This study examines The Effect of Drill and Practice on the
Academic Achievement of Students in English Language in Junior Secondary
Schools in Lagos State. The purpose of
this research was to determine
the achievement scores of students taught English Language with drill and
practice those taught using conventional teaching methods. and Determine the
interest of students taught English Language with drill and practice those
taught using conventional teaching methods and compare the achievement scores
of boys and girls taught English Language using drill and practice; compare the
interest scores of boys and girls taught English Language using drill and
practice four questions and hypotheses
were stated for the study, the descriptive research survey was used to
assess the respondents’ opinions using the questionnaire and the sampling technique.
In this study, 120 (one hundred and twenty) respondents were selected and used
as samples to represent the population of the study. Four (4) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in
this study. Also, the SPSS Statistics tool output of the one-way ANCOVA was
used to test and analyses the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Based
on the findings from the study the following conclusions were drawn that Application of computer technology to all
aspects of human endeavour coupled with the need to create student-centred
classroom to engage learners in their leaning tasks, improve learners’ interest
and consequently achievement in the school subjects has necessitated the use of
computer in teaching. This study has found out that Drill and practice improved
students’ achievement, retention and interest in English language than the
conventional teaching methods. Recommendations were made on the basis of the findings
of this study which include the following: More attention should be accorded computer
literacy and operation in the secondary schools and relevant computer assisted
instructional packages should be developed for use within the Nigerian school
systems. In addition, Nigerian public schools should be equipped with necessary
ICT facilities to leverage the potentials of ICT in Nigerian schools and
teachers of English Language in Lagos State should adopt the use of the Drill
and practice to teach English Language.
of Contents iv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
of Study 1
of the Problem 5
of the Study 6
of the Study 7
of Terms 9
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework 11
Review of Related Empirical Studies 35
Summary of Review of Related Literature 38
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
of the Study 40
of the Study 40
and Sampling Techniques 41
of Data Collection 41
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
ANALYSES AND RESULTS
Descriptive Analysis of Respondents 43
of Findings 49
of Finding 50
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY,
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
of the Study 54
of the Findings 57
for Further Research 58
Background of Study:
Assisted Instruction (CAI) refers to use of computer as a tool in teaching and
learning. Widmayer & Alayne (2007) defined Computer Assisted Instruction
(CAI) as an interactive instructional procedure whereby a computer is utilized
to exhibit the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes
place. With CAI the students receive feedback from the computer and maintain
some degree of control (Oyenuga, 2008). Some of the computer assisted
instruction methods include simulation, animation, drill and practice. The CAI
instruction when used in combination with drill provides instruction in such a
way that each drills lesson has a series of frame or branches. How? One aspect
of student learning that is potentially linked to student performance in any
course is the issue of students’ access to drills solutions. No prior study has
addressed this issue. Yet, this is an important research question as the
decision to release or withhold drills solutions has a wide range of
implications for students and instructors (Preciado, 2009). Drills allow for
learning in a close, comfortable environment with the same tutor over time. In
a study by Schmeck, (2008) it was found that smaller class sizes at school significantly
raised final grades. This idea has been extended to the drill system at the
secondary school level. Small groups are successful in providing a safe space
to ask the questions that one is unable to ask during crowded classroom. Drill
also offer the personal attention one may require for learning to take place.
In recent times, the practice of teaching students in small groups at schools
has emanated from the ancient practice of philosopher-tutors (Steward & Aiken,
2009). The educational principle of these philosopher-tutors was to recognize
the individual differences of students and focus on
developing an individual student’s thinking process (Steward et al., 2009). In
the 20th century, this form of tutoring has been adopted for the common form of
schooling with some modification. Perhaps due to economies of scale, students
are taught in small groups rather than individually. Steward et al. (2009) summarized
the benefits of tutoring as a form of education. These include the personal attention
given to students, providing continuous feedback on student progress, mentoring
students on learning how to learn, and using students’ academic strengths to
overcome weaknesses. Research suggests that tutoring results in positive
outcomes in terms of measures of academic achievement, measures of self-esteem,
and intrinsic interest in the subject (Strong & Smith, 2011). In the
current twin pedagogical structure of teaching followed by drills; drills play
a pivotal role in reinforcing and extending the knowledge disseminated to
students via teaching. Typically, students attend classes for a first exposure
to the course materials and drills provide a platform for consolidating student
learning through more interactive discussion and problem-solving activities.
