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Product Code: 00007112

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Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of turmeric rhizome were studied. The results obtained show the presence of different phytochemicals including alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, phenol, HCN and starch at different levels of detection. Quantitative analysis result indicated varying concentrations of the different phytochemicals including alkaloid 0.65%, flavonoid 0.57%, saponin 0.17%, tannin 0.88%, phytate 0.37%, phenol 1.09% and HCN 9.38mg/kg. Test on antimicrobial activity revealed varying levels of activity of the plant extract in different solvents, with regard to different microorganisms. Water extract was the most potent against Staphylococcus aureus (12.67mm), Escherichia coli (15.00mm), Candida albicans (21.67mm) and Penicillium notatum (14.67mm). But ethanol extract was the most potent against Aspergillus niger (20.33mm). While the levels of activity against these microorganisms varied, they were all lower than the inhibition of standard antibiotics which had ranges of 17.33mm, 23.00mm (bacteria) and 21.33mm to 29.00mm (fungi). The methanol extracts were  more potent on Staphylococcus aureus (12.00mm) and Penicillium notatum (12.33m), while other microorganisms were less susceptible. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the different extracts were in the range of 100g/ml to 200g/ml. Extract of the turmeric rhizomes demonstrated antioxidant activity in the form of scavenging (55.81%), reducing activity (41.67%) and chelating activity (43.81%). It was noted that the turmeric rhizome is rich in phytochemicals which conferred on it strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and thus leaving it with potentials for utilization in many useful areas like Pharmacology and Medicine.  



Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                       v

List of Tables                                                                                                              vii       

List of Figures                                                                                                             viii

Abstract                                                                                                                      ix



1.1       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.2       Aim and objectives                                                                                         2



2.0       Literature review                                                                                          4

2.1       Brief history of turmeric                                                                                 4

2.2       Overview of turmeric                                                                                      4

2.3       Genetic density                                                                                               5

2.4       Cultivation                                                                                                      6

2.5       Harvesting and curing                                                                                     6

2.6       Storage                                                                                                            7

2.7       Irrigation                                                                                                         7

2.8       Pest and diseases of turmeric                                                                          8

2.8.1    Insect pest                                                                                                       8

2.8.2    Diseases                                                                                                          8

2.9       Uses/importance of turmeric rhizomes                                                            8

2.9.1    Medicinal and cosmetic use                                                                            8

2.9.2    Social and religious uses                                                                                 9

2.9.3    Uses in folk and classical art forms                                                                9

2.9.4    As pesticide                                                                                                    10

2.10     Side effects of turmeric                                                                                  11




3.0       Materials and Methods                                                                                 12

3.1       Materials                                                                                                         12

3.2       Methods                                                                                                          12

3.2.1    Sample preparation                                                                                         12

3.2.2    Media preparation                                                                                           12

3.2.3    Test for media sterility                                                                                    13

3.3       Preliminary phytochemical screening of turmeric rhizome                             13       

3.3.1    Test for saponins                                                                                             14

3.3.2    Test for flavonoid                                                                                           14

3.3.3    Test for alkaloid                                                                                              14

3.3.4    Test for tannin                                                                                                 15

3.3.5    Test for terpenoids/steroids                                                                            15

3.3.6    Test for HCN (Cynogenic glycosides)                                                            15

3.4       Production of test extracts/determination of yield                                         15

3.5       Quantitative determination of phytochemicals                                               16

3.5.1    Determination of alkaloids                                                                             16

3.5.2    Determination of flavonoids                                                                           17

3.5.3    Determination of saponin                                                                               18

3.5.4    Determination of phenols                                                                               19

3.5.5    Determination of (HCN) Cyanogenic glycoside                                             20

3.5.6    Determination of tannin                                                                                  21

3.5.7    Determination of phytate                                                                                22

3.6       Determination of anti-oxidant activity                                                           22

3.6.1    Scavenging                                                                                                      22

3.6.2    Metal chelating activity                                                                                  23

3.6.3    Reducing power assay                                                                                                23                   



4.0       Results                                                                                                            24



Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation                                                       30

5.1       Discussion                                                                                                       30

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      33

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                            33       








Tables                                                             Title                                                                 Page

1          Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening of turmeric rhizomes                       25

2          Quantitative phytochemical content of turmeric rhizomes                                           26

3          Antioxidant activity of turmeric rhizomes                                                                   29










Figures                                                           Title                                                                 Page   

1                      Antimicrobial activity of turmeric extracts                                                       27

2                      Minimum inhibitory concentration of turmeric extracts                                   28











Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. Turmeric has at least 6000 years of documented history of its use as medicine and in many socio-religious practices (Handral et al., 2013). Turmeric is cultivated most extensively in India, followed by Bangladesh, China, Thailand, Canbodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines (Kafoor, 2000). India produces most of the world supply (Leury and Foster, 2000). The commercially in Europe is obtained mainly from India and Southwest from other Southern Eastern Asia countries.

Turmeric is known as the golden spice as well as the spice of life. the earthly herb of sun’ with the orange-yellow rhizome was regarded as the herb of the sun by the people of the Vedic period. The ancient regarded turmeric as the ‘Tushadhi,’ the healing herb of the sun, the most outstanding herb, the herb above all others The genus exhibit wide variations at intra and inter specific levels.

Apart from its religious, cultural and magical uses (Sophe, 2000), turmeric has encouraged the improvement of soil health and productivity and the availability of local resources. Thus, organic food is encouraged.

Turmeric having anti-inflammatory hypocholestremic, antimicrobial, choleratic, insect repellant, anti-leumatic, antibiotic, antivenous, antiviral as well as cancerous properties is in day to day domestic use as a folk lore medicine from time immemorial (Velayudhan, 2012). With curcumin, oleoresin, oil and the other complex chemical content is lately gaining importance as a potential source of drugs for various ailments. These medicinal attributes can be related to turmeric high content of curcumniod especially curcumin which is considered a chemical maker of the specie (Gupta et al., 2012).

The antioxidant activity of turmeric justifies its use in a broad range of applications including cosmetics (Thomfeldt, 2005), nutriceuticals and phytomedicines (Aggarwal and Hankumar, 2009). Turmeric oil is used in aromatherapy and in the perfume industry.

Turmeric is a cost-effective supplement to chemical fertilizers and as a renewable energy, microbial inoculates can economize the high investment needed for fertilizer usage of nitrogen and phosphorus (Pandey and Kumar, 2002).

The plant is eradicated with interesting pesticide properties against insects and fungi of agricultural significance, including repellant properties against some noxoious mosquito species (Damalas, 2011). It also has some side effect such as slowing blood clotting and causing uterine contraction in pregnant women (Park et al., 2000). However, its antioxidant, phytochemical and antimicrobial activities makes it an essential natural plant that is beneficial to man.


The aim of this research is to study the antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical constituents of turmeric rhizomes.

Its objectives include:

-          To determine the phytochemical composition (qualitative and quantitative) of turmeric rhizomes.

-          To produce extracts (water, ethanol and methanol) from turmeric rhizome.

-          To determine the antimicrobial activity of turmeric extracts against some microbial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans.

-          To determine the antioxidant activity of extracts of turmeric rhizomes.



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