AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS INFLUENCING INDISCIPLINE AMONG STUDENTS IN PUBLIC DAY SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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ABSTRACT

It is without doubt that discipline is one of the major driving forces behind good performance of students in national examinations. Well disciplined students fit well in the society because education helps mould them into disciplined and responsible members of the society. Indiscipline in our educational institutions is age-old and public day schools too have not been left behind.  Disruptive behavior is a concern to schools, parents and fellow students whose education may be adversely affected. Therefore, it has become necessary to get to the root of the causes of indiscipline in these schools by focusing on the learners physical environment in the home, community and at school. All these factors to a great extent influence the way learners behave. The purpose of this study was to examine major factors influencing indiscipline in public day secondary schools in Makadara district and to establish whether positive alternative approaches of enhancing discipline had taken root in these day schools to help curb indiscipline. The objectives of this study were to establish the nature of indiscipline experienced in public day secondary schools in Makadara district, investigate the major causes of indiscipline among students in public day secondary schools, asses the positive alternative measures being put in place to arrest indiscipline among the students and to seek suggestions on measures that could be taken to curb students’ indiscipline in Kenyan secondary schools.  The study was conducted in all the 8 public day secondary schools in Makadara district, Kenya. It was guided by the social learning theory. The target population consisted of 1,108 subjects. The sample included 8 deputy head teachers, 16 class teachers, 8 teacher - counselors and 336 Form 2 students. The study employed descriptive survey design which was more suitable because it enabled the researcher to acquire information from a selected population and the sample findings were viewed as being a representation of the population as a whole. The samples were drawn using purposive, systematic and simple random sampling techniques. To ensure reliability and validity, a pilot study was carried out. The data was collected through questionnaires administered to teachers and students and an interview schedule for the deputy head teachers. The data was analyzed descriptively and organized in tables, frequencies, pie charts and percentages. The study indicated that most student disciplinary problems experienced were due to influence from the environment and their homes, namely, mobile phones, responsibilities at home, matatu menace and sheng’ – speaking.  Additionally, the study indicated that indiscipline cases in Public day Secondary Schools in Makadara district were fuelled by inadequate guidance and counseling, less involvement of students in co-curricular activities, lack of school - based families, and indifference to LSE by both the  teachers and students. The study concluded that in order to curb indiscipline in secondary schools, positive approaches need to be implemented fully, since such measures are most likely to yield much better results than the traditional scheme of discipline. The study recommended that school administrations should establish active mandatory school – based families and put in place intensive parent – mentoring programs which aim at sensitizing parents on their parental duties.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION .................................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION ......................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................ iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... v

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................. ix

LIST OF TABLES ...................................................................................................................... x

ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................. xi

ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................. xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 1

     1.0. Background of the study .................................................................................................. 1

     1.1. Statement of the problem ................................................................................................. 6

     1.2. Purpose of the study ......................................................................................................... 7

     1.3. Objectives ........................................................................................................................ 7

     1.4. Research questions ........................................................................................................... 7

     1.5. Assumptions of the study ................................................................................................. 8

     1.6. Limitations of the study ................................................................................................... 8

     1.7. Delimitations of the study ................................................................................................ 9

     1.8. Significance of the study .................................................................................................. 9

     1.9 Theoretical framework ................................................................................................... 10

     1.10 Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................. 13

     1.11 Operational definitions of terms .................................................................................... 14

CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................... 15

2.0        Introduction ............................................................................................................ 15

2.1       Importance of discipline. .......................................................................................... 15

     2.2 The nature of indiscipline among learners. .................................................................16

     2.3 Causes of indiscipline among learners. .......................................................................... 17

         2.3.1 School- based factors. ............................................................................................ 18

         2.3.2 Influence from the environment. ............................................................................ 19

         2.3.3 Home-based factors. .............................................................................................. 21

     2.4   The modern scheme of discipline versus the traditional scheme in tackling indiscipline

in schools ............................................................................................................................ 25

          2.4.1 Traditional scheme of discipline ............................................................................ 25

         2.4.2 The modern scheme of discipline .......................................................................... 28

     2.5 Positive approaches used in dealing with indiscipline in schools. ................................. 29

CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .............................. 34

     3.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 34

     3.1 Research design ............................................................................................................. 34

     3.2 Locale of the study ......................................................................................................... 35

3.3       Target population ...................................................................................................... 35

