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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005025

No of Pages: 71

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5    Research Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the study

1.8       Definition of Significant Terms



2.1       Conceptual Review

2.1.1        Concept of Business Studies

2.1.2        Concept of Academic Performance of Business Studies Students

2.1.3        Effects of Parental Status on Student Academic Performance

2.1.4        Parental Level of Education and Students’ Academic Performance

2.1.5        Socio-Economic Status Influence on Students’ Academic Performance   

2.1.6        Parents’ Occupation and Students’ Academic Performance

2.1.7    Family Size and Students’ Academic Performance

2.1.8    Remedies for Parental Factors on Academic Performance

2.2       Theoretical Review

            Social Conflict Theory

            Motivational Theory

            Epstein’s Model Theory of Parental Participation

2.3       Empirical Studies

2.4       Appraisal of Literature Review





3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population of the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.4       Instrumentation

3.5       Validity of the Instrument

3.6     Reliability of the Instrument                   

3.7       Procedure for Data Collection

3.8       Method of Data Analysis     





5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3         Recommendations

5.4       Suggestion for Further Study









1.1       Background to the Study

             Education is a fundamental human right, the key to sustainable development, a crucial tool for effective participation in societies and it enhances peace and stability among countries (Ninomiya, 2003). Posse and Melgosa (2002) identified three environments that must come into play in the educational process which include; the family, the school and the community. The researchers opined that for a successful educational process to be realized the objectives of these three environments must be harmonized. Ford and Harris (2007) examined parental influences on African-American students’ school achievements. They focused on parents’ level of education, marital status and family income and found that children from high and middle socio-economic families are exposed to a better learning environment at home.

            According to Gabriel (2005) the main beneficiaries of TRLF are: Orphans, children of subsistence farmers, nomadic pastoralists and single parent families without any regular source of income. Despite all incentives and efforts by the Government and NGOs to enhance quality and participations in education, this region still perform dismally in academics. Harris (2006) posited that for proper social and emotional development, students require a strong and reliable primary care giver who provides unconditional love, guidance and general support. They also require safe, predictable, and stable environment. Children raised from arid regions like Tana River County are much less likely to have these vital needs met than their counterparts from regions with favorable climatic conditions. Most families in these regions tend to practice pastoralism. This occupation entails moving from place to place in search of greener pastures and water for animals. Parents tend to be overworked; they are overstressed and authoritarian with children and fail to form solid, healthy relationship with their children leading to emotional and social challenges which may translate to poor academic performance (Ahnert & Pinquart, 2006).

Considine and Zappala (2002) agree that social economic status is determined by an individual’s achievements in education, employment, occupational status and income. Onsomu (2006) found that students from homes with better quality houses, who always speak English at home, had most learning materials, who ate at least three meals per day, who had many possessions and more educated parents achieved better in school. Muola (2010) while doing study in Machakos District observed that student’s motivation to do well in academic work is dependent on the nature of their home environment.

             According to a study conducted by Kunje (2009) there is a significant relationship between parental level of education and the students’ education aspirations. Evidence that the largest of education casualties come from the lower social classes is overwhelming (Kunje, 2009). Poor children come from home environments that are educationally impoverished and the conditions nearly affect every aspect of life. The low background status perpetuates educational deprivation. Poor families will certainly find it difficult to pay fees. Moreover, poor families on average tend to have more school-age children at home than higher income families. Wealthier and better educated parents utilize basic education and deploy resources in a manner that creates preschool conditions which are conducive to a successful school performance. Families set the lifestyle and influences life chances for the child. The life which a family attaches to school determines the motivation with which its children pursue basic education.

            A study conducted in Mombasa by Ogoye (2007) showed that illiterate parents were unable to assist their students in doing homework. The importance of parental involvement in children’s academic success is an unquestionable assumption. Independent of the parents’ type of involvement in education or schooling, in general, hundreds of studies have demonstrated a predominance of positive correlations between this variable and students’ academic achievement (Muola 2010). According to Mwoma (2010) education usually entails expenses such as buying reading materials, stationery among others. This introduces the element of family economic status into question. As a result studies have noted that economic status determines the extent of parental involvement in their children’s education. Parents who are illiterate and poor and cannot afford to buy supplementary learning materials are less likely to be actively involved in their children’s education. They are preoccupied with different chores to fend for their families and, paradoxically, children are expected to engage in some form of child labor that can contribute towards family provisioning and sustenance. 

            Ogoye (2007) noted that socio-economic status is a critical issue in many African communities where illiteracy and poverty levels are high, thus limiting parental involvement in homework. In some cases learning and reference materials have to be shared among students, and not all parents are able to buy for their children personal subject-specific text copies. More important is the fact that some parents expect the children to help them after school, during the time the children are expected to undertake their homework assignments. Child rearing practices vary with socio-economic background and parental level of education.

            A study by Muola (2010) has revealed that the achievement motivation of students whose fathers have attained high educational level and are in high income occupations tend to be high. Achievement motivation has been shown to be higher in the working than middle class. Parent’s educational level has direct impact on their student's educational aspirations (Okantey, 2008). Children schooling is positively related to their parents because students tend to imitate their parents and also aspire to be highly educated as their parents. Children are more disadvantaged when their parents have low education level; forming a cycle of uneducated family members and making every generation of the family not to go higher than their parents. Children from highly educated families are more ambitious and attain higher levels of education. Jeyne (2005) examined five different variables including, mother’s education, father’s education, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, and family income.

