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Motivation refers to reasons that underlie behaviour that is characterized by willingness and volition, intrinsic motivation is animated by personal enjoyment interest, or pleasure, whereas extrinsic motivation is governed by reinforcement contingencies.

Low teacher motivation and its detrimental effect on students achievement are central problems of many education systems in Africa. This paper analysis the relationship between various policy measures, teachers job satisfaction and secondary education outcome. It appears that there is only very limited evidence for effectiveness of intensively debated and costly measures such as reducing class size, increasing academic qualification requirements and increasing teachers salaries. It appears that teachers job satisfaction are necessary and complimentary objective. Those measures ensuring control and incentives related working conditions for teachers significantly increase students achievement while increasing teachers job satisfaction. Teachers’ academic qualification while beneficial for students’ learning, tends to be a mismatch between teacher expectation and professional realities and thereby reduces teachers job satisfaction.    









TITLE                                                                                                                       PAGES

CERTIFICATION                                                                                         ii

DEDICATION                                                                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEGEMENT                                                                                           iv

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                            v



1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                                                    1

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                                   15

1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY                                                           15

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTION                                                                 16

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESES                                                                       16

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                                                     17

1.7    DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY                                                   17

1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY                                                         17

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                                   18



2.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                                               19

2.1 NEED-BASED APPROACH                                                                 20

2.2 ABRAHAM MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS                        21

2.3 HERZBERG ET AL’S TWO FACTOR THEORY                              22


2.5 FACTORS THAT DISSATISFY TEACHERS                                     27

2.6 MANAGERIAL AND LEADERSHIP SKILL                                     30

2.7 TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS                                                                        46

2.8 MENTORING AND INDUCTION                                                       48




3.1    DESIGN OF STUDY                                                                           50

3.2    AREA OF STUDY                                                                              51

3.3    POPULATION                                                                                     51

3.4       SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE                                              52

3.5       INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTON                                   52


3.7    METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION                                                           53       




4.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                             54

4.1       RESEARCH AIMS                                                                           54

4.2       DATA COLLECTION                                                                                  55

4.3       DATA ANALYSIS                                                                          55

4.4       DESCRIPTIVE DATA                                                                                  55


4.6       RESULTS                                                                                                      78




5.1     RESULTS                                                                                                      80

5.2     DISCUSSION                                                                                                80

5.3     CONCLUSION                                                                                              80

5.4       RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                              84

5.5       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY                                                      85

5.6       SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH                             86

REFERENCES                                                                                              87

APPENDIX                                                                                        89







The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria. The quality of education depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties. Overtime the students’ performance in both internal and external examinations had been used to determine excellence in teachers and teaching (Ajao, 2001).

One of the biggest puzzles in education production today is the teacher quality puzzle. While there is clear evidence that teacher quality is a key determinant of student learning, little is known about which specific observable characteristics of teacher can account for this impact.

The effective teachers are perceived to be fully equipped naturally and professionally to lead their students to success in competitive standardized tests, as well as inculcated in them, values that would make them exhibit behaviors that are generally desirable and acceptable. On the other hand, the ineffective teachers do not care about the success of their students in examinations, and in some cases, students who pass through such teachers especially in terms of emulating their life styles, tend to exhibit behaviors that are detestable by the society. Such students also, do not perform well in competitive examination.

It is generally acknowledged that promoting teachers quality is a key element in improving primary and secondary education. Teachers are the most important factor in determining the quality of education that children receive. As such, government has a responsibility to ensure that teachers perform to the best of their abilities. To do this, government must pay attention to a number of factors that affect teachers’ performance. Teachers’ compensation is critical, but not the only factors, and social recognition of their work. Educators may be compensated through salaries or other cash payment, food, training or special assistance such as shelter, transport or agricultural support. If staffs are not paid, they will not teach regularly or will leave the profession, if compensation is irregular, or frequently withheld, teacher motivation may be affected. Therefore, an established teacher compensation system helps to stabilize the education system and decrease teacher absenteeism and turnover.

In addition to compensation, teachers are motivated by a range of other factors including

-        Dedication to the profession and teaching children

-        Success in the classroom- professional rewards of seeing children achieve

-        Status in their community from exercising a respected profession

-        Training and mentoring, particularly recognized and certificated in-service  training

-        Appropriate working conditions- including issues such as the number of hours taught each week, the number of students in the classroom

   -     Support of the head teacher

-        Availability of teaching and learning materials

-        Parental involvement and support, clear school policies and guidelines and the physical condition of the learning space/ classroom

-        The prospect of promotion and career advancement

The roles of teachers are very crucial for the transfer of knowledge in schools. In Africa, a major political topic in this context is how to resolve the problem of low teacher motivation and its detrimental effect on student achievement. The literature is full of apparently obvious policy recommendations, salaries and reductions in class size (UNICEF, 1999). This corresponds to what teachers themselves claim to be responsible for their de motivation, not only in developing countries, but in general.

