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This study investigated the application of Information and Communication Technology on senior secondary school students’ academic achievement in English Language in Ebonyi State.  The design of the study was a quasi-experimental design with pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group using three intact classes. The objectives were to find out the mean achievement scores of students taught English language using ICT facilities and those students taught with mere verbal description of the same English language lesson as well as effect of gender and school location on mean achievement scores of students in English language. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. The population of this study comprised of eight thousand three hundred and forty (8,340) Senior Secondary School II (SSS II) students selected from all 77 public secondary schools in Abakaliki Education Zone. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 3 public secondary schools.  The instrument used for data collection was English Language Achievement Test (ELAT) consisting of 36-multiple choice test items. Data were analysed using mean and standard deviation to answer all research questions and Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses. The results of the analysis revealed that students who were taught English language using ICT-based instructional method performed better than those taught with lecture method. Urban and rural school students taught English language performed significantly different. Gender had no significant effect on the academic achievement of students taught English language using ICT-based instructional method and those students taught using mere verbal description of the same English language lesson and there was an interaction effect of gender and ICT-based instructional method. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended among others, that State and Federal ministry of education as policy makers in secondary schools should infuse ICTs as a core component of teaching methods in the curricula of senior secondary schools in order to reduce the poor academic performance of students in English language.


Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Declaration                                                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Certification                                                                                                                            iv

Acknowledgments                                                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                         x

Abstract                                                                                                                                  xi


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                             

1.1     Background of the Study                                                                                              1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                                                              8

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                                                                    9

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                                                              10

1.5     Research Questions                                                                                                       11

1.6     Hypotheses                                                                                                                    11

1.7     Scope of the Study                                                                                                        12


CHAPTER 2:   REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE                                  

 2.1             Conceptual Framework                                                                                        13

2.1.1           Concept of information and communication technology                                                13

2.1.2           ict facilities: an instructional media for improving students’                            academic achievement in english language                                                        22

2.1.3           benefits of integrating ict into teaching and learning of                                              english language                                                                                              28

2.1.4           the challenges militating against full integration of ict into                                            teaching and learning of english language                                                        30

2.1.5        concept of academic achievement                                                                         34

2.1.6       gender and academic achievement                                                                                     38

2.1.7      concept of school location and academic achievement                                           41

2.2         Theoretical Framework                                                                                             44

2.2.1      Social presence theory                                                                                              44

2.2.2      Social learning theory                                                                                               46

2.3         Empirical Review                                                                                                     49

2.4         Summary of Review Literature                                                                                62


CHAPTER 3:  METHODOLOGY                                                            

3.1       Design of the Study                                                                                                    64

3.2       Area of the Study                                                                                                       65

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                              66

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                               66

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   67

3.6       Validity of the Instrument                                                                                          67

3.7       Reliability of the Research Instrument                                                                       68

3.8       Method of Data Collection                                                                                         68

3.9       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                            71


CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION                                                      


4.1        Results Presentation                                                                                                   72

4.1.1    Research question 1                                                                                                    72

4.1.2    Hypothesis 1                                                                                                               73

4.1.3    Research question 2                                                                                                    74

4.1.4    Hypothesis 2                                                                                                               75

4.1.5    Research question 3                                                                                                    76

4.1.6    Hypothesis 3                                                                                                               77

4.1.7    Research question 4                                                                                                    78

4.1.8    Hypothesis 4                                                                                                               79

4.1.9    Summary of findings                                                                                                  79

4.2       Discussion of Results                                                                                                  80


CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND                      RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                


5.1            Summary                                                                           84

5.2            Conclusions                                                             87

5.3            Educational Implications of the Findings                             87

5.4            Limitations of the Study                                                   88

5.5            Recommendations                                                89

5.6            Suggestions for Further Studies                                    90

                 References                                                               91

                 Appendices                                                               102












4.1:      Mean achievement and standard deviation scores of students          in English language achievement test                        71

4.2:      Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of the mean achievement scores of students in English language using ICT-based instruction and lecture method                         72

