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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00001120

No of Pages: 107

No of Chapters: 5

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The issue of study-duration extension in education is like a hole in a tooth; boldly challenging the perfection of education and constantly questioning its efficiency. This study explores this distasteful phenomenon, highlighting its causative factors, antecedence and implications. It  is delimited to the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos. The sample population were 40 extra-year students from the above-mentioned Department. The Chi-square statistical tool was employed in data analysis. The following recommendations were made: Students who represent the University in sporting competitions, their movements  should be made known to the lecturers and other teaching personnel in the institution. Arrangements should also be made to set up make-up test, assignments and examinations for them, which they may miss while representing the institution. Cohort advisers need to be motivated and encouraged to live up to their expectations. Checks and balances should be made on their activities by the appropriate personnel, while considering feedback from advisers. There is need to continually guide students against the effects of negative peer pressure, so that it may not affect their academic goals and achievements.



TITLE                                                                                                                        PAGE

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                       iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v



1.1              Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               3

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                      4

1.4              Research Questions                                                                                         5

1.5              Research Hypotheses                                                                                      5

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                               6

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                         6

1.8       Limitation of the Study                                                                                  6

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms                                                                     7




2.1       An Overview of Human Kinetics  and  Health Education Course                10

2.2       Demographic Factors Influencing Extension of Study Duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

2.3       Learning Environment/ School Location, Infrastructural Facilities/ Structures

2.4              Teacher Qualification, Methodology, Training and Motivation                     25

2.5              Teachers’ Personality/ Attitude, Methodology and Students Performance in Human Kinetics and Health Education

            2.6.      Textbooks/Curriculum and Students’ Performance in Human Kinetics and Health Education

2.7       Observational Practical Physical Activity Practice by Students of Human Kinetics and Health Education

2.8       Problems of Extra Years are Due to the Following Factors as Experienced By Undergraduates of HKE.

2.9       School Related Factors Leading to Extension of Study Duration among Students:

2.10           Human Kinetics and Health Education Participation and Academic Performance of Students   48

2.11.    Participation in Human Kinetics and Health Education Programmes            45

2.12.    Educational Outcomes of Human Kinetics and Health Education Programmes   48




3.1       Research Design                                                                                             50

3.2       Population of the Study                                                                                  50

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                    51

3.4       Research Instrument                                                                                       51

3.5       Validity of Instrument                                                                                    51

3.6       Reliability of Instrument                                                                                 52

3.7       Administration of instrument                                                                         52

3.8       Scoring of instrument                                                                                     52

3.9       Data analysis                                                                                                   52



4.1       Analysis of Bio-Data                                                                                     53

4.2       Analysis of Data Collected From Respondents                                             53

4.3       Analysis of Questionnaire                                                                               58                               

4.4       Hypothesis Testing                                                                                         66

4.5       Discussion                                                                                                      79




5.1       Summary                                                                                                         83

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      83

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          84

REFERENCES                                                                                                          86





1.1    Background to the Study

     In compliance with the directives of the National University Commission’s Minimum Academic Standards for Nigerian Universities (1989), reinforced by the Accreditation Panel report of 1999, two separate degree programmes were proposed for the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education. These are: B.Sc (Education) in Human Kinetics and   B.Sc. (Education) in Health Education.

 The programmes are to carry out both academic and service functions. The academic functions of the Human Kinetics option include; professional preparation of teachers of Human Kinetics and personnel for sports and recreation. Its service function comprises the provision for students, instruction for credit, in leisure-time movement activity, and professional services in the development in sports and recreation in the University.

The academic programme in Health Education, Health Science Specialists, teachers and professional personnel for schools and community Health Education. Its services roles are geared towards provision of leadership through concurrent field-works in the overall development of physical, social and environmental healthy living of the University Community and its environs.

The issue of academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern  to all and sundry. The rate of extra year is becoming a common phenomenon among Nigerian undergraduates, mostly in the faculty of education, department of Human Kinetics and Health

Education. This is one thing that continues to attract the attention of stakeholders especially the academia, parents, students, government and other stakeholders in education.

The situation is so serious that educators are calling for a total overhauling of the tertiary education system. The Nigeria University Commission (NUC)  believes that the problem can only be tackled with the improvement of the quality of the academic staff thus insisting that Ph.D would be the minimum teaching qualification in all Nigerian universities by 2009.

However, many academics see the problem of  students having extra year apart  from the normal duration  of study in school as a manifestation of the grave negligence which the system has suffered over two decades, the poor quality of the intakes from the secondary education levels and the dearth of modern teaching-learning and research facilities in the faculty of education as a whole (Abiodun & Owoyele, 2011).

The question that arises is how do students themselves see the phenomenon of having extra year (s) which resulted from academic failure and how do they feel when it dawn on them that they have failed one or more courses which made  them to have extra year (s)? Students are  known to attribute extra year (s) and academic failure to several factors. It is a common phenomenon to hear students say that ‘my lecturer gave me 32% or 24%’ instead of saying ‘I failed the course’ suggesting that the lecturer was just distributing scores and he/she was unfair in his/her distribution. Some students tend to attribute failure to external causes but success to themselves. It is also common to associate failure to other causes including defective teaching (Komolafe & Yara, 2010), poor preparation, difficult questions, emotional problems, lack of necessary facilities and epileptic power supply making studying very difficult. Since students are at the receiving end of all educational plans and programmes, a consideration of their perceived causes and affective reactions to their success or failure is necessary especially when stakeholders are thinking of overhauling the system due to poor academic achievement of students in universities.  

