytochemical screening of leaves                                                                 30                                                                         2:         Proximate composition of cocoyam                                                                31

3:         Functional properties of cocoyam                                                                   32     

4:         Starch content of cocoyam                                                                             33                                                                                   

5:         Vitamin content of cocoyam                                                                         34

6:         Mineral content of cocoyam                                                                           35                                                                                                                                                                         7:         Amino acid composition of cocoyam                                                             36









1.1              BACKGROUD  OF  THE STUDY

Cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta) is a major contributor to the human diet in Africa especially Nigeria and West Africa (FAO, 2005). It has been ranked one of the majorly consumed tubers on earth (FAOSTAT, 2013). The most significant portions of the plant are its starchy corms and cormels, used as a subsistence staple, providing an inexpensive spring of carbohydrates. Cocoyam serves as a route of money for rural families (Sajeev et al., 2004). Cocoyam is known to contain considerable amount of protein, starch, vitamins and minerals, while carbohydrates occur at the highest (Eleazu et al., 2013). The major nutrient obtained from its consumption is carbohydrate, yielding energy (O’Hair, 1990). The tuber is poor in proteins, and concentration of Sulphur contain amino acids are limiting. One major essential mineral nutrient in cocoyam is Potassium (FAO, 1990) also rich in Iron, Zinc, Calcium (Englberger et al., 2008). Njoku and Ohia (2007) reported that cocoyam is a great source of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium, whose salt are regulators of the acid-base balance of the body.


One problem affecting cocoyam farming is the Taro Leaf Blight Disease. The disease is caused by the foliar pathogen Phytophthora colocasiae, affecting the petioles and corms of its host. Usually, at initial stage of the disease, small, dark brown flecks or light brown spots are spotted on the leaf surface especially the point of water accumulation on leaves. As disease progresses, spots are enlarged till the leaves are fully damaged (Brooks, 2005). The disease is known to negatively affect the progress of the affected plant, thus reducing plant yield and nutritional composition (Onyeka, 2014). The management of the disease involves cultural practices which may include field sanitation, chemical management (which looks at use of fungicide and pesticides) and genetic resistance (Brooks, 2005). However, chemical method has been widely used in the management of the disease, considering it cheap cost and high protective ability. The use of chemicals like fungicide has been reported to control Taro Leaf Blight (Chukwu et al., 2012). However, the effects of chemical application to combat the disease on the nutritional composition of the disease have not been fully studied.


1.2              OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To evaluate the nutritional composition of fungicide impacted cocoyam

1.2.1    Specific objectives of the study

1.                  To evaluate the effect of fungicide application on the amino acid content of cocoyam

2.                  To determine the effect of fungicide treatment on the proximate composition of cocoyam

3.                  To determine the effect of fungicide application on the mineral content, starch yield, amylose, amylopectin and reducing sugar contents of cocoyam



Although the use of fungicide was reported to be effective in the control of Taro Leaf Blight (Chukwu et al., 2012), the effect of these fungicides applications on the nutritional qualities of cocoyam has not been investigated, although it has been established in literature that fungicide application could positively or negatively affect the starch quality of cocoyam, there is paucity of information on the effect of fungicide application on other nutritional contents of cocoyam,  hence the study.



Cocoyam is one of the major staple foods in developing countries and provides edible starchy corms and cormels with considerable amount of protein, starch, vitamins and minerals. However, it is observed that taro leaf blight, the disease of cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta) caused by a fungus, greatly affect the production of the crop. To combat this disease, a fungicide is usually applied during the planting period at various intervals. Previous studies have reported the impact of fungicide and pesticides application on quality of foods and crop products.




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