     3.4 Sampling techniques and sample size ............................................................................ 36

3.4.1 Sampling techniques ................................................................................................ 36

3.4.2 Sample Size ................................................................................................................ 37

     3.5 Research Instruments .................................................................................................... 38

         3.5.1 The Questionnaire ................................................................................................ 38

         3.5.2 The interview schedule. ....................................................................................... 39

     3.6 Pilot Study ...................................................................................................................... 39

          3.6.1       Validity ....................................................................................................... 40

          3.6.2      Reliability .................................................................................................... 40

     3.7 Data collection techniques ............................................................................................. 41

     3.8 Data analysis and presentation ....................................................................................... 42

3.9          Ethical considerations ....................................................................................................42 CHAPTER FOUR:DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION .. 43

4.0  Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 43

4.1 Questionnaire Return Rate .................................................................................................. 43

4.2 Demographic Information of the Respondents .................................................................. 44

4.2.1 Gender Distribution of Students ................................................................................. 44

4.2.2 Age Distribution of Students ...................................................................................... 45

4.2.3 Educational  qualification of  Teacher Counselors ...................................................... 46

4.2.4 Working Experiences of Deputy Head Teachers. .......................................................... 47

4.2.5 Teacher Counselors: Training in Guidance and Counseling ........................................ 49

4.3 Findings and Discussion .......................................................................................................... 50

4.3.1 The nature of Indiscipline in Public Day Secondary Schools in Makadara District. .........50

4.3.2 The Major Causes of Indiscipline among Students in Public Day Schools in Makadara

District. ..................................................................................................................................... 56

4.3.3 Positive measures/strategies of arresting indiscipline among students ............................ 58

4.3.3.1 Consultation Frequency in Guidance and Counseling by Students ...................... 62

4.3.3.2. Suggestions on Improvement of Guidance and Counseling in Schools ............. 63

         4.3.3.3 Effectiveness of G&C, L.S.E, School-based families and Co-curricular activities in

curbing indiscipline ........................................................................................................ 64

         4.3.3.4 Suggestions on the Improvement of Positive Strategies used in Schools ........... 65

4.3.4 Seek Suggestions on Measures that could be taken to curb Indiscipline in Secondary

Schools in Kenya ...................................................................................................................... 67

CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .......... 68

5.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 68

5.1 Summary ............................................................................................................................. 68

5.1.1 The Nature of Indiscipline in Public Day Secondary Schools in Makadara District .... 69

5.1.2 The Major Causes of Indiscipline among Students in Public Day Secondary Schools in

Makadara District................................................................................................................69

5.1.3 The positive measures/strategies put in place to arrest indiscipline........................... 69

5.1.4 Suggestions on measures that could be taken to curb students’ indiscipline in Kenyan

Secondary schools ............................................................................................................ 70

5.2 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 71

5.3 Recommendations .............................................................................................................. 72

5.3.1 School administrators ................................................................................................ 72

5.3.2 Ministry of Education ............................................................................................... 73

5.4 Suggestions for further research ....................................................................................... 73

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 74

APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................... 80

APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS ........................................................... 80

APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CLASS TEACHERS ........................................... 84

APPENDIX III: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHER COUNSELORS .............................. 87

APPENDIX IV: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR DEPUTY HEAD TEACHERS .............. 89

APPENDIX V: WORK PLAN .............................................................................................. 90

APPENDIX VI: BUDGET ..................................................................................................... 91

APENDIX VII: PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAKADARA DISTRICT, NAIROBI

COUNTY ................................................................................................................................. 92

APPENDIX VIII: RESEARCH PERMIT ................................................................................ 93

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure  1.1: Conceptual framework……………………………………….. …13

Figure 4.1 Gender of the Students………………….………………………………........45

Figure 4.2 Age distribution of the Students…………………………………….…….....46

Figure 4.3 Educational qualification of Teacher Counselors………………………….....47   

Figure 4.4 Working experience of Deputy Head teachers ……………………………....48 Figure 4.5 Teacher Counselors: Training in Guidance and Counseling…………………49

Figure 4.6 Consultation frequency in Guidance and Counseling by Students…….62

Fig 4.7 Effectiveness of the disciplinary methods in curbing indiscipline in Schools:

Students’ response…....................................................................................................64

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 A breakdown of Public Day Secondary Schools in Makadara District ………35

