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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007093

No of Pages: 81

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This study was conducted to evaluate the bacterial contamination of hair brushes in barbing salons. The study was conducted in various barbing salons in Umuahia metropolis. A total number of fifty(50) samples were collected from fifty(50) different barbing salons in Umuahia and seven(7) different organisms were isolated which include; Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%), Bacillus spp (7.8%), Klebsiella spp (13.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.8%), Streptococcus spp (19.6%), Coagulase negative staphylococcus (15.7%) and Escherichia coli (3.7%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated organism as it has the highest percentage of occurrence. Sensitivity test was carried out and most of the isolates were sensitive to Tarivid (82.4%), Ceftriaxon (64.7%), Augmentin (56.9%), Gentamicin (52.9%), and resistant to Ampicillin (23.5%), Septrin (29.4%), Streptomycin (29.4%), Ceporex (33.3%) and Pefflacine (41.2%). Tarivid is the drug of choice as a greater percentage of the isolates were sensitive to it, followed by Ceftriaxon. The spread of the microorganisms and prevention of infection from hair brushes can be minimized by the use of hand sanitizers by the barbers, increased sanitary measures, strict adherence to cleaning of hair brushes with antimicrobial agent suitable for it and proper bathing and showering with soap and antiseptics.



1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                         1

1.2       Aim                                                                                                                                      4

1.3       Objective                                                                                                                              4

1.4       Significance Of Study                                                                                                                     4



2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                               5

2.1       Bacterial Contaminants Associated With Hair Brushes In Barbing Salons                       6

2.1.1    Staphylococcus aureus                                                                                                        6

2.1.2    Escherichia coli                                                                                                                   7

2.1.3    Bacillus species                                                                                                                   8

2.1.4    Klebsiella Species                                                                                                                9

2.1.5    Staphylococcus epidermidis                                                                                               10

2.1.6    Streptococcus Pyogenes                                                                                                     11

2.1.7    Pseudomonas Aeruginosa                                                                                                  12

2.2       Scalp Infection                                                                                                                   13

2.3       Causes of Scalp Infections                                                                                                13

2.4       Bacterial Scalp Infections                                                                                                  14

2.4.1    Folliculitis                                                                                                                          15

2.4.2    Scalp Impetigo                                                                                                                   15

2.5       Treatment Of Scalp Infection                                                                                            16

2.5.1    Antibiotics                                                                                                                         16

2.5.2    Home Remedies                                                                                                                 17

2.5.3    Lifestyle Remedies                                                                                                            17

2.5.4    Draining                                                                                                                             17

2.6       Infection Control Measures                                                                                               17

2.6.1    Cleaning                                                                                                                             18

2.6.2    Disinfection                                                                                                                       18

2.6.3    Sterilization                                                                                                                        19



3.0       Materials And Methods                                                                                                     20

3.1       Study Area                                                                                                                         20

3.2       Collection Of Samples                                                                                                       20

3.3       Sterilization Of Materials                                                                                                   21

3.4       Preparation Of Culture Media                                                                                                       21

3.5       Inoculation And Isolation                                                                                                  21

3.6       Purification Of Isolates                                                                                                      21

3.7       Identification Of The Isolates                                                                                          22

3.8       Gram Staining                                                                                                                   22

3.9       Biochemical Test                                                                                                               23


3.9.1    Catalase Test                                                                                                                     23

3.9.2    Indole Test                                                                                                                        23

3.9.3    Citrate Utilization Test                                                                                                     23

3.9.4    Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Production Test                                                                      23

3.9.5    Starch Hydrolysis                                                                                                             24

3.9.6    Motility, Indole, Urease (MIU)                                                                                        24

3.9.7    Coagulase Test                                                                                                                  25

3.9.8    Oxidase Test                                                                                                                     25

3.10     Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing                                                                                      25



4.0       Results                                                                                                                              26



5.0       Discussion, Conclusion And Recommendation                                                               34

5.1       Discussion                                                                                                                         34

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                        35

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                                              36










The Growth Rate Of Isolates From The Various Samples Obtained From Different Barbing Salons At Different Locations Within Umuahia



Morphological Identification Of Isolates      



Differentiation Of Isolates From Study By Gram Staining



Biochemical Identification Of Isolates.



Percentage Of Occurrence Of Isolates From Hair Brushes In Various Barbing Salons.



Antibiotics Susceptibility Of The Bacterial Isolates.