4.3:      Mean achievement and standard deviation scores of students                  in English language achievement test                                  73

4.4:      Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of the mean achievement scores of male and female students in English language using ICT facilities and lecture method                                       74

4.5:      Mean Achievement and Standard Deviation Scores of Students          in English Language Achievement Test                                         75

4.6:      Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of the mean achievement

    scores of students in urban and rural schools using ICT facilities                              76

4.7:      Mean Achievement and Standard Deviation Scores of Students   in English Language Achievement Test                                         77

4.8:      Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of interaction effect of           gender and method on mean achievement scores of students using ICT facilities                                                                                       78












Federal Republic of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2014) regarded English Language as the backbone of all other subjects taught in secondary schools. It assigned English Language both the role of serving as medium of instruction as well as a compulsory subject in secondary schools in Nigeria. It is an important requirement for furthering education. It is because of this emphasis placed on English language at secondary school level in the Nigerian educational system that made it essential that the language is taught effectively so that students can have a proper understanding and mastery of the subject. It is also important that teachers of English language come up with innovations and teaching methods that can improve English language teaching in order for the subject to be more interesting and easier for the students to understand thereby decreasing the problem of mass failure in secondary schools (Olatunji & Kolawale, 2008).


The teaching and learning of English Language does not only refer to grammar but also Oral English. Iyiola, (2010) is of the opinion that the emphasis placed on the phonic method of teaching English at the primary school level, and the inclusion of an Oral English component in the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) syllabus is an evidence of a renewed interest in correct pronunciation. According to Omosowone and Akindolire (2003), Oral English is an integral and important part of the English language syllabus that also has a good mark in the SSCE. Oral English is inclusive in the school curriculum, not only for the aim of passing examination but also, to teach students how to speak English language correctly and meaningfully for effective communication. Also, according to Ogunsanwo, Duruaku, Ezechukwu and Nwachukwu (2003:241),

Since speech is used more in every language than other forms, it is important that learners of a language become quite familiar with the correct speech forms of the language. Unlike the old system under which Oral English was an optional paper and carried no credit in the Senior School Certificate Examination, the present system has made appropriate provisions for Oral English as a necessary part of the English language syllabus and one that earns credit in the Senior School Certificate Examination. Accordingly, in the teaching of the English language, proper attention to speech behaviour has become absolutely an important thing.


That is why Iyiola (2010) is of the opinion that the goal of the Oral English course should not be only to assist the students score high marks in Oral English in the SSCE or JAMB but also to assist them become good speakers of English language. Competence in speaking English language should not be a choice but should rather be obligatory. To help all English language teachers and of course, all other teachers to make concerted effort to improve on their spoken English, so that they can be good models to their students, the integration of Information Communication Technology (ICT) is therefore, important for the overall improvement of teachers and students in this regard.


ICT is an acronym for Information and Communication Technology. It is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store and manage information. Ede (2010), defined ICT as all those different types of technologies that are used for processing, transmitting, communicating data and information, tools such as computers, internet, interface boxes, e-mail and varieties of software, these are all important aspect of ICT. It relates mainly to studying concepts, skills, processes and electronic devices, ICT is simply a general term that covers all media communication devices or application; it is made up of audio recorder, video, data, television, cellular phones, computer and multimedia such as satellite system, fibre optics, wireless such as radio, infra-red, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi that enables people to access, analyse, create, exchange, use data, information and knowledge. Molony (2006) described ICT as any technology that enables communication and transmission of information. According to Iloanusi and Osuagwu (2010), ICT is the processing and maintenance of information; it is the use of all types of computer, communication network and mobile phone technologies to carry out information. ICT is of two main approaches in education, namely; ICT for education and ICT in education. ICT for education simply means the development of information and communication technology specifically for learning and teaching purpose while ICT in education deals with the adoption of general components of information and communication technology in practical use in teaching and learning processes (Voogt & Pelgrum, 2005; Watson, 2006). The use of ICT in education enhances the delivery of information, gives access to knowledge and improves the curriculum; it promotes critical thinking and renders unlimited ways of achieving educational goals. It facilitates richer learning outcomes than education without the use of ICT.