Table 3.2 A Table showing sample size distribution.…………………………..………..38

Table 4.1 Questionnaire Return Rate……………………………………………...….....44

Table 4.2 Disciplinary Problems Experienced in Public Day Secondary  schools as

reported by Students and Class Teachers..........................................................................50

Table 4.3 Common Indiscipline Problems in schools: Deputy Head Teachers’ and

Teacher - Counselors’  response…………………………………………………………54 

Table 4.4 Factors influencing indiscipline in Schools: Students’ and Class Teachers’

response.…………………………………………………………………………………56

Table 4.5  Disciplinary  methods used in schools as indicated by Students, Class

Teachers, Teacher – Counselors and the Deputy Head teachers.….………………… …59

Table 4.6 Suggestions on the improvement of G&C in schools………….……………...63

Table 4.7 Suggestions on the improvement of Positive Strategies used in Schools: Class

Teachers’ and Deputy Head teachers’ response…………………………………………66

Table 4.8 Suggestions on Measures to curb Indiscipline in Secondary Schools………...67

 

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS

 

D/HT:                      Deputy Head Teacher

G & C:                     Guidance and Counseling.

HIV/AIDS:              Human Immunodeficiency Virus /Acquired Immune Deficiency 

                                   Syndrome  

KCSE:                      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

KIE:                         Kenya Institute of Education

KNA:                        Kenya National Assembly

KNEC:                     Kenya National Examination Council

LSE:                         Life Skills Education

MOEST:                  Ministry of Education Science and Technology

TC:                          Teacher Counselors

TV:                          Television

UNICEF:                 United Nations Children’s Fund

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

This study focuses on the factors influencing indiscipline among students in public day secondary schools in Makadara District. This is discussed under the following sub-topics: background of the study, purpose of the study, Objectives of the study, research questions, assumptions of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study, significance of the study, theoretical and conceptual frame work of the study  and definition of central terms.

1.0.       Background of the study

Our society is made up of organizations all of which have goals to meet. However, without proper discipline, none of these would be realized. For them to operate smoothly, all  of them have a set of rules and regulations by which  all members of the organization are expected to abide by, failure to which sanctions are imposed on the workers to discipline them accordingly. The same applies to educational organizations. For serious learning to take place, discipline has to be maintained in schools.

Mbiti (2007:83) defines discipline as the moral capacity or disposition which when ingrained in the human capacity, becomes a powerful habit for self control. Discipline therefore involves the development of an informed conscience within the individual person as part of his or her personality. Jeng (2011) points out that indeed it encompasses training of the mind and character of a person which results to selfcontrol and a habit of obedience. The main reason why students attend school is to receive good education. Sound education can only be provided when there is discipline in schools. Discipline is the number one topic among others in education.

Soet (2005:1), quoting Charles (1981), on attitude towards Education, stated that, teachers, parents, students and the public all place discipline at the top of their concern, with teachers ranking it at the top because it affects learning, their emotional lives and it outweighs all other factors combined in determining a teacher’s success.

Jeng (2011) advises that students should understand that discipline is one of the most fundamental characteristics of a human being in school, in our homes and indeed   everywhere in the world. Stakeholders concur that ensuring discipline in schools is top on the agenda because one cannot acquire knowledge without character. Soet (2005:2) in his study, “Perception of the causes of indiscipline among students in Mt. Elgon district,” asserts that, schools need discipline.  It is the one thing in learning that everyone expects and wants. Most educators agree that discipline is the one thing that can make or break a school, for without it, a teacher’s finest efforts may go to zero.

People view discipline in different ways. For some people, discipline is equated with taking preventive measures. According to Okumbe (1998) this type aims at taking precautionary measures and may assume the form of guidance or clarifying values and regulations to students. Padilla (2012), an experienced speaker who facilitates parent workshops for school districts in California, is also of the opinion that, it is indeed a positive procedure that emphasizes and rewards good behavior, instead of punishing bad behavior.   

Others view discipline as punishment; a view supported by Mbiti (2007:79) who observes that  the proponents of the traditional scheme of discipline believed that physical punishment was a necessary deterrent to tendencies of wrong –doing in a child. Wilson (2000:30) is of the same opinion. He notes that even though it is an unpleasant line to take, any parent who needs to stop their son bullying a little sister, or any honest teacher who needs to make absolutely sure that the weak pupils are not   bullied by the stronger ones in school, knows perfectly well that such a line has sometimes to be taken.

