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The assessment of microbial and nutritional qualities of animal feeds produced at Songhai farm, Rivers State was carried out. A total of seven (7) animals feed sample for Pig, turkey, snail, Grasscutter, Quail, Broilers, Layers brands of feeds produced at Songhai farm were analysed. The genera of bacteria and fungi isolated and their percentage accurrence were Staphylococcus specie (18.3%), Bacillus specie (20.4%), Pseudomonas specie (18.3%), E.coli (40.8%), Salmonella specie (32.6%), Aspergillus specie (79.5%), Fusarium specie (83.6%), Penicillum spp (83.6%) and Rhizopus specie (83.6%). The microbial count ranged as follows: Total heterotrophic bacterial count 7.8×105cfu/g to 1.50×106cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count 2.8×104cfu/g to 7.8×104cfu/g; E.coli count 1.0×104cfu/g to 7.8×104cfu/g; fungal count 8.3×105cfu/g to 1.90×105cfu/g. The nutritional parameters ranged as follows: Moisture content 8.3% to 9.80%; Ash content 7.2% to 10.8%; Fat content 1.01% to 10.9%; Fiber content 2.53% to 14.3%; Protein content 6.65% to 43.0%; Carbohydrate content 18.4% to 67.07%. The nutritional qualities of the animal feed analysed shown that there is high nutrient found in animal feeds produced in Songhai farm which help in the growth, healthiness and aids digestion in these animal and can help humans after consumption.


Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of contents v

List of Tables vii Abstract   viii


CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1

1.2 Aims and Objective 6

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review 7

2.1 Animal Nutrient Requirements 8

2.1.1 Nutrition 8

2.1.2 Carbohydrates 9

2.1.3 Lipids 9

2.1.4 Proteins 9

2.1.5 Vitamins 10

2.1.6 Minerals 10

2.2 Pathogens Found in Livestock/Poultry 11

2.3 Antimicrobials in Livestock/ Poultry 12

2.4.1 Commonly Used Antimicrobials Administered to Pig 13

2.4.2 Commonly Used Antimicrobials Administered to Poultry 14

CHAPTER THREE: Materials and Method 16

3.2 Sample Collection 16

3.3 Isolation and Enumeration of Associated Microorganism 16

3.4 Media Preparation 16

3.5 Enumeration and Identification of Associated Microorganism 17

3.6 Characterization and Identification of Organism 17

3.7 Gram Staining 17

3.8 Biochemical Tests

3.9 Proximate/Nutritional Analysis of Animal Feed Samples 20

3.10 Determination of Dry Matter (Dm) 20

3.11 Determination of Ash 20

3.12 Determination of Protein 21

3.13 Determination of Fat 21

3.14 Determination of Carbohydrate 22

CHAPTER FOUR: Results 23


CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation 27

5.1 Discussion 27

5.2 Recommendation 28

 References 30

Appendix I 35

Appendix I 36






Table Title Page

1 Total count of microorganism isolated from animal feed produce at

Songhai farm. 24

2   Percentage occurrence of bacterial and fungi isolates of animal feeds

produce at Songhai farm. 25

3   Proximate Analysis Result 26

4 Identification of Fungal Isolates 35

5 Biochemical test 36





Animal feeds are routinely subjected to contamination from diverse sources, including environmental pollution and activities of insects and microbes. Animal feeds may also contain endogenous toxins arising principally from specific primary and secondary substances produced by fodder plants. Feed toxins include compounds of both plant and microbial origin (Banks et al 2003).

Although these toxins are often considered separately because of their different origins, they share several common underlying features. Thus, particular compounds within both plant and microbial toxins may exert antinutritional effects or reduce reproductive performance in farm animals. Furthermore, the combined effects may be the result of additive or synergistic interactions between the two groups of compounds. The extent and impact of these interactions in practical livestock feeding remain to be quantified. Feed contaminants and toxins occur on a global scale but there are distinct geographical difference in the relative impact of individual compounds. The term “FEED” is generally used in its widest context to include compounds blends of straight ingredients as well as forages. With such a broad perspective, it is necessary and more instructive to introduce some focus (Bartelt et al 2012).

 A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds may occur in feedstuffs ,including pesticides,industrial pollutants, radionuclides and heavy metals. Pesticides that may contaminant feeds originate from most of the major groups, including organochlorine, organophosphate and pyrethroid compounds(Baxter-potter et al 2000). Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are examples of industrial pollutants that may contaminate feeds, particularly herbage. Contamination of feeds and herbage with cadium may occur as a result of applying certain types of fertilizers to crops and pastures. On the other hand, lead contamination arises from industrial and urban pollution, while mercury in feeds arises from the use of fish meal. There is currently considerable interest in the occurrence of Escherichia coli in animal feeds following the association of the 0157 type of these bacteria with human illness. In a rescent united states study (lynn et al., 2001), 30 percent of cattle feed samples obtained from commercial sources and farms contact E coli. Listeria monocytogenes tends to occur in poor quality silages and big-bale silage. When grass is ensiled under anaerobic conditions, the low PH regime ensures that  Listeria is excluded from the resulting silage. These bacteria also survive at low temperatures and in silage with high levels of dry matter. Contamination of silage with listeria is important as it causes abortion, meningitis, encephalitis and septicemia in animals and humans. The incidence of various forms of listeriosis has been increasing in recent years. Some major constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the years round feed supply providing adequate good quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is and will be a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. Increase in population and rapid growth in world economies will lead to increase in demand for animal products, an increase of approximately 30% in both meat and milk production is expected in the coming 20years.