According to Akintunde (2004) ICT consists of all technical facilities used in information handling and communication which includes computer and network hardware as well as telephony, broadcast media and all types of audio and video processing and transmission radio, television, telephone, language laboratory, microphone and so forth have replaced the traditional “chalk and talk” method of teaching. In this regard, the use of ICT facilities challenges students to learn independently, it enhances the teaching of Oral English if they are well used by teachers. It reduces the burden of the teacher, with the ICT facilities, the teachers’ role in the classroom will be shifted from being the sole provider of information to a facilitator of learning and manager of instructional resources. For instance, in the teaching and learning of Oral English, if a teacher plays a recorded tape twenty times, it will produce the same sound but if the teacher pronounces a particular sound twice, different sounds will be produced. The educational system is accepting new technologies globally to apply ICT into the teaching and learning process, in order to equip the students with the knowledge and skills they need to learn English language. This new technological process introduced into the teaching profession will move teaching from teacher-centred to student-centred learning environment (Nwabuko, 2010).


Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered. Many teachers widely applied teacher-centred methods to impart knowledge to learners with no learning activity for the learners making them passive and therefore obtaining knowledge from the teacher without building their engagement level with the subject matter, this approach is less practical, more theoretical and memorizing  (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). Student-centred approaches are more effective and more encouraging because they embrace the concept of discovery learning. The effectiveness of teaching methods on students learning has consistently raised a considerable interest on the thematic field of education research (Hightower, 2011). Most of the teaching methods have embraced modern technology and this has brought tremendous changes and improvement in the field of learning.


 ICTs have been proven to play an important role in the teaching-learning process as it provides learners with the understanding, skills and knowledge necessary for scientific research, thus improving their standard of education (Munishi, 2004). They also enable learners to acquire problem-solving and decision-making skills, which provide ways of thinking and inquiry. ICT based teaching-learning applications are considered as an effective alternative to traditional teaching methods because it presents students with unlimited opportunities to demonstrate the mastery of contents taught (Lei & Zhao, 2007). To facilitate the process of transferring knowledge to the students, the teachers are required to use the appropriate teaching methods and pedagogy that best suits the learners and also suit the objectives and desired outcomes. Alignment of teaching methods with students’ needs and preferred learning influence students’ academic achievement.


Academic achievement is the outcome of education, that is, the extent which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested, but it intends to measure systematic education and training towards a conventionally accepted pattern of skills or knowledge. According to Adediwura and Tayo (2007), academic achievement is designated by test and examination scores or marks assigned by the subject teachers. It could also be said to be any expression used to represent students’ scholastic standing. Several subjects may be combined into an achievement series for measuring general academic proficiency either in point score or achievement age. What this means is that academic achievement is measured in relation to what is attained at the end of a term, since it is the accomplishment of medium or long term objective of education. What is important is that the test should be a standardised test to meet national norm. For a test to be standardised, it must be valid for over a period of time.


 Levin, Wasanga and Somerset (2011) reported that the academic achievement of students at secondary school level is not only a pointer of the effectiveness of schools but also a major determinant of the well-being of youths in particular and the nation in general. Yusuf and Adigun (2010) noted that the performance of students in any academic task has always been of special interest to the government, educators, parents and society at large. According to Nwadinigwe and Azuka-Obieke (2012), poor academic achievement is an achievement that is judged by the examiners as falling below an expected standard. It is when a student performance is below his actual ability. This poor academic performance could be as a result of several factors such as poor teaching, psychological factors, unpreparedness on the part of the students, poor learning environment, location of schools and the evaluation process. There are other factors such as attitude of students and teachers, study habit, teachers’ qualification, teaching methods, government policy, family types. The poor academic performance by majority of the students in various subject areas is basically linked to the application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011).