Many teachers have in the past relied on corporal punishment to instill discipline in schools. This had been legalized in Education Act Cap 211 (1980:73) which stipulates that punishment can be inflicted only in cases of continued or grave neglect of  work,      lying, bullying, gross insubordination, indecency, truancy among others. The Education Act (1980) clearly spelt out how punishment was to be administered   and by whom. However, in 2001, the then minister of education outlawed corporal punishment through Legal Notice No. 56/2001, (Mbiti, 2007:81). Since then, there have been numerous debates for and against the banning of the cane in Kenyan schools.       

Indiscipline is the intentional refusal to follow rules and regulations of a given society. It is not only deeply rooted in Kenyan schools but regionally and internationally too. According to the task force on student discipline and unrests in secondary schools, (Wangai report, 2001), learning institutions have been faced with increased cases of student unrests. The issue of learner indiscipline has taken centre stage for a long time internationally and regionally. For example, in India, Khanbab (2010) laments that schools and colleges in India have become an abode of indiscipline to the extent that examinations have to be conducted with the help of the police. He blames it all on poor study habits by students, incompetent teachers and political leaders who incite students against the government. Recent research in the U.S.A has documented that bullying is a common and potential damaging form of violence among children, which not only harms its intended victims and the perpetrators, but also has a chilling effect on the school climate, thereby indirectly affecting the ability of all students to learn to the best of their abilities, (Limber and Nation, 1997).  

The countries in West Africa have not been spared either. In one incident, two students of Shama senior high school were suspended for watching pornography on campus in March 13th 2011. Kwajo (2011), reports that the students had downloaded the pornographic materials onto their mobile phones, and were consequently handed an internal suspension with hard labour. In another incident at Wesley girls’ senior high school, sexual advances being made to the girls by some male teachers in the school compelled the angry students to vehemently protest on 18th June 2011. They were sent home, (Kwajo, 2011). 

Things are no better in Uganda. Just recently, fifty students of Blessed Sacrament Kimanya secondary school in Masaka district were expelled for alleged academic and   criminal indiscipline which involved gambling, smoking marijuana and sneaking from school to go to the dance halls, (Bindhe, 2012). In one of the latest incidence from Kabale in Uganda, Brainstorm high school expelled seventy students following clashes between the students and the teachers over night roll calls, reports Kushaba, (2012). They claimed teachers had stormed their hostels with canes, beating them mercilessly after a blackout and they had to defend themselves. Apparently, they were resisting the roll call - taking by the teachers after it was alleged that some students had sneaked out of school. 

Moving closer home, Kenya has not been spared the menace either. The rampant students riots and destruction of school property has been with us over the years and there are no signs it is about to abate. According to the Report on the Causes, Effects and Remedies of indiscipline in secondary schools in Central province, (MOEST, 2000) Public day secondary schools too have been actively involved in the unrests. 

On the 1st of June, 1999, at Kiangoma mixed secondary school, the students attempted to burn a newcomer, but the fire was put out. This, according to them, was a test for the new principal. In the same month on 28th of June, 1999,   Ngorano mixed secondary school in Nyeri, staged a walk-out and stole farmers’ sugarcane. They were protesting against caning in their school. 

However, in 2008, things took a turn for the worse. In that year, the country witnessed a resurgence of unrests in secondary schools, which were very violent and destructive, (Kenya National Assembly, 2008). It was in this light that the Departmental Committee on Education, Research and Technology on the Inquiry into students’ unrests and strikes in secondary schools was established, (KNA, 2008). It sought to find out what had really gone wrong to warrant students to act in the manner that they did, such as burning dormitories with their own properties and even fellow students inside, (KNA, 2008).

The MOEST acknowledges the role of G&C in curbing indiscipline in schools. That is why there has been a lot of emphasis in strengthening it, (Wangai Report, 2001). However, previous studies show that there are many challenges facing its implementation, such as, untrained personnel, lack of time and counseling rooms, (Okuthe, 2003). This needs to be addressed. Moreover, in the absence of corporal punishment, manual work is the order of the day in many secondary schools, notes   Mugambi, (2005). This is being abused by the teachers as they impose hard labor and as such, is counter – productive, (Obure, 1987).  LSE whose aim is to empower young people to overcome various obstacles in life has also been advocated by MOEST, (KIE, 2006). Unfortunately, this has not taken off in all schools and the program has encountered challenges such as untrained LSE instructors, lack of learning materials and disinterest in LSE  by both the teachers and students, (Langi, 2013). These should be improved for the program to be effective. Public secondary school students are in constant touch with their homes and society. This exposes them to many negative factors that may influence them to misbehave, (Ikambili, 2003). Positive ways of enhancing discipline should therefore be explored with a view of mitigating indiscipline in day schools. 

