• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00008100

No of Pages: 60

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



This result of this study show the presence of 6 bacteria Staphylococcus spp, Proteus spp, Enterobacter spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, and Escherichia spp   A total of 30 fresh beef samples were collected from local markets in Umuahia metropolis. From the result obtained, a total of 6 bacterial isolates were obtained from the beef samples. The percentage occurrence indicated that Staphylococcus spp was the predominant isolate (40%) followed by Escherichia spp (23%), Shigella spp (20%), Proteus spp (13 %) while the lowest percentage occurrence was observed in Enterobacter and Salmonella spp (10%) respectively. The Kirby-Bauer diffusion method was employed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates. The result of the antibiotic sensitivity test showed that majority of the bacterial isolates was sensitive to the antibiotics. The isolates showed varying degrees of resistance on the antibiotics used. The isolates were highly susceptible to both Augmentin (71.4%) followed by Ceftriaxone (65.7%). The most resistant was recorded against Ofloxacin and Gentamcin (68.6%) followed by Cefuroxime (54.3%). The result of this study showed that the isolated organisms were multiple drug resistance which is of a great public health importance.



Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of contents v

List of tables viii

Abstract ix



1.0 Introduction 1

1.1  Aim And Objectives Of The Study 2


1.0  Literature Review 3

1.1 Meat as Food 4

2.2    Beef 5

2.3    Meat Quality 6

2.4    Microorganisms Found In Meat 7

2.5    Meat Bacteria of Health Concern        7

2.5.1 Escherichia coli 9

2.5.2 Staphylococcus aureus 10

2.5.3 Salmonella Species 12

2.6 Sources and Control of Contamination of Meat and Meat Products 14

2.6.1 Slaughter Stock 14

2.6.2 Slaughterhouse and Equipment 16

2.6.3 Carcass Dressing and Processing 17

2.6.4 Personnel 20

2.6.5 Dispatch and Transport 22


3.0 Materials and Methods 25

3.1 Sample Collection: 25

3.2 Laboratory Media Preparation 25

3.2.1 Salmonella shigella  Agar 25

3.3 Isolation of Microorganisms 25

3.4 Purification and preservation of Isolates 25

3.4.1 Identification of isolates 26

3.4.2 Gram Staining 26

3.4.3 Biochemical Tests 27 Catalase Test 27 Indole Test 27 Citrate utilization test 27 Triple sugar iron agar 28 Antibacterial susceptibility testing 28



4.0    Results 30


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion And Recommendation 36

5.1 Discussion 36

5.2 Conclusion 37

5.3 Recommendation 38


Appendix 1









Table 4.1: Cultural and Biochemical Identification Of Microbial Isolated


from Beef Sample. 31


Table 4.2: Percentage Occurrence of Bacteria Contaminants of Beef 32

Table 4.3: Antibiotic Sensitivity pattern of isolates from beef 33

Table 4.4: Multiple Anti Biotic Resistance Index (Mari) Of Bacterial Isolates

of Beef 35







Foods of animal’s origin like beef are rich in proteins which are very essential to body growth and development. However, foods of animal origin also act as vehicle and medium to transmit various microorganism causing health hazards, disease and death. Food borne disease is growing public health problems all over the world which cause on estimated 48million illness and 3,000 deaths each year in the United States (Scallanet al., 2011).In developed countries, up to 30% of the populations suffer from food borne diseases each year. Whereas in developing countries up to 2 million deaths are estimated per year (WHO, 2007).

Meat is consumed by many people worldwide because of its nutritive composition. The protein profile of meat consists of amino acids that have been described as excellent due to the presence of all essential ones required by the body. It is considered to be spoiled when it is unfit for human consumption and subjected to changes by its own enzyme, microbial action, and any other factors. Enteric bacteria species can cause infections infection in human when undercooked meat products are consumed. The microbiological quality of meat depends on the physical status of the animals at slaughter, the spread of contamination during slaughter and processing, the temperature and other conditions of storage and distribution.

Pathogens such as E.coli, Salmonella andListeria sp. are causes of food borne illness and death in humans. The symptoms of food borne illnesses, resulting from the consumption of pathogen contaminated foods, can range from mild to more severe indications such as diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, dehydration, meningitis, endocarditis, kidney failure and septicaemia(Darwin and Miller, 1999).

 Food contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria can be a major threat to public health, as the antibiotic resistant determinant can be transferred to other bacteria of human significance. This is in view of the fact that the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among food borne pathogens has increased during past decades (Van et al., 2007). The global problem of antimicrobial resistance is particularly pressing in developing countries with reservoirs of resistance present in healthy human and animal populations.

 There are several reports on outbreaks of food-borne illness because of consumption of meat .moreover, antibiotic resistance levels are also elevated among food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella, E.coli, and Shigella.Pathogens such as E.coli, Salmonella and Shigellaare causes of food-borne illness and death in human. Cross –contamination of foods by these organisms can occur coupled with the spread of genes resistant to commonly used antibiotics along various points in the processing line of sale of beef products. This is of both serious public health and economic concerns. The symptoms of food-borne illness, resulting from the consumption of the pathogen contaminated foods, can range from mild to more severe indications such as diarrhea, fever ,nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, dehydration, meningitis, endocarditis, kidney failure and septicaemia (Darwin and Miller, 1999).Commonly used antibotic in both human and animals in Nigeria include tetracycline, gentamicin, ampicillin, augmentin and amoxicillin.


The aim and objectives of this study are;

1. To isolate, characterize and identify organisms of public health from beef in umuahia metropolis.

2. To determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of isolates.

Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment