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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007138

No of Pages: 48

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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A total number of 100 samples were collected from 22 different churches in Umuahia, Abia state. The samples were collected from the mouthpiece and handles of the various microphones with a sterile swab stick moistened with normal saline. A total of 85 isolates comprising of eight (8) genera were isolated from the samples. These organisms include; Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphyococcus (CoNS), Streptococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Frequency distribution of the isolates showed that Staphylococcus aureus were (5.88%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) were (11.76%), Streptococcus sp. (9.41%), Micrococcus sp. (1.18%), Bacillus sp. (3.53%), Proteus sp. (17.65%), Escherichia coli (36.47%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.12%). The percentage sensitivity and resistance of the isolates to different antibiotics showed that all the isolates were 100% sensitive to Peflacine, Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin. The highest percentage resistance of 42.85% was recorded for Ampicillin while the least percentage resistant of 14.28% was recorded for Tarivid, Streptomycin and Ceporex each.



Cover page

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Tables                                                                                                                          viii

List of Figures                                                                                                                         ix

Abstract                                                                                                                                  x


1.0   Introduction                                                                                                                    1           

1.1   Background of study                                                                                                      2

1.2   Aims and objectives                                                                                                        2

1.3   Significance of the study                                                                                      3


2.0   Literature review                                                                                                             4

2.1    Microphones                                                                                                                  5

2.2   Types of Microphones                                                                                                    6

2.3    History of Microphones                                                                                                 6

2.4       Uses of Microphones                                                                                                  8

2.5       Sources of Microphone Contamination by Bacteria                                                   8

2.6       Factors affecting the survival of Bacterial cells on surfaces                                       9

2.6.1    The surrounding environment                                                                                     9

2.6.2    Characteristics of the Organism                                                                                  9

2.7       Transmission of Bacterial Organisms                                                                          10

2.8       Factors affecting the rate of transfer of Bacteria                                                       10

2.8.1    Bacterial specie type                                                                                                   10

2.8.2    Source and Destination Surfaces                                                                                10

2.8.3    Time                                                                                                                            11

2.8.4    Inoculums size on surfaces                                                                                         11

2.8.5    Moisture level                                                                                                             11

2.3   Various bacteria associated with microphone contamination                                         12

2.3.1   Staphylococcus aureus                                                                                                 12

2.3.2   Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS)                                                              12

2.3.3   Micrococcus sp                                                                                                13

2.3.4   Bacillus species                                                                                                            13

2.3.5    Pseudomonas aeruginosa                                                                                           13

2.3.6   Proteus sp                                                                                                                     14

2.3.7   Escherichia coli                                                                                                            14

2.3.8   Streptococcus sp                                                                                                          15


3.0   Materials and Methods                                                                                                   16

3.1   Study Area and Sample Collection                                                                                16

3.2   Materials                                                                                                                         16

3.3    Preparation of Culture Media                                                                                        16

3.3.1 MacConkey Agar                                                                                                           16

3.3.2 Blood Agar                                                                                                                    16

3.3.3 Nutrient Agar                                                                                                                 17

3.4   Sterilization                                                                                                                     17

3.5 Bacteria isolation                                                                                                              17

3.6   Characterization of Bacterial Isolates                                                                             17

3.7   Morphological Examination                                                                                            17

3.7.1   Gram Staining Technique                                                                                            17

3.7.2   Coagulase test                                                                                                              18

3.7.3   Citrate test                                                                                                                   18

3.6.4   Motility test                                                                                                                 18                                                             

3.6.5   Indole test                                                                                                                    19

3.6.6    Urease test                                                                                                                  19

3.6.7   Catalase test                                                                                                                 19

3.6.8   Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Test                                                                                         19

3.6.7   Oxidase test                                                                                                                 20                                

3.6.8   Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing                                                                                      20

3.6.9   Data Analysis                                                                                                               20




4.0       Results                                                                                                                        21