All stakeholders expect and want discipline in schools. This study was therefore necessary so that the factors influencing indiscipline among public day secondary school students in Makadara district are unveiled and positive approaches and strategies put in place to arrest them.

1.1.      Statement of the problem

Discipline continues to be a growing problem in our schools. Students’ indiscipline generally militates against effective teaching, learning and production of useful members of society. Indiscipline is rife in public day schools as evidenced from the literature review of Okemwa (2007), Kamau (2008) and Ikambili (2003). This is an indicator of indiscipline among learners. So far, there has been limited research on factors influencing indiscipline in public day schools in Makadara district. Among the available studies on indiscipline in Makadara district, few, if any, have focused on the broad and varied factors that may influence indiscipline in public day secondary schools. The focal problem of this study therefore, was to unveil the major factors influencing indiscipline in public day secondary schools in Makadara district, Nairobi County.  This   study therefore, sought to fill this gap.

Guidance and counseling, (Wangai report, 2001), Life skills education (KIE, 2006) and school- based families, (KNA, 2008) are new concepts from the ministry of Education. These are the positive methods of arresting indiscipline advocated by the modern scheme of discipline. Therefore, this study was also done to establish whether these programs which are expected to enhance positive discipline, are in place in public day secondary schools in Makadara district.

1.2.       Purpose of the study

Based on the problem stated above, the purpose of this study was to examine factors contributing to indiscipline in public day secondary schools in Makadara district, as well as establish whether positive measures of enhancing discipline have taken root in these day schools. The study therefore needed to unveil and address these factors that may have an influence on students’ behavior.

1.3.     Objectives

The objectives of the study were:

i)                    To establish the nature of indiscipline in public day secondary schools in Makadara district.

ii)                  To investigate the major causes of indiscipline among students in public day secondary schools in Makadara district.

iii)                To assess the positive measures/strategies being put in place to arrest indiscipline among students in public day schools in Makadara district.

iv)                To seek suggestions on measures that could be taken to curb students’ indiscipline in Kenyan secondary schools.

1.4.      Research questions

The following research questions guided the study:

i)        What is the nature of indiscipline experienced in public day secondary schools in

Makadara district?

ii)      What are the main prevailing factors that influence indiscipline in public day secondary schools in Makadara district?

iii)    What are the alternative positive strategies being put in place to arrest indiscipline among students in public day secondary schools in Makadara?      

iv)    What measures should be taken to curb students’ indiscipline in Kenyan secondary schools?

1.5.       Assumptions of the study

The following assumptions were made for the purpose of the study while conducting the research:

i)        That the students and teachers were able to offer information freely and without influence.

ii)      The schools had some form of indiscipline among learners in varying degrees. 

iii)    The selected schools had guidance and counseling programs, school-based

families and life skills education in place. 

1.6.       Limitations of the study

The following were the limitations of the study:

The study was conducted in Makadara district, Kenya. The researcher limited     herself to Public day secondary schools in Makadara district. It is only one among the many districts in Kenya.

Additionally, being a full-time teacher with many lessons, allocating time to engage the students was difficult especially during the official school hours. The researcher therefore engaged the respondents after the official school hours.

 

1.7.       Delimitations of the study

The research was conducted in public day secondary schools in Makadara district, Nairobi County, but not in boarding and private day secondary schools due to differences in circumstances. As such the results may not be generalized to the whole county and country. 

The researcher focused on Form 2 students, Form 2 class teachers, teacher counselors and the deputy head teachers of the sampled schools. The study therefore restricted itself to 42 students, two Form 2 class teachers, 1 teacher counselor and 1 deputy head teacher per each school sampled, instead of all the students in form 2, and teachers in the sampled schools. Therefore the results were generalized with caution.  

1.8.      Significance of the study

The findings of this study contributed to the existing literature of knowledge on the specific causes of indiscipline among students in public day secondary schools in Makadara district. It also shed light into the nature of indiscipline bound to arise as a result of these factors.