Composition of soil microorganisms results from geographical region, quality of soil, fertilization, locally occurring animals (insects, rodents, birds) or whether conditions (Maciororoski et al., 2008). Consequently, plant feed material are contaminated by microflora characteristic for each field. As far as plant feeds are less fertile for growth of pathogens with the exception of oil seeds, feeds of animal origin are richer in nutrient and water which may intensify the multiplication of bacterial organisms. However, it seems that the most important factors deciding about a microbiological quality of animal feeds are the health status of animals before slaughter and hygienic conditions at slaughter house (CDC 2011b ).

Moreover, both plant and animal materials may be additionally contaminated during harvesting, storage, transport and retail sale. The highest importance in microbiological quality of feed is attributed to pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella species, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum and some groups of microorganisms, which play a role of hygiene indicators of feed. The microbiology of animal feeds, including forages, cereal grains, oilseed, by-products and compound feeds. The beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria and yeast cultures have also been attributed with beneficial properties as feed probiotics for reducing and increasing growth performance in farm animals. Animal feeds may become contaminated with harmful bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria and E. coli. Cereal grain and oil seed by-products are regularly contaminated with fungi occurring as plant pathogens or developing during storage. Major diverse effects arise in farm animals due to the production of mycotoxins by certain species and strains of these fungi and the potential methods for reducing the prevalence of deleterious fungi and regulations to control these feed contaminants, particularly mycotoxins. The range of contaminants and toxins arising from anthropogenic and natural sources, distribution of heavy metals, radionuclides, mycotoxins, plant toxins, antibiotics and microbial pathogens in cereals, complete feeds and forages, together with the impact on farm livestock productivity and on the safety of resulting products. The methods of avoiding contamination and the regional significance of controls and legislation, the developing controversy surrounding the use of antibiotics as growth promoters for food animals. These drugs are used at low doses in animal feeds and are considered to improve the quality of the product, with a lower percentage of fat and higher protein content in the meat (Choi et al 2000). They may also help to control zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Use of antibiotics, particularly at low doses, is associated with selection for resistance in pathogenic bacteria and it has been argued that the use of antibiotics as growth promoters and examines some of the alternative methods for achieving meat of high quality and safety is necessary to provide adequate protection for consumers and to facilitate trade. These objectives can be achieved by implementing and monitoring quality assurance measures along the entire food chain, when it is appropriate and when it is possible. Everyone involved with food, from the farmer to the consumer, shares in the responsibilities to keep food protected from hazards that can increase human health risks. These actions will also prevent or reduce food losses, which is especially important in those situations where food security is threatened (Tanner, 2000).

Feeds for poultry production are composed largely of grains such as corn, wheat or barley, oil seeds, cake meal (originating mainly from oil producing seeds such as soybeans), sunflower seeds, peanuts, cotton seed and protein products of animal origin such as fish meal, meat and bone meal, slaughter house offal,s and feather meals (Bale et al., 2002). Since these feeds are expected to be sole sources of nutrition of the birds, they usually contain essential mineral and vitamin additives (Dhand et al., 2000). However, there are variations in nutrient requirements for different farm animals, but the level of dietary energy and associated nutrient should be high enough to allow expression of animal potentials under certain environmental circumstances with the economic limitations (Wilson, 2003). According to Cevger and Yalcin (2003), poultry feeds are essential source of energy needed to generate heat and to support the chemical reactions in which all physiological processes depended. Many of these reactons are catalysed by vitamins or some inorganic elements, hence must be provided in the diet (Uwaezuoke et al., 2000). In addition, is water, since virtually all cell medicated reactions take place in an aqueous medium. In most cases, poultry feed ingredients are delivered in bulk and usually in very large quantities conveyed  from one storehouse to another.

The poultry industries rely on the supply of ready-to-use feed firm from feed mills for handling, unloading, grinding of grains, mixing and usually pelleting of the mixed ration (Aganaga et al. 2000). These packaged feeds from feed mills constitute the main source of feeds for poultry farmers.

Poultry feed component of plants and animal origin are commonly contaminated with microorganisms, mostly bacteria and fungi and/ or insects. However, the number and types of microorganisms and insects vary depending on the function of materials, location of its origin, climatic conditions encountered, harvesting, processing, storage transport technologies employed and packaging materials (DMello, 2006). He further reported the impart of the general environmental and handling circumstances including the nature and extent of quality control measures on the level of microbial contamination. Some beneficial animal feed contamination suh as lactic acid bacteria have been reported (D’Mello 2006). The importance of LAB in poultry feeds and growth performance in farm animals have equally been implicated as contaminants of poultry feeds include Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, Salmonella spp, Lissteria spp, Enterococcus faecalis, Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus penicillium spp, and Fusarium spp (DMello 2006) .

The Microbiology of animal feeds became imperative in view of the recent birds infections and diseases outbreak in Nigeria. The outbreak resulted in massive destruction of birds championed by the federal Government of Nigeria. In addition, many poultry farmers have not recovered from the shock and huge financial losses created by the scenario. Therefore, this study focus on the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of selected commercial poultry feeds with the aim of ascertanng the safe quality of the feeds.

1.2 Aims and Objectives

1. To identify and isolate microorganisms associated with animal feeds.

2. To ascertain the nutritional value of the various types of animal feeds.

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