5.0     Discussion                                                                                                                     30

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                                                    31

5.2      Recommendations                                                                                                       32

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    33







Tables                                      Tittle                                                                                        Page

1                      Source of samples                                                                                           22                                                         

2                      Morphological characteristics of isolates                                                        23

3                      Biochemical identification of isolates                                                             24

4                      Percentage of occurrence of different isolates                                               25

5                      Incidence of multiple colonization                                                                 26

6                      Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates                                                         27









Figures            Tittle                                                                                                    Page


1                      Percentage occurrence of different isolates                                                    28

2                      Percentage sensitivity and resistance of the isolates

                        of different antibiotics                                                                                                29       








Bacteria are single cell organisms with cell walls containing the structural molecule peptidoglycan. Although most bacteria lack membrane bound organelles, a few members of the unusual phylum planctomyces have their genetic materials surrounded by a membrane. Bacteria are abundant in soil, water and air including site with extreme temperatures, pH or salinity. They are also major inhabitant of our skin, mouth and intestine (Sheerwood et al., 2013). Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms which vary in sizes measuring approximately 0.1-10.0µm. they are widely distribution and can be found in air, soil etc. some bacteria can cause diseases for human, animals and plants while some are harmless (i.e. live in human bodies as normal flora). Bacteria of medical importance measures (0.2-1.5µm) in diameter,(3-5µm) in length. Bacteria exist in different morphology such as rod-bacilli, cocci (spherical or oval shape), vibrios (comma- shaped), spirilla (rigid spiral forms) and spirochetes (flexible spiral forms). Bacteria reproduce by conjugation and binary fission. Bacteria can be classified as either Gram positive or Gram negative, sporulating or non- sporulating, aerobic or anaerobic, facultative or obligate.  Bacteria can survive in the microscopic grooves and cracks on surfaces and will go unnoticed. Oils in the skin, dust, grime moisture and warmth from central heating systems provide an ideal environment for these bacteria to accumulate. Bacteria such as E.coli can survive on dry air or sunlight (Ashgar and El-said., 2012). Bacteria that can cause severe gastroenteritis have been found on frequently touched surfaces. Majority (80%) of infection are spread through hand contact with surfaces. Various gram –ve bacteria and gram +ve cocci (GPC) were isolated from daily used gadgets like computer, microphones, mobile phones, stethoscopes etc. (Chandra et al.,2014) computer keyboards, mice, elevator buttons and shopping carts (Al-Ghamdi et al., 2011). Roxburgh demonstrated that bacteria can be readily transferred from hands to almost any frequently used surfaces. Some epidemiological studies have suggested that contaminated may play a role in the spread of respiratory bacteria and viruses (Roxburgh, 2005) and lab studies have supported this hypothesis (Bures et al., 2000). Scientific research has shown that commonly used surfaces are potential sources of infectious bacteria leading to the spread of sickness and diarrhea (Reynolds et al., 2005). Fomites such as Microphones carry germs and when one touches it and then touches the mouth, nose, eye etc., there may be transfer of germs in the body. The presence of pathogenic bacteria on the user interface of Microphone possesses a potential risk to vulnerable, immune compromised individuals. It has been shown that hard, nonporous surfaces have the highest bacteria transfer rates to hands (Rusin et al., 2002).


Microphones are commonly used in churches, schools, seminars, ceremonies and public gatherings. Bacteria contamination of microphones is a major health hazard and plays an important role in the transmission of different diseases in public gatherings, schools and churches


The aim of this study is:

 To determine the bacteria associated with microphone contamination used in places of worship.


The objectives of this study are:

1. To isolate bacteria associated with microphone contamination.

2.  To characterize and identify different bacteria associated with microphone contamination.

3.  To ascertain the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacteria isolate


This study will be of great importance in the rebirth of “microphone hygiene” among the general public by enlightening them on the role microphones play in the spread and transmission of disease causing organisms.


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