            It has been assumed that academic achievement of students may not only depend on the quality of schools and the teachers, rather the extent of home-based factors has vital role to play in academic achievement of their students. The focus of this study is to examine parental status factors influence on academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Secondary school learning environment may be more complex than elementary school and academic achievement expectations increase. Students are more likely to have higher academic achievement levels and improved behavior when the parental status factors are favourable (Bryan, 2005).

1.2       Statement of the Problem

            Good education does not happen by chance. It is a product of effective teaching and learning coupled with the effort of the teacher, the school, the students, parents and their various home environments. Often a time the blames on the poor performance of students in school are shifted to the teachers and the school authorities. Most families in our society seem not to give adequate attention to the education of their children. It appears some of the parents have erroneous notion about the performance of their children, they do not know and seem to fulfill their role of guidance and encouragement in the child’s performance in schools. Some people also have the notion that the mass failure or success in schools could be traced back to the teachers and the school authorities. While other people see socio-economic status of the family as an influence to the student’s academic performance.           Most students in Nigerian secondary schools are in greater risk of poor academic achievement in both internal and external examinations (WAEC and NECO). For instance, the available records of 2015-2017 of Basic examination of junior secondary school show a continuous decline in students overall performance in school certificate examinations. Government, parents, teachers and students blame one another for students’ poor performance in schools. Parents blame teachers for lack of dedication to duties. The teachers blame government for poor salaries hence they are poorly motivated, parents also accuse government for not equipping the schools with learning materials, government blame parents for not doing good home work and the students are blamed for lack of discipline and dedication to their studies. In light of the above issues, the outstanding and relevant question is: what is the effect of parental status on academic performance of business studies students?

1.3       Purpose of the Study

            The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of effect of parental status on the academic performance of junior secondary school students in Ogbomoso Oyo state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to:

i.                    find out whether parental level of education will influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State; 

ii.                  determine whether parent socio-economic status will influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State; 

iii.                examine whether parents’ occupation will influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State; 

iv.                investigate whether family size will influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State; 

1.4       Research Questions

The following research question will be raised to guide the study:

(i)                 will parental level of education influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State? 

(ii)               will parent socio-economic status influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State? 

(iii)             will parents’ occupation influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State? 

(iv)             will family size influence academic performance  of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State? 

1.5    Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses will be formulated for the study:

H01    There is no significant relationship between parental level of education and academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State.

H02    There is no significant relationship between socio-economic status and academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State.

H03    There is no significant relationship between parents’ occupation and academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State. 

H04    There is no significant relationship between family size and academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State.

1.6       Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will help to understand the effects of parental status on academic performance of students in Ogbomoso.

Hopefully, the findings will be of immense importance to students. The students will realize that their poor performance might not necessarily be their fault alone, especially those from low status families. Such knowledge will go a long way to reduce frustration in the students and also reduce drop-outs which occur as a result of frustration. Rather, the students should be made to adjust and help themselves by studying hard at home and also make proper of the books and materials that are provided for them at the school library.

Parents will also understand the need for them to improve their socioeconomic status so as to be able to provide the necessary motivation in form of learning materials and other things which will enhance their children’s learning and their academic performance.

The school guidance counselors will also benefit from the findings of this study. They will be in position to guide and counsel students in the area of personal social interactions, academic performance and career choice.

The findings of the study will help Parents Teacher Associations (PTA) of schools in promoting the academic performance of student. This is because at PTA meetings, parents know their functions and responsibilities at home, to help solve their children’s problems both home and school environment.

The findings of the study will be of immense help to educational administrators. They will use the findings in the formulation of policy that will regulate equal educational opportunities for all children irrespective of their family background in the distribution of equipment, facilities and amenities to schools.

The findings of this study will help the society at large in identifying how family environmental variables such as what parents’ level of education, parents’ income, parents’ occupation, parents’ motivation and family size on student’s academic performance.

1.7       Scope of the study

This study will be carry out in some selected secondary schools in Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Although, many factors affecting the academic performance of students in business studies, but this study only investigated the parental status as a major factors that affecting them while other factors will be intact in the study area.


1.8       Definition of Significant Terms

Socio- economic status: This refers to individual’s/group’s demographic, social and economic position in relation to others. In this study, socio-economic status was measured in terms of parents’ level of income, level of education, and occupational status.

Occupation: Is an activity that serves as one’s regular source of livelihood. In this study, occupation was measured in terms of parents’ work content, occupational prestige (formal or informal occupation), occupational class and occupation as an indicator of education/skills and income. Level of education: This means the stage one reached educationally from primary level, secondary level, tertiary level/ college or university stage.

Education: Is the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, especially at a school, college, or university. In this study education was measured through the analysis of data such as scores/grades obtained from educational assessments to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students.

Family Size: Family size in this context refers to the total number of children in the child’s family in addition to the child himself.

Overpopulation: This occurs when the number of occupants in a family exceeds the ability of financial income of the family that can cater for.

Poor results: Refers to the examination outcomes in which the mean grade or individual subject performance curtails the learner from higher education or further training.

Academic performance: Is the outcome of the students after assessments. This study measured academic performance basing on the average grades scored by students in exams (whether A, B, C, D or grade E).

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