especially in large classrooms, is typically a one-way communication from the
teacher to the students. In contrast, drills provide the appropriate forum for
a two-way communication between the instructor and students. As drills permit interactive
discussion on course topics via drills questions and problem-solving
activities, drills play a key role in consolidating students’ course-specific
in English teaching courses where student assessment comprises mainly
closed-book examinations during and at the end of the term, questions on the
examination may largely follow the format of drills questions. In such an
environment, students would be keen to access drills solutions.
there are arguments both for and against releasing drills solutions. Drill
provides generally new information to the students in much the same manner as a
human teacher or tutor might.
to Tella (2007) drills are based on the principles of programmed learning or
instruction. Drill involves a sequence of tasks, exercises, or words repeated
over and over until they can be performed faultlessly. Drills, drill and
practice are interactive and help students remember the concepts they have been
taught previously (Widmayer and Alayne, 2007). English Language learning
strategies, such as the drilling technique will be able to help the limited
learners in writing. At least by doing the drill and practice it will enable
the students to write essays given by the teachers because they are familiar
with the formats especially in terms of descriptive essays. This type of essays
is one of the easiest topics to do by the learners because they will describe
the person, place or things with the adjectives they have learned to be used in
their descriptive essays. It has become essential for learners at all schooling
levels to write and understand their written texts or what they have written.
most teachers have implemented this technique without realizing it they are
using this technique in their teaching and learning process. According to
Blasingame & Bushman (2007), Yenice (2013), Slesnick (2008) as cited in
Wilder & Mongillo (2007): Basically without realizing it, most of the
language teachers are using this drilling technique or this strategy to help
their low proficiency students in passing their English papers. They have used
this technique in years of teaching the students but did not know the specific
terms to describe it.
the English language teachers would use this technique in teaching writing
because in most of the time and throughout the years the low proficiency
students had to be drilled to make sure that they would be able to write a few
sentences during their examinations. As Heward points out, drill and practice
can be conducted in ways that render it pointless and a waste of time. Research
has shown, however, that when properly conducted, drill and practice is a consistently
effective teaching method. For example, a recent meta-analysis of 85 academic
intervention studies with students with learning disabilities found that
regardless of the practical or theoretical
orientation of the study, the largest effect sizes were obtained by interventions
that included systematic drill, repetition, practice, and review (Blasingame
& Bushman, 2007). Drills when used in combination with practice provides
instruction in such a way that each drills lesson has a series of frame or
branches. In addition, the use of drills and practice for instruction brings
with it several benefits as a teaching/learning medium. These include
self-paced learning, self-directed learning, the exercising of various senses
and the ability to represent content in a variety of media. In a study, Momoh-olle
(2009) found that male generally outperformed girls in retention test in
English while Ngwoke (2008) found a similar result in Linguistic. Students’
interest, achievement and retention in any learning activity are sustained by
the active involvement of the learner in all aspects of the learning process.
Ogwo and Oranu, (2007) and Ngwoke (2008) emphasized that unless the teacher
stimulates students’ interest in learning, students’ achievement will be
minimal. Hence, it is essential that English teachers use teaching method which
ensures students’ active involvement in learning and provide suitable learning
environment to improve achievement and stimulate interest of students in
Drills is defined as a form of specialized
learning with qualified coaching, the use of micro-computers for learning
drills. Or with any other explanation that the drills is learning guidance in
the form of referrals, assistance, guidance, and motivation for students to
learn efficiently and effectively. Providing assistance means helping students to
learn the subject matter.
According to Rusman (2011) learning drills are
a way of learning to train students on the lesson material that has been given.
Drills will be implanted through certain habits in the form of exercise. With continuous
practice, it will be embedded and then it will become a habit. In addition, in
order to inculcate the habit, these drills can also increase the speed,
accuracy, completeness of doing things and can also be used as a way to repeat
the training material that has been presented; it can also increase the speed.
