to the Study
of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the study
of Significant Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Business Studies
Concept of Academic Performance of Business Studies
Effects of Parental Status on Student Academic
Parental Level of Education and Students’ Academic
Socio-Economic Status Influence on Students’ Academic
Occupation and Students’ Academic Performance
2.1.7 Family Size and Students’ Academic Performance
Factors on Academic Performance
2.2 Theoretical Review
Model Theory of Parental Participation
2.3 Empirical Studies
2.4 Appraisal of Literature Review
of the Study
and Sampling Technique
of the Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
for Data Collection
of Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
for Further Study
to the Study
Education is a fundamental human right, the
key to sustainable development, a crucial tool for effective participation in
societies and it enhances peace and stability among countries (Ninomiya, 2003).
Posse and Melgosa (2002) identified three environments that must come into play
in the educational process which include; the family, the school and the
community. The researchers opined that for a successful educational process to
be realized the objectives of these three environments must be harmonized. Ford
and Harris (2007) examined parental influences on African-American students’
school achievements. They focused on parents’ level of education, marital
status and family income and found that children from high and middle
socio-economic families are exposed to a better learning environment at home.
According to Gabriel (2005) the main
beneficiaries of TRLF are: Orphans, children of subsistence farmers, nomadic
pastoralists and single parent families without any regular source of income.
Despite all incentives and efforts by the Government and NGOs to enhance
quality and participations in education, this region still perform dismally in
academics. Harris (2006) posited that for proper social and emotional
development, students require a strong and reliable primary care giver who
provides unconditional love, guidance and general support. They also require
safe, predictable, and stable environment. Children raised from arid regions
like Tana River County are much less likely to have these vital needs met than
their counterparts from regions with favorable climatic conditions. Most
families in these regions tend to practice pastoralism. This occupation entails
moving from place to place in search of greener pastures and water for animals.
Parents tend to be overworked; they are overstressed and authoritarian with
children and fail to form solid, healthy relationship with their children
leading to emotional and social challenges which may translate to poor academic
performance (Ahnert & Pinquart, 2006).
and Zappala (2002) agree that social economic status is determined by an
individual’s achievements in education, employment, occupational status and
income. Onsomu (2006) found that students from homes with better quality
houses, who always speak English at home, had most learning materials, who ate
at least three meals per day, who had many possessions and more educated
parents achieved better in school. Muola (2010) while doing study in Machakos
District observed that student’s motivation to do well in academic work is
dependent on the nature of their home environment.
According to a study conducted by Kunje (2009)
there is a significant relationship between parental level of education and the
students’ education aspirations. Evidence that the largest of education
casualties come from the lower social classes is overwhelming (Kunje, 2009).
Poor children come from home environments that are educationally impoverished
and the conditions nearly affect every aspect of life. The low background
status perpetuates educational deprivation. Poor families will certainly find
it difficult to pay fees. Moreover, poor families on average tend to have more
school-age children at home than higher income families. Wealthier and better
educated parents utilize basic education and deploy resources in a manner that
creates preschool conditions which are conducive to a successful school
performance. Families set the lifestyle and influences life chances for the
child. The life which a family attaches to school determines the motivation
with which its children pursue basic education.
A study conducted in Mombasa by
Ogoye (2007) showed that illiterate parents were unable to assist their
students in doing homework. The importance of parental involvement in
children’s academic success is an unquestionable assumption. Independent of the
parents’ type of involvement in education or schooling, in general, hundreds of
studies have demonstrated a predominance of positive correlations between this
variable and students’ academic achievement (Muola 2010). According to Mwoma
(2010) education usually entails expenses such as buying reading materials,
stationery among others. This introduces the element of family economic status
into question. As a result studies have noted that economic status determines
the extent of parental involvement in their children’s education. Parents who
are illiterate and poor and cannot afford to buy supplementary learning
materials are less likely to be actively involved in their children’s
education. They are preoccupied with different chores to fend for their
families and, paradoxically, children are expected to engage in some form of
child labor that can contribute towards family provisioning and
Ogoye (2007) noted that
socio-economic status is a critical issue in many African communities where
illiteracy and poverty levels are high, thus limiting parental involvement in
homework. In some cases learning and reference materials have to be shared
among students, and not all parents are able to buy for their children personal
subject-specific text copies. More important is the fact that some parents
expect the children to help them after school, during the time the children are
expected to undertake their homework assignments. Child rearing practices vary
with socio-economic background and parental level of education.
A study by Muola (2010) has revealed
that the achievement motivation of students whose fathers have attained high
educational level and are in high income occupations tend to be high.
Achievement motivation has been shown to be higher in the working than middle
class. Parent’s educational level has direct impact on their student's
educational aspirations (Okantey, 2008). Children schooling is positively
related to their parents because students tend to imitate their parents and
also aspire to be highly educated as their parents. Children are more
disadvantaged when their parents have low education level; forming a cycle of
uneducated family members and making every generation of the family not to go
higher than their parents. Children from highly educated families are more
ambitious and attain higher levels of education. Jeyne (2005) examined five
different variables including, mother’s education, father’s education, father’s
occupation, mother’s occupation, and family income.
It has been assumed that academic
achievement of students may not only depend on the quality of schools and the
teachers, rather the extent of home-based factors has vital role to play in
academic achievement of their students. The focus of this study is to examine
parental status factors influence on academic performance of business studies
students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Secondary school learning environment may be
more complex than elementary school and academic achievement expectations
increase. Students are more likely to have higher academic achievement levels
and improved behavior when the parental status factors are favourable (Bryan,
of the Problem
Good education does not happen by
chance. It is a product of effective teaching and learning coupled with the
effort of the teacher, the school, the students, parents and their various home
environments. Often a time the blames on the poor performance of students in
school are shifted to the teachers and the school authorities. Most families in
our society seem not to give adequate attention to the education of their
children. It appears some of the parents have erroneous notion about the
performance of their children, they do not know and seem to fulfill their role
of guidance and encouragement in the child’s performance in schools. Some
people also have the notion that the mass failure or success in schools could
be traced back to the teachers and the school authorities. While other people
see socio-economic status of the family as an influence to the student’s
academic performance. Most
students in Nigerian secondary schools are in greater risk of poor academic
achievement in both internal and external examinations (WAEC and NECO). For instance,
the available records of 2015-2017 of Basic examination of junior secondary
school show a continuous decline in students overall performance in school
certificate examinations. Government, parents, teachers and students blame one
another for students’ poor performance in schools. Parents blame teachers for
lack of dedication to duties. The teachers blame government for poor salaries
hence they are poorly motivated, parents also accuse government for not
equipping the schools with learning materials, government blame parents for not
doing good home work and the students are blamed for lack of discipline and
dedication to their studies. In light of the above issues, the outstanding and
relevant question is: what is the effect of parental status on academic
performance of business studies students?
1.3 Purpose of
of this study is to find out the
influence of effect of parental status on the academic performance of junior
secondary school students in Ogbomoso Oyo state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study
find out whether
parental level of education will influence academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo
parent socio-economic status will influence academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo
parents’ occupation will influence academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo
whether family size will influence
academic performance of business studies
students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State;
1.4 Research Questions
The following research question will be raised to
guide the study:
level of education influence academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo
socio-economic status influence academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo
occupation influence academic performance
of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State?
will family size influence academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso, Oyo
The following research hypotheses
will be formulated for the study:
H01 There is no significant relationship between
parental level of education and academic performance of business studies
students in Ogbomoso, Oyo State.
H02 There is no significant relationship between
socio-economic status and academic performance of business studies students in
Ogbomoso, Oyo State.
H03 There is no significant relationship between
parents’ occupation and academic performance of business studies students in
Ogbomoso, Oyo State.
H04 There is no significant relationship between
family size and academic performance of business studies students in Ogbomoso,
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study will help
to understand the effects of parental status on academic performance of
students in Ogbomoso.
Hopefully, the findings
will be of immense importance to students. The students will realize that their
poor performance might not necessarily be their fault alone, especially those
from low status families. Such knowledge will go a long way to reduce frustration
in the students and also reduce drop-outs which occur as a result of
frustration. Rather, the students should be made to adjust and help themselves
by studying hard at home and also make proper of the books and materials that
are provided for them at the school library.
will also understand the need for them to improve their socioeconomic status so
as to be able to provide the necessary motivation in form of learning materials
and other things which will enhance their children’s learning and their
school guidance counselors will also benefit from the findings of this study.
They will be in position to guide and counsel students in the area of personal
social interactions, academic performance and career choice.
findings of the study will help Parents Teacher Associations (PTA) of schools
in promoting the academic performance of student. This is because at PTA
meetings, parents know their functions and responsibilities at home, to help
solve their children’s problems both home and school environment.
findings of the study will be of immense help to educational administrators.
They will use the findings in the formulation of policy that will regulate
equal educational opportunities for all children irrespective of their family
background in the distribution of equipment, facilities and amenities to
findings of this study will help the society at large in identifying how family
environmental variables such as what parents’ level of education, parents’
income, parents’ occupation, parents’ motivation and family size on student’s
1.7 Scope of the study
This study will be carry out in some
selected secondary schools in Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Although, many factors affecting the academic
performance of students in business studies, but this study only investigated
the parental status as a major factors that affecting them while other factors
will be intact in the study area.
of Significant Terms
Socio- economic status: This refers to individual’s/group’s demographic,
social and economic position in relation to others. In this study,
socio-economic status was measured in terms of parents’ level of income, level
of education, and occupational status.
Is an activity that serves as one’s regular source of livelihood. In this
study, occupation was measured in terms of parents’ work content, occupational
prestige (formal or informal occupation), occupational class and occupation as
an indicator of education/skills and income. Level of education: This means the
stage one reached educationally from primary level, secondary level, tertiary
level/ college or university stage.
Is the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills,
especially at a school, college, or university. In this study education was
measured through the analysis of data such as scores/grades obtained from
educational assessments to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students.
Family size in this context refers to the total number of children in the
child’s family in addition to the child himself.
This occurs when the number of occupants in a family exceeds the ability of
financial income of the family that can cater for.
Refers to the examination outcomes in which the mean grade or individual
subject performance curtails the learner from higher education or further
Academic performance: Is the outcome of the students after assessments.
This study measured academic performance basing on the average grades scored by
students in exams (whether A, B, C, D or grade E).
Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects
FOR QUICK HELP CHAT WITH US NOW!
+(234) 0814 780 1594