There are various factors that may potentially affect students’ psychology which posed threats to students academic performance. They can be grouped into four broad categories: individual level factors including the student’s personal factors like socio-economics status, extension of study duration, peer pressure, physical health status and social and emotional wellbeing,  career level factors  and the physical and mental health of careers  family and household environment factors school environment factors. Analysis of factors associated with students’ academic performance is presented from each of these perspectives. The direct relationship between student, career, family and household and school environment factors and the extent to which each is associated with academic performance in students. In the course of  writing this  study, the researcher intend to investigates the spreading of extra year among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The rate of extra year student is often a matter of grave concern to stakeholders in education as it indicates wastage of the enormous resources expended in the system and poses some threats to the future educational development of students. How do students who failed to graduate on time perceive and react to failure? It is believed that a thorough understanding of students’ perception and reaction to extra  failure would indicate the type and nature of academic counselling such students would need.

The main problems of study  is  based on the fast decaying school facilities and like lack of infrastructures like buildings, chairs, tables,  and so on. It has been observed that there is only display of such materials by various schools by the officials of the Ministry of Education. The effect of this neglect mismanagement, poor maintenance and inadequate supply of these instructional materials has created the following problems:

1)                  Students tend to learn slowly in class.

2)                  What is learnt is not easily recalled.

3)                  Poor academic performance of students in internal and external examinations.

Inability of student to practicalize what is learnt especially things having to do with technical or vocational skills Others found out that the attitude of some students  to the course of study is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about student’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and learning likes affect students’ academic performance in Human Kinetics and Health Education. The question therefore is what is the cause of this fallen standard and poor academic performance of students? Is the fault entirely that of teachers or students or both of them? Is it that students of today are non-achievers because they have low intelligent quotient and a good neutral mechanism to be able to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with academic tasks? Or is it because teachers are no longer putting in much commitment as before? Or is it in teachers’ method of teaching and interaction with pupils? Or is the poor performance of students caused by parents’ neglect, separation and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out the rampancy of extra year among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students of  tertiary institution like  the University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigates the spreading of extra year among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

Others specific study includes:

1.                  To know whether socio economics status  will lead to extension of  study duration among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

2.                  To determine whether participation in sports competitions will result  in extension of study duration  among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students. 

3.                  To know whether  the role of Cohort Adviser  will lead to extension of  study duration among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

4.                  To know whether peer pressure will lead to extension of  study duration among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

1.4 Research Questions                       

The following research questions will be answered:

1         Will  socio economic status lead to extension of  study duration among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students?

2         Will  participation in sports competitions result  in extension of study duration  among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students?

3         Will the role of Cohort Adviser lead to extension of  study duration among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students?

4         Will  peer pressure lead to extension of  study duration among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students?

1.5              Research Hypotheses  

The following hypotheses will be tested:

1.         Socio economic status will not lead to extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

2.         Participation in sports competitions will not result in extension of study      duration among Human Kinetics + will not lead to extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

3.         Role of Cohort Adviser will not lead to extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health

 Peer pressure will not lead to extension of study duration  among  Human Kinetics and Health Education students.

1.6       Significance of the Study

This study is significant because the need to understand the various aspects of the problem of extension of study duration and under achievement remains very vital in the effort to rejuvenate the Human Kinetics and Health Education  and the entire faculties in the tertiary institutions in general.

Specifically, the findings of this study would be very useful to school psychologists, university administrators, counsellors and educators who are concerned about the rising rate of extension of study duration due to  academic failure among Nigerian undergraduates. It is necessary to understand how students of Human Kinetics and Health Education perceive and react to academic failure before one can formulate appropriate policies and design relevant remedial counselling services which could help in remediating the  problem of academic failure among students.

The study will help various school administrators to understand the benefit of encouraging students’ attitudes towards their career choice of study. This  study  will be  of  great benefits to the parents as this  will enable  parents to know how to teach their children to cultivate good attitudes in their studies.

1.7       Scope of the Study

The research work is limited to the students who have experienced and still experiencing extension of study duration within the department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos.

1.8       Limitation of the Study

The following limitations were encountered when this study was carried out

1.                  Little knowledge of  the students on the subject matter

2.                  Reluctance of respondents to disclose information

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

Prevalence: It means issues of poor academic that keep reoccurring  among the students.

Extra-year Student:  A Human Kinetics and Health Education student who could not fulfill his course requirements during the stipulated duration of 3/4 years.

Cohort Adviser: A lecturer in charge of a particular level/set (100,200,300 or 400) of Human Kinetics and Health Education students whose duty is to provide guidance and counseling for students.

Socio-Economic situation: Financial Economic capability.

Sports Competitions: Inter-scholastic sports festivals which takes place at regular intervals between University Students: such as Departmental, Faculty, Inter-hall, Nigeria University Games (NUGA), West Africa University Games (WAUG).

Human Kinetics  and Health Education  (HKE):  Human Kinetics is the component that deals with enlightenment in the areas of physical education, exercise, sports and dance while Health Education on the other hand aims fundamentally to promote the sustenance of good health by exploring areas of study such as epidemiology, community health, industrial health, environmental health etc.

Academic Performance - This is the level of academic education attainable by an individual at a particular point in time as depicted by the subjects’ performance.

Teaching – This is a process of imparting knowledge or the transfer of knowledge from somebody who knows (the teacher) to an individual who does not know (the students).

Attitude – This refers to an organization of motivational perceptional and cognitive process with respect to some aspects of the individual’s world. The attitude one has on something determines to a great extent, how he/she would be involved in that thing. Attitude affects all we do in human life.

Education- it is the aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops abilities, skills and other forces of behavior of positive (and sometimes of negative) value in the society in which he lives.

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