As an instructional strategy, drill &
practice is familiar to all educators. It "promotes the acquisition of
knowledge or skill through repetitive practice." It refers to small tasks
such as the memorization of spelling or vocabulary words. Drill-and-practice,
like memorization, involves repetition of specific skills, such as addition and
subtraction, or spelling. To be meaningful to learners, the skills built
through drill-and-practice should become the building blocks for more
Statement of the Problem:
outcome of every student majorly depends on the type of teaching methods,
teaching strategies, and instructional techniques or approaches employed by the
teacher during instruction. Traditional
teaching methods such as lecture, demonstration and field trip adopted for
teaching English Language in Junior secondary school by teachers are often
referred to as conventional teaching method termed to be teacher centered
instead of students centered. This method teaching technical subjects
discouraged creativity and disallowed students from thinking beyond what is
presented to them by their teachers. The students are reduced to passive
learners and as a result become apathetic and repulsive to learning. Lack of
application of effective methodology for
teaching technical subjects as major reason for low academic achievements of students in junior
secondary schools. Traditional method of
teaching do not
adequately equip teachers with contemporary views of students’ intelligences
and their vast learning capabilities. Hence, this traditional teaching methods
used by these teachers may be responsible for the low academic achievement in
English language. Therefore, to find
solution to these problems, there is need to determine the effect Computer
drill and practice alternative teaching method on the academic performance of
students in English Language in junior secondary school.
of the Study :
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects
of drill and practice on the academic performance of students in English
language in junior secondary school in Lagos State. Specifically, the study
will seek to:
Determine the achievement scores of students taught English Language with drill
and practice those taught using conventional teaching methods.
Determine the interest of students taught English Language with drill and
practice those taught using conventional teaching methods.
Compare the achievement scores of boys and girls taught English Language using
drill and practice.
Compare the interest scores of boys and girls taught English Language using
drill and practice.
following research questions was formulated to guide this study:
What is the difference in the mean
achievement scores of students taught with drill and practice compared with those taught using the conventional teaching methods?
What are the mean interest scores of students taught English language with drill
and practice those taught using the conventional teaching methods?
What is the difference in the
achievement scores of male student compared with female student when taught with drill and practice?
What are the mean scores of male and female taught English language using
Computer Drills and practice the test for retention of learning?
Research Hypotheses :
following null hypotheses was tested in the course of the study.
HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean
achievement scores of students taught with
drill and practice and compared with those taught using
conventional teaching methods.
There is no significant interaction
effect of treatments given to students by gender with respect to their mean
scores in the English language achievement test.
HO3: There is no significant interaction effect of
treatments given to students by gender with respect to their mean scores in
English language interest inventory items.
HO4: There is no significant
difference between the mean achievements scores of boys and girls taught
English Language using Computer drill and practice.
Significance of the Study :
benefits that occur from this study are many, specifically,
STUDENTS: The findings of this study if found to have
positive effect and implemented will also be of benefit to students’
participation and interest in the class room activities. There will be
improvement in students’ achievements and interest through the use of drill and
practice, command to achieve active engagement, frequent interaction, immediate
feedback from work done and connection to real world of work. This in turn will
enable students to pass their JSCE examinations in English Language.
Teachers will benefit from the result of
this study in that they will use the standardized instrument to evaluate the
students, rather than the teacher-made test. English Language teachers’ work
will become easier and interesting as they will be playing supervisory roles
whereby student centered interactive instruction will be used to secure and
sustain the attention of the students in learning English Language. The
knowledge of drill and practice if found effective will help the teachers to
improve their instructional delivery to bridge the gap in achievement, interest
of boys and girls in English Language.
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION:
Ministry of Education will benefit from
the findings of this study. Effectiveness of drill and practice, will no doubt
influence the decision of the Ministry of Education on the need to provide
computers and laboratories in junior and senior secondary schools if found to
have positive effect. Furthermore, findings will also sensitize the Ministry to
organize conferences, workshops and seminars to train English Language teachers
on the use of drill and practice to improve their instructional delivery.
The result will be of immense benefit to the English Language curriculum
developers because they will find it valuable especially in the provision of
empirical evidence on the effectiveness of drill and practice in the teaching
of English Language.
Definition of Terms:
Drill: is a classroom technique used to practise new
language. It involves the teacher modelling a word or a sentence and the
learners repeating it.
is the act of rehearsing a behaviour over and over, or engaging in an activity
again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it.
Teaching Methods: It refers to the general principle,
pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction.
Method: is concerned with the teacher being the controller of the learning
environment. Power and responsibility are held by the teacher and they play the
role of instructor (in the form of lectures) and decision maker (in regards to
curriculum content and specific outcomes).
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