Concerns about academic achievement with respect to males and females have generated a considerable interest in the field of educational testing over the years. Differences in academic achievement of the two genders are likely to contribute disparities in the allocation of cognitive roles in the world of work. Gender is a specially constructed phenomenon that society assigns different roles, duties, behaviours, and mannerisms to the two sexes male and female (Mangvwat, 2006). Gender according to Lahey (2003) is a psychological experience of being a male or female, it deals with personality and central components of self-concept. Singh (2010) opines that gender refers to a socio-cultural construct that connotes the differentiated roles and responsibilities of men and women in a particular society. According to Betiku (2002), gender refers to all the characteristics of male and female, which a particular society has determined and assigned each sex.


 Also, Onyeukwu (2000) sees gender as the dichotomy of roles culturally imposed on the

 Sexes. These definitions imply that gender determines the role, which one plays in relation to general political, cultural, social and economic system of their society. Adigun, Onihunwa, Irunkhai, Sada and Adesina (2015) are of the view that gender is the range of physical, biological, mental and behavioural characteristics pertaining to individual and differentiates between the female and male population.  They argued that, the importance of examining students’ performance in relation to gender is based primarily on these socio-cultural differences between girls and boys. Gender is a strong predictor of human conduct and many differences have been documented on attitude and behaviour that affect academic performance in males and females (Block, 2006). Okon and Archibong (2015) are of the opinion that the type of schools, (single sex or mixed, private or public) has effect on the academic performance of students.


Location refers to the geographical setting in which a school is situated and such a setting could be rural or urban. Ellah and Ita (2017) classified school environment into urban and rural. Rural schools are located in the interior constituency of a state while urban schools are located in the township area of a state. This classification sometimes goes a long way to influence government distribution of social amenities like electricity, water, hospital and educational institution. It is a common knowledge that many of these social amenities are concentrated in urban areas than rural areas (Amadi, 2018). Learning environment has also been emphasized as an essential requirement for smooth teaching and learning process to take place (National Teachers Institute, NTI 2008). This is because students study habits are to a large extent tied to it. A good learning environment presents learning as a lifelong enterprise and enables students to discover appropriate value system that can be their compass for self-awareness and national consciousness.


There is a general believe that the condition of school learning environment including infrastructure has an important impact on teachers’ effectiveness and students’ academic performance. The facilities that are needed to facilitate effective teaching and learning in an educational institution include the classrooms, offices, laboratories, conveniences and other buildings as well as furniture items and sporting equipment. Comfortable classroom temperature and smaller classes enhance teachers’ effectiveness and provide opportunities for students to receive more individual attention, ask more questions, participate more fully in discussions, reduce discipline problems and perform better than students in schools with substandard buildings by several percentage points (Earthen, 2002). According to Mitchell (2008) the environment in which a student studies can have a big effect on how efficient his/her study time is. He identified noise, interruptions, lighting, temperature, neatness, comfort, instructional materials and facilities such as buildings and ICT equipment to have potential effect on study habits.


Based on these assumptions, the researcher sets out to ascertain whether the integration of ICT is an effective instructional strategy in the teaching and learning of English language.



Students find it difficult to use error-free English language as their medium of expression in social gatherings and in their academic activities. According to Asuquo (2007) most secondary school students have poor self-confidence and wrong oral expression in pronunciation of English words. An average student in Ebonyi State has a problem of his/her mother-tongue sounds interfering with spoken English because of the variation in pitch of their native language which is a tonal language and as a result of his mother tongue interference the student battles with word pronunciation in English language (Kutigi, Gambari & Gana 2010). This problem is as a result of the use of lecture teaching methods by teachers which lack imagination and innovations that could bring about effective teaching and learning process and improve the academic achievements of students.


For effective teaching and learning to be achieved, instructional media such as radio, television, recorded tapes and so on have been a triumphant entry, bringing benefits to both teachers and students. The use of instructional media makes it possible for every teacher and student to be familiar with the topic taught, through the use of technologies the students can hear and see things for themselves and also improve in the four language learning skills which are listening, reading, writing and speaking.