The word barber originated from the latin word “barba” meaning beard. A barber is a person whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, gives shaves and trim beards. There is strong evidence that barber’s hair brushes are risk factors for transmission of diseases. The barbing salon is a place where haircutting, shaving and hair reforming for men are practiced. Barbing is a very ancient profession which is associated with the use of combs, towels, hair brushes and clippers. If these are not appropriately disinfected leads to transmission of a range of infections, which include bacterial infections, such as staphylococcus infection (Mbajiuka, et al., 2014)

Barbers are important professionals in the community and in most cases barbershops are owned, cared and financed by individual members of the community. It is a demand on their profession      to utilize instruments such as knife, blades, clippers which makes it necessary to evaluate health hazards relating to their profession and practices and to identify professional practices linked with infection transmission (Chanda, and Khan, 2004; Wazir et al., 2008). Health has been declared as the fundamental human right. Despite this recognition, there is a denial of this right to millions of people especially in the developing countries. Healthcare is one of the most important aspects of all human endeavours aimed at improving the quality of life, since sound health is essential for the strength and prosperity of a nation. In developing countries, infections remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality in humans where it is mostly associated with poverty and overcrowding. In the developed countries, increasing prosperity, universal immunization and antibiotics have reduced the prevalence of infectious diseases. However, in the developing countries, it is known that infectious diseases cause about 25% of all human deaths and account for over 11 million deaths yearly (Kumar and Clark, 2005). Many of the infectious diseases affecting developing countries are preventable or treatable but have continued to thrive due to lack of personal and environmental hygiene, ignorance and poor political commitment from the government. Important routes of transmission of bacterial, fungal or viral infections include airborne, faeco-oral spread, vector borne and direct spread either through person to person transmission or by direct inoculation (WHO, 2006).

It has been shown that barbering operations include cutting, face and scalp massaging, nail trimming, pedicure, manicure and shampooing/dying of hair and various health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with barbers’ profession to which their clients are exposed to (Janjua, and Nizamy, 2004). The diseases of primary importance linked to barbering and barbering profession/practices are ringworm (via direct contact), infestation of head louse, staphylococcal infection, scabies (via contaminated towels, combs and aprons) and hepatitis and HIV (via contaminated blades and clips) (Wazir, et al., 2008; Arulogun and Adesoro, 2009). A significant proportion of population is enjoying the services of barbers in the community including the university community and their shops and professional practices may be a source of transmission of various infections-directly or indirectly and some bacterial infections can occur without breaking the skin and for this reason equipment must be cleaned between each client (Salami et al., 2006). The person at risk may be the next client on whom the contaminated instrument is used. Organisms that can cause potentially serious infections may be transmitted where appropriate precautions are not taken. For example, where instruments and materials used on client are not sterilized or are not properly handled and used hygienically, sharp instruments such as razors, clippers and scissors may become contaminated if they pierce the skin of infected person (clippers can accidentally pierce and penetrate the skin) and it should be noted that blood and body fluids do not have to be visible on instruments or working surfaces for infection to be transmitted and both clients and operator are   at risk (Ibrahim, 2007).


A large proportion of populations are receiving services from barbers in many communities. Barbering profession and its work place may be a potential factor for transmission of various infections to clients (Moore, and Miller, 2007). There are strong reasons that beauty salons are one of the dangerous places in transmission of diseases. Therefore respect to personal, device and shop health is necessary. Barbering is associated with use of combs, towels, knives and blades etc. (Medhat, and Shehata, 2002), if these devices are not appropriately disinfected lead to transmission of a range of infections, which include fungal infections, infestations of head louse, scabies, staphylococcus infection, hepatitis B and C HIV and etc (Waheed, and Saeed, 2011). Negligence during the use of sharp instruments may be a risk factor for blood. Borne infections are causing serious health problems for both the barbers and clients (Saeed, and Mahmood, 2004). Due to using makeup and applicators belonged friends and their families, chance of facial infection among women, especially young women, increases. Because barbering device and make up easily be contaminated by public use of them and this function provides a suitable environment for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms (Naz, and Iqtedar, 2012).

Microbial infection is a cause of morbidity and mortality in man, particularly in developing and underdeveloped areas associated with poverty and overcrowding. Many infectious diseases in developing countries such as Pakistan, India and some African countries, are preventable and treatable, but they are still a risk factor for human health.

For infection control in beauty salons, personal knowledge is very significant in barbers and customers health. Unknowledge of barbers to essential hygienic guide lines, lack of using private barbering device, unsuitable and unhygienic beauty salon, and insensitivity of clients to hygienic guidelines are notable points that should be regarded in developing countries (Medhat, and Shehata, 2002).


1.2       AIM

The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial contamination of hair brushes in barbing salons.


1.3       OBJECTIVE

       To isolate and identify bacterial found on hair brushes.

       To determine the percentage and types.

       To carry out the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates.



The significance of any human endeavor is measured by its relevance to solving human problems. However, the study is significant by helping in recommending more reliable ways in reducing the rate of microbial contamination of multiple used hair brushes in barbing saloons in general.



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