The study was significant in availing positive ways of improving discipline. Teachers often punished students without clear consideration of what made them misbehave; they seldom tried to understand the motivating force. Focusing on these factors would   enable them to handle their students in a more understanding and  better way.

It may also assist parents in monitoring the movement and association of their children with a view to guiding them to become responsible individuals. They are   better placed in ensuring good upbringing of their children.

To the ministry of education and policy-makers, it is hoped that the findings may provide insight on how to improve guidance and counseling, life skills education and school-based family units in schools.      

The Ministry of Education may also see the need of strengthening these new programs, which are currently lacking in most schools. They may use the outcomes of the study to correct similar problems in other schools in the country. 

1.9 Theoretical framework 

This study was guided by the social learning theory. The development of this theory can be traced back to the work of Robert L. Burgess and Ronald L. Akers in 1966.

Albert Bandura is considered as one of the leading proponents of this theory, (Ormrod, 1999). Social learning theory places emphasis on the consequences of observing the example of others whose behavior is then copied. Social learning argues that learning occurs within social situations and contexts. It also considers how people learn from each other and includes related concepts such as observational, imitation and behavior modeling, (Ormrod, 1999). From just observing others, one can form an idea of how new behaviors are performed on later occasions. This coded information therefore, serves as a guide, (HLWIKI International, 2013). Key aspects of social learning are observing, retaining, motivation and imitation.  

 According to Docking (1980) anti-social or aggressive behavior can be learned by children who regularly witness such behavior among adults or between adults and children. Parents are urged to set good examples in front of their children for children blindly ape what they watch and hear, (www.indiaparenting.com).

Bandura and Walters (1963) noted that imitation plays an important role in the acquisition of deviant as well as conforming behavior. They explained that new responses may be learned or the characteristics of existing responses changed as a result of observing the behavior of others. In some cases, the amount of learning shown by the observer can in fact be as great as that shown by the performer. On social learning and personality development, (Bandura and Walters, 1963:49) opines that other than real models, symbolic models may be presented through oral, written instructions, pictorially or through a combination of verbal and pictorial devices. Pictorially presented models are provided in films, TV or other audio visual displays while those in books are portrayed as fiction characters.

Social learning theory is relevant in this study. The implication of this theory is that students who misbehave in schools are likely to have learnt that behavior from their homes and peers. One of the reasons a teenager may be sneaking out of school or destroying school property may be because others are doing it, since not to do the   same is to be out of the peer group.            

 Day school students are in constant touch with their homes and society. This implies that the environment in which these students grow can also influence their behavior adversely. With poor role models in the society, mobile phones, sheng’-speaking,   rogue matatus and drug abuse, students’ behavior has indeed worsened. Besides, children from families where wife-beating occurs are more likely to be aggressive adolescents, (www.indiaparenting.com).

Most high school students read novels, magazines and watch television, (Soet, 2005). They end up being influenced by such characters as they imitate them, with audiovisual mass media being extremely influential in altering behavior.   

Parents and teachers are role models for children since they copy exactly what they do. That is why a young girl provided with an array of play tools like cooking sets and dolls, can perfectly imitate her mother at work, (Docking, 1980).  Mbiti (2007:84) vehemently maintains that adults in particular, should remember that their lifestyles is  like a text book that is read on a daily basis by the youth.

The behavior of students change through modeling and observation of peers and adults. Indiscipline therefore, among students is mainly caused by copying or imitating certain bad behavior that have been observed and appreciated through their peers and the environment.  


1.11        Operational definitions of terms

 

Discipline:  This is the system of training of the mind and character so that the individual is guided to make reasonable decisions in a responsible manner and co-exist with others in society. 

Guidance and Counseling: This is the total program or all the activities and services engaged  in by an educational  institution that are primarily aimed at assisting an individual to make and carry out adequate plans and  to achieve satisfactory adjustments in all aspects of his   daily life.

Indiscipline: This is the inability to live in accordance to the set rules and regulations that have been set in society.

Matatu: These are the mini-bus vans or taxis that are the staple form of transportation in Kenya. They are an icon of Kenyan travel.  

School - based family units: This is a programme under the guidance and counseling department in secondary schools where the whole students’ body is divided across board into family units, headed by a teacher-parent.

Sheng’: This is a slang’-based language which is a blend of English and Swahili words as well as other ethnic Kenyan languages, mainly spoken by the urban youth.

 

 

 

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