ICT must be fully integrated into the curriculum in order for students to gain the required competence needed in speaking English language. The Nigerian Government is aware of the importance of ICT in Education and therefore states that “To achieve the policy objectives of education, government shall provide appropriate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities to ensure that the benefits of effective teaching penetrate into all levels of education in Nigeria” (FRN, 2013).


This research work therefore investigated the effect of application of ICT through the use of audio-visual materials, recorded tapes and other ICT facilities on the academic achievement of senior secondary 2 students in English language in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State.



The purpose of this research work was to investigate the application of ICT on Senior Secondary 2 Students academic achievement in English Language in Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study sought to determine:

1.     The mean achievement scores of students taught English language using ICT facilities and those taught with mere verbal description of the same English language lesson.

2.     The mean achievement scores of male and female students taught English language using ICT facilities and those taught with mere verbal description of the same English language lesson.

3.     The effect of school location on mean achievement scores of students taught English

        language taught using ICT facilities.

4.     The interaction effect of gender and method on mean achievement scores of students

        taught English language using ICT facilities.



This research study on application of ICT on academic achievement of Senior Secondary school 2 students in English language in Ebonyi State is bound to be of immense help to students, teachers, school authorities, state and federal ministry of education.


The study may benefit the Students by enhancing their learning process as well as improving their overall academic performance, because it will increase the motivation of the students to learn, add clarity to the topics taught and make learning more interesting.


Findings from the study may help to sensitize English language teachers on their important roles in promoting the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in teaching and learning. This is because it will provide a basis for them to understand the need to support the use of ICT in teaching English language.


The findings may further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the importance of using audio instructional media and other ICTs in teaching and learning. This is because the findings from this study may require taking a decision by the secondary school authorities whether to infuse ICT materials in learning curriculum or to modify, expunge or discontinue with the existing teaching methods.


It may also create awareness for state and federal ministry of education as policy makers in secondary schools of the need to infuse the use of ICTs as a core component of teaching method in the curricula of secondary schools and impress upon them to provide explicit strategy for applying the use of ICT materials in teaching and learning.


1.                  What is the mean achievement scores of students taught English language using ICT facilities and those taught with mere verbal description of the same English language    lesson?

2.           What is the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught English language using ICT facilities and those taught with mere verbal description of the same English language lesson?

3.           What is the mean achievement scores of students in urban and rural secondary schools taught English language using ICT facilities?

4          What is the interaction effect of gender and method on mean achievement scores of students taught English language using ICT facilities?


1.6         HYPOTHESES

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant:

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught English Language using ICT facilities and those taught with mere verbal description of the same English language lesson.

HO2: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and       female students taught English language using ICT facilities and those taught with mere verbal description of the same English language lesson.

HO3: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students in urban and rural schools taught English language using ICT facilities.

HO4: There is no significant interaction effect of gender and method on mean achievement scores of students taught English language using ICT facilities.



The study was carried out in Nigeria precisely in Ebonyi State. The study concentrated on Senior Secondary Two (SS2) students in public secondary schools in Abakaliki Education zone because these are the classes which are preparing for their Use of English and Test of Oral in West African Examination Council at the end of their three years in the senior secondary school. The study concentrated on five unit topics in English Language namely: reading and answering of a comprehension passage, list and examples of vowel sounds, list and examples of consonant sounds, rhyme words and types of stress pattern. The sample for this study were divided into three groups, they were two experimental group and one control group. Group A and B constituted the treatment group while group C was the control group; these three groups were pre-tested on comprehension and Oral part of English language to ascertain their entry behaviour. The experimental groups were exposed to rigorous teaching using a laptop, audio-visual tape and wireless speaker to carry out ICT-based instructional lesson while lecture method lesson plan were used to teach the control group in order to determine if there is a significant difference in their academic achievement. The study also examined the effect of gender and school location on students’ academic achievement.

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