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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007143

No of Pages: 45

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The bacteria associated on the external surface of houseflies (Musca domestica) collected from different canteens in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike was investigated. A total of 200 houseflies were captured, 40 each from the individual sites of collection. Three bacterial genera were isolated from the samples used in this study. They include Escherichia coliproteus spp and Streptococcus spp. The range of bacterial count obtained from this study was 2.0 × 103 cfu ̸ g – 8.0 × 104 cfu ̸ g. The percentage occurrence of the isolated bacteria showed that Escherichia coli and proteus spp have the highest percentage of occurrence of 45.5% each, while the least percentage of occurrences was recorded for Streptococcus spp with a percentage occurrence of 9%. Antibiotic sensitivity tests carried out showed that Escherichia coli was sensitive to the antibiotics Tarivid, Streptomycin, Septrin, Amoxacillin, Gentamycin, Reflacine and resistant to Nalidixic Acid, Ampicilin and Ceporex. Proteus spp was sensitive to Gentamycin, Erythromycin, Reflacine, Streptomycin, Ciproflox, Zinnacef and resistant to Amoxacillin, While Streptococcus spp was resistant to Ampliclox, Amoxacillin, Recephin, Zinnacef, Streptomycin, Septrin and sensitive to Pefloxacin, Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin and Erythromycin.



Title page                                                                                                                                                                              i

Certification                                                                                                                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                                                                                                                            iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                                                                                  v

List of tables                                                                                                                                                                         viii

Abstract                                                                                                                                                                  ix


1.0 Introduction                                                                                                                        1

1.1 Aims and Objectives                                                                                                                      3


2.0 Literature review                                                                                                               4                                                   

2.1 The housefly (musca domestica)                                                                             7

2.1.1 Housefly ecology                                                                                                             7

2.1.2 Housefly distribution                                                                                                       9

2.1.3 Housefly Evolution and taxonomy                                                                                  9

2.2 Housefly Relationship with humans                                                                                   10

2.3 Housefly As a disease vector                                                                                              10

2.4 Control of houseflies                                                                                                          11


3.0  Materials and methods                                                                                                      13

3.1 Study area                                                                                                                         13

3.2  Sample collection                                                                                                             13

3.3  Media used                                                                                                                        13

3.4  Media Preparation                                                                                                              14

3.5  Sample Preparation                                                                                                             15

3.6   Bacterial isolation                                                                                                  16

3.7  Characterization and  identification of bacterial isolates                                                    16

3.7.1        Morphological examination                                                                                          16

3.7.2        Gram staining                                                                                                                16

3.8  Biochemical identification of the isolates                                                                           17

3.8.1        Catalase test                                                                                                                  17

3.8.2        Citrate utilization test                                                                                                   17

3.8.3        Motility test                                                                                                                   17

3.8.4        Indole                                                                                                                            18

3.8.5        Sucrose                                                                                                                         18

3.8.6        Coagulase test                                                                                                               18

3.8.7        Triple sugar iron test                                                                                                     18

3.8.8        Oxidase test                                                                                                                  19

3.8.9        Methyl red ̸Voges Prokauer (MR-VP)  Test                                                                19

3.9 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test                                                                                       20


4        Results                                                                                                                                    21


5        Discussion, Conclusion and recommendation                                                                       27

5.2  Discussion                                                                                                                               27

5.3   Conclusion                                                                                                                             29

5.4  Recommendation                                                                                                                    30                                                                                                                                                                                           

  References                                                                                                                            31-40                                                









            Title                                                                                                   Page

Table 1  Morphological characteristics of the bacterial isolates                                    22

Table 2  bacterial load of the samples analyzed                                                             23

Table 3  Antimicrobial susceptibility test of the organisms isolated                              24

Table 4  Biochemical characterization of the isolates                                                     25

Table 5  percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates                                                       26










              The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. It is the most common of all domestic flies, accounting for about 90% of all flies in human habitation all over the world (Nmorsi et al., 2006); and indeed one of the most widely distributed insects, found all over the world. It is considered a pest that can transmit serious diseases. According to Service (2004), about 170 genera and 4200 species in the family Muscidae are recognized, some of which are medically important including the housefly, M. domestica. It is a typical example of synanthropic animal, one that lives in association with humans (Subejo, 2010). It is considered one of the most important pests which cause health problems in the environment as it accompanies human during their daily activity everywhere, on work site or in rest places causing disturbances to them (Howard, 2011). Housefly imposes itself on human and all what is available, food and waste and is considered as very dangerous to public health and causes economic problems to farm animals (Service, 1980). House flies move around mostly during the day and like warm places and showing preference for direct sunshine. Their filthy habits, culminating in their indiscriminate movements between filth and food and defecation while feeding, make houseflies efficient transmitters of germs (Olsen, 1998).


        Besides contaminating food with eggs and maggots, flies can carry bacteria that cause intestinal diseases. Flies can travel from faecal materials to our food very easily, carrying bacteria with them on body hairs or the sticky pads on their feet. When feeding, flies expel saliva and faeces that may also contain bacteria. Sometimes flies lay eggs or maggots on the flesh or wounds of man and animals. Since housefly feed on contaminated substances such as human and animal excreta, sputum, excretion from wound, the flies can carry pathogens on their spongy mouthpart, body, and leg hairs, which is directly transmitted to the next visited surface of human food (Manzon and Sanchoz, 1997).  The common housefly (Musca domestica), lives in close association with people all over the world, the insects feed on human foodstuffs and wastes where they can pick up and transport various disease agents. Several studies in different parts of the world showed that house flies as carrier for microorganisms, Merchant, et al.,(1987) referred that house fly causative agent for spread of various diseases like anthrax, leprosy, tuberculosis, diphtheria, typhoid, dysentery and intestinal parasites in humans. Moreover they are intermediate hosts and vectors for horse nematodes and some of cestodes poultry and pointed that coccidian parasite of poultry may be transmitted mechanically by house flies. Graczyk, et al., (2001) observed that house flies are a major epidemiological factors responsible for spread of acute gastroenteritis and trachoma between infants and young children in developing countries and referred that these flies play important role in transmission of nosocomial infections with multi drug resistance bacteria in hospital environments and noted some of microorganisms can a live inside or on the bodies surface of flies from 5-6 hours up to 35 days. Sales, et al., (2002) revealed role of Musca domestica in transport pathogens and isolated many species of yeast and filamentous fungi that cause illness, majority of these Fungi may cause life threatening infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Tan et al.,1997)) in Malaysia showed in their study that house fly as mechanical vectors for rotavirus by their wings and legs, Harwood & James (1979) referred more than 100 species of pathogenic organisms have been isolated from external surface and digestive tract of flies and pointed these Pathogens remain alive in house flies for an appreciable time.



AIM: To isolate bacterial associated with the external surface of housefly collected from different canteens in m.o.u.a.u.


i.    To isolate bacteria from the external surface of housefly in different canteens in m.o.u.a.u.

ii.   To characterize and identify the organisms isolated from the housefly.

iii.  To carryout antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolated organisms.




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