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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007136

No of Pages: 39

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Several studies of the human environment have demonstrated colonization and contamination of objects such as door handles, faucets, phones, money, fabrics, and plastics. This study therefore was to evaluate the bacterial contamination and antibiogram of mouth contact edges of sachet water sold in various strategic pure water retail and hawk areas in Umuahia Metropolis and some parts of the University community. A total number of 180 samples were collected with the use of pre-moistened sterile swab sticks from 7 different retail/hawking points, cultured on appropriate media by the streak plate method and incubated aerobically for 24hrs at 370C. Identification of isolates and antibiogram were done by standard techniques. Nine (9) different organisms were isolated which include- E.coli (21.27%), S.aureus (7.09%), Bacillus spp (7.09%), Klebsiella spp (4.96%), Proteus spp (12.05%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.40%), Streptococcus spp (6.38%), Alcaligene spp (11.34%) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (8.51%). Analysis of the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of the isolates revealed a pattern of moderate multiple drug resistance to commonly available drugs by the isolates such as Ampicillin and Pefloxacin. The study recommends Good hygiene practice which includes adherence to hand hygiene, cleaning and routine disinfection of pure water sachets.



Cover Page

Title Page                                                            





Table of Content                                                 

List of Tables                                                      


CHAPTER ONE:           Introduction

1.0     Background

1.1     Aim and Objective

1.2     Scope of Study

1.3     Significance of Study

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     Sachet Water

2.2     Packaged Water Contamination

2.3     Bacteria Pathogens Associated With the Edges of Sachet Water

2.3.1  Escherichiacoli

2.3.2  Proteus Specie

2.3.3  Klebsiella spp

2.3.4  Staphylococcus aureus


2.3.5  Streptococcus spp

2.3.6  Pseudomonas aeruginosa

2.3.7  Bacillus spp



3.0     Materials and Methods

3.1     Study Area

3.2     Collection of samples

3.3     Preparation of culture media

3.4     Bacterial inoculation, isolation and identification

3.4.1  Antibiotics susceptibility testing

3.4.2 Characterization and identification of organism

3.5     Gram Staining

3.6     Biochemical test

3.6.1  Catalase test

3.7     Coagulase test

3.7.1 Citerate utilization test

3.7.2  Motility, Indole, Urease (MIU) test

3.7.3  Triple sugar iron (TSI) test

3.7.4  Oxidase test



4.0     Results

4.1     Results


5.0     Discussion


5.1     Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation.

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation




Table 1:           Sources of Sample

Table2:            Types of Isolates and Frequency

Table 3 Morphology and Cultural Characteristics of the Isolates

Table 4:           Biochemical Test For Identification of the isolates.

Table5:            Different Bacterial Contamination From Refrigerated and non- refrigerated sachet water

Table 6:           Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of the isolates.










The presence of viable pathogenic bacteria on inanimate objects or surfaces capable of having direct contact with the mouth is a matter of serious public health concern. Several studies of the human environment have demonstrated colonization and contamination of objects such as door handles, faucets, phones, money, fabrics and plastics (Bures et al., 2001). People come into daily contact with all sorts of fomites, with an increasing rate of bacterial infection (Eguia et al., 2003). Human beings have a marked tendency to pick up microorganisms from environmental objects and the hand has shown to play a role in the transmission of organisms has been reported as a potential vehicle for their transmission (Neely and Maley, 2000; Fraser et al., 2009; Gholemreza et al., 2009). Furthermore, microorganisms found to contaminate fomites have also been shown to persist on environmental surfaces for varying period of time ranging from hours to months ant it has also been illustrated that they can still be detected and recovered from surfaces after routine conventional cleaning (French et al., 2004).

In addition, cross infection of microorganisms between environmental surfaces and a host has equally been established (Hardy et al., 2006). The ability of plastics and other inanimate objects to support viable microorganisms for a prolonged period of time is well documented (Stuart et al., 2006) and such environmental surfaces and objects, especially those in close proximity with persons and frequently touched, poses a threat to human health and are a cause for concern.

One such inanimate object in the environment that is currently in frequent contact with the hands and mouth is the mouth point contact edges of sachet water. Production, sales and consumption of sachet water is growing rapidly in most countries of the world especially in developing countries. Many scientists all over the world have carried out researches on the microbial analysis of commercially vended sachet water using different laboratory techniques and reporting varying percentages of microbial isolation (Onibere et al., 2001). There are tremendous public health hazards associated with the consumption sachet water whose mouth point contact edges are grossly contaminated with various populations of viable pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria that can cause severe gastroenteritis have been found on polyethylene surface. Roxyburgh et al., (2005) demonstrate that germs can be readily transferred from the hands to almost any frequently used surface.

The World Health Organization estimates that about 1.1 billion people (constituting one-fifth of the global population) lacks access to clean, safe drinking water and about 2.6 billion lacks adequate sanitation (WHO, 2005), this includes unhygienic finishing, packaging and handling of water. It further warns that this figure could rise up to 50 percent by the end of 2025 if proactive measures remains ignored. In Nigeria, safe and potable sources of water are largely inadequate, worst still this condition is usually exacerbated in settings where treated water is poorly packaged and handled and rural areas where the major sources of drinking water are hand dug wells, ponds, streams, rivers etc. Each year more than two million people, mainly children below the age of 5 globally die of diarrhoea, 90% cases linked to consumption of unsafe, contaminated or inadequate water supplies. For the children in this group, diarrhoeal diseases accounted for 17% of all deaths from 2000 to 2003 (WHO, 2005), placing it the third among other causes of child death, just after neonatal causes and acute respiratory infections (WHO, 2005).

Major bacterial organisms that are concerned with the contamination of mouth point contact edges of hawked pure water sachets are: Escherichia coli, S. aureus, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Vibrio cholera.

In this light, the study sets to investigate the bacterial contamination of mouth point contact edges of pure water sachets as well as to suggest ways in which the product could be made more wholesome and fit for consumption.


The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial contamination of mouth point contact edges of sachet water hawked within the Umuahia Metropolis.

The specific objectives are;

1)                To isolate and identify bacteria present in mouth contact point edges of sachet water.

2)                To determine various types and frequency of bacterial isolates on the mouth point contact edges.

3)       To determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates.



This research work is limited to the use of different media for isolation of bacteria from mouth point contact edges of sachet water and environment and antimicrobial testing of the different isolates.


·         To enlighten sachet water retailers and producers on the inherent health risks of poor and unhygienic handling of the outer surface of water and disease associated with it.

·         To educate the hawkers and producers on the important of sanitation for preventing of infection.

·         Proper cleaning of the production equipment/ machine and environment to minimize microbial load.

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