Job satisfaction and motivation are essential to the continuing growth of our educational system. The probably rank along side professional knowledge and skills, competencies centers, educational resources and strategies as determinants of educational success and performance. Professional knowledge, skills and competencies can be seen when one is taking on and mastering challenging tasks directed at educational success and performance (Filak and Sheldon 2003) satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason form working in life. While almost every teacher works in order to satisfy his or her own needs in life, he or she constantly agitates for job satisfaction. Job satisfaction in this context is the ability of the teaching job to meet teachers’ needs and improve their job/teaching performance. The Federal and State government have argued that the present economic realities in the country cannot sustain the demand in salary increase, benefits and improved work conditions. They believe that teachers’ demands are beyond the government resources. Government accuses the teachers of negligence, laziness, purposeful lethargy and level of efficiency and effectiveness does not necessitate the constant request for salary increase, incentives and better working condition. Teachers argue that the existing salary structure, benefits and working condition do not satisfy their basic needs in as much as other sectors of the economy have bigger salary structure, better motivation and enhanced working conditions. They feel that the Nigeria economy is not properly balanced hence their demands.

The teachers’ argument is in line with Adams 1966) equity theory of motivation. Adams equity theory called for a fair balance to be struck between employees’ input (for example hardwork, skill levels, tolerance and enthusiasm) and employees output (example salary benefits and intangibles such as recognition.

According to the finding, a fair balance serves to ensure a strong and productive relationship with the overall result being satisfied, thus motivated employees. The theory is built on the belief that employees become de –motivated, both in relation to their job and their employer, if they feel as though their inputs are greater than the outputs. Employees can be expected to respond to this in different ways, including de-motivation, reduced effort , becoming disgruntled, or in more extreme cases even becoming disruptive.( LDR_96.htm).Teachers  are expected to render a very high job performance and the Ministry of Education is always curious regarding the job performance of its teachers. Also, they demand for a very high measure of loyalty, patriotism, dedication, hardwork and commitment from its teachers (Ubom and Joshua, 2004).

Similarly, the roles and contexts of education, motivational methods and tools cannot be under emphasized because high motivation enhances productivity which is naturally in the interests of all educational systems (Olulube 2004, 2005).

Current system of reward

Under most current systems of a salary scale, teachers are rewarded for the number of years spent teaching and the number of tertiary degrees, rather than their performance (Odden 2000a). For this reason, many analysts believe the salary scale system determines teachers’ compensation on incomplete criteria. Hoerr (1998) argues that any non-merit-based system is unfair for exceptional teachers because they are judge on inefficient criteria. This will cause, it is argued talented teachers to leave the education system because excellence is not fairly rewarded (Odden 2001). Only when performance is rewarded and teachers command salaries equal to the private sector without having to progress up an arbitrary salary scale, will the best talent be attracted and retained (Solomon and Podgursky 2001) proponents point out that research has found no consistent links between education credits or degree and student performance, and only modest links between experience and student performance (Heneman et al 2000). The existing salary scales are thus at best only loosely related to the expertise and skills needed in the classroom (Mohrman and Odden 1996). If the pay structure is based on this formula it inevitably produces unsatisfactory outcomes as it is not well aligned to education output(Odden 2000a). Thus, a substantial body of literature argues performance based reward system are an improvement on the efficiency of salary scale.

Provision of motivation to teachers

One of the largest benefits reported by proponents of performance –based rewards is an increase in the motivation of teachers. It is argued that performance-based pay will increase teacher motivation by adequately rewarding productivity gains. This perspective links the attitude of teachers to students’ outcomes, by arguing that once the motivation and skill of the teacher determining salaries, teacher quality will be improved. Within the literature, Tomlinson (2000) argues performance-based pay is about motivating people, and developing performance-oriented cultures. Teachers who are not motivated by financial rewards can be encouraged with non-financial rewards (Odden 2000a). These rewards can include, for example, satisfaction from high student achievement, recognition, influence, learning new skills and personal growth (Tomlinson 2000; Odden 2000b)

While it is argued that teachers are not motivated by money, financial reward must have some influence on career choices for at least some teachers motivation, and others are argued money is one motivator among many. Hence, it is argued a performance-based policy which involves a monetary component would attract teaching talent by providing rewards that motivate a large range of people. A further benefit may occur through a rise in the socio-economic status of teachers, which should also attract and motivate talent. Solomon and Podgursky (2001) argue that when teaching is rewarded based on outcomes, quality teachers can be moved to areas of low socio economic status since these areas can be specifically rewarded.

Teacher motivation naturally has to do with teacher’s attitude to work. It has to do with teachers desire to participate in the pedagogical process within the school environment. It has to do with teacher’s interest in student discipline and control particularly in the classroom. Therefore it could underlie their involvement or non -involvement in academic and non-academic activities, which operates in schools. The teacher is the one that translates educational philosophy and objectives into knowledge and skill and transfers them to students in the classroom. Classroom climate is important in teacher motivation. If a teacher experiences the classroom as a safe, healthy, happy place with supportive resources and facilities for teaching for optimal learning he/she tends to participate more than expected in the process of management, administration and overall improvement of the school. The teacher commands and emits the image of one who improves knowledge and the physical conditions of the classroom through orderliness, discipline and control. He makes diagnosis of students’ feelings and attitudes inferred by their behavior and response in the classroom environment. Hence, Lash and KirkPatrick (1990) concluded that in the absence of school programs the major responsibility of working with children in the school rests with the teacher. Likewise, Machr and Midgley (1991) affirm that what takes place in the classroom, even though the classroom itself is not an island is critical. Therefore, depending on the degree of congruence with classroom practices and school environment, teachers teaching activities may dilute or enhance students’ performance. Effectiveness is the “what of change” while improvement is the `` how of change” (Stoll and Fink 1996). Teacher motivation therefore, is anything done to make teachers happy, satisfied, dedicated and committed in such a way that they bring out their best in their places of work so that both students, Parents and the society will greatly benefit from their services.

Teachers have both intrinsic and extrinsic needs. A teacher who is intrinsically motivated may be observed to undertake a task for its own sake, for the satisfaction it provides or for the feeling of accomplishment and self actualization. On the other hand, an intrinsically motivated teacher may perform the activities in order to obtain some reward such as salary. Extrinsic motivation plays an important part in people’s life. It is pre-eminent in influencing a person’s behavior. Therefore, the aim of the organization should be to build on and enhance the intrinsic motivation for teachers to teach effectively and at the same time, to supply some extrinsic motivation along the way for school improvement (O’neil 1995)

Occupational status

This depends on the `public’ valuing of the competence, role and overall contribution of particular occupation to individual and societal welfare. Occupations that have attained `professional status’ share a common set of characteristics including a high  level of education and training, a strong ideal of public service with an enforced professional code of conduct, and high levels of respect from the public at large. Teachers in most low income developing countries are `semi professionals’ mainly because of their relatively low level of education and training vis-à-vis professional occupations, such as doctors, Engineers and Lawyers, also the sheer size of the teaching force militates against professional exclusivity. Teaching has become employment of the last resort among university graduates and secondary school leavers in many countries. Consequently teachers often lack a strong, long-term commitment to teaching as a vocation. Finally, teachers are paid considerably less than the main stream professions. It is widely argued that the status of teachers in most countries, both developed and developing, has declined appreciably during recent decades. However, the forces that are resulting in the `de-professionalization’ of teachers are probably more pronounced in low income developing countries (LICs), this include protracted economic and social crises in many LICs, increasing reliance on less well-educated and qualified teachers with lower job security, generally lower standards of living of teachers. Teachers’ motivation refers to the psychological process that influences individual behavior with respect to the attainment of work place goals and tasks. The received wisdom among occupational psychologist is that pay on its own does not increase motivation. However, pecuniary motives are likely dominant among teachers in those LICs, where pay and other material benefits are too low for individual and household survival needs to be met. Only when these basic needs have been met is it possible for `higher order’ needs which are the bases of true job satisfaction to be realized. The excessive politicization of public education has had a profound impact on levels of accountability in many education systems which has in turn, seriously affected teacher commitment and motivation. The poor and declining quality of public education has led to growing number of parents sending their children to non-state school. Incentives for teachers in the public education system to perform well are frequently weak due to ineffective incentives and sanctions. Very low pay forces large proportion of teachers to earn secondary income from private tutoring and other activities. Teachers in large majority of LICs earn less than $3 a day which is usually the main source of household income. Given that most households have more than 5 people, household income per head is well under one dollar a day. The overall structure of teachers pay shares most of the pervasive characteristics of public sector pay system in LICs.  In particular, formal education and professional qualifications largely determine salary levels. The salary scales for both primary and secondary school teachers are often very flat with very small increment awarded on the basis of seniority/experience, with little or no link with actual job performance. Teachers at private-for–profit schools also earn less, on average, than in the public sectors. Salary administration is poor, late payment of salaries is very common.

Low level of client trust and respect and inadequate levels of teacher accountability are key factors that have tended to lower the occupational status of teachers in many LICs. Parental views about teachers are even paradoxical. Lack of understanding and unrealistic expectations has led to frustration and negative stereotyping of teachers. Teachers who are `dead wood’ in terms of their competence and or commitment tend to have a disproportionate impact on public perceptions of the profession as a whole.

Studies have consistently found a low impact of teacher qualifications and experience on students’ attainment. These findings have led into more general criticisms of teachers in LICs, which in turn has lowered their status, especially in most countries.  The incidence of corrupt practices among teachers, in particular `under the table’ charges for educational services are also believed to have increased in many countries. The dramatic decline in the standard of living of teachers in many LICs has been a major factor contributing to their declining occupational status.


Why focus on teachers?

The teacher is central in facilitating the processes that lead to meaningful education and students’ learning outcomes are affected by teacher quality. Incentives for schools and teachers in the public education system to perform well are frequently weak due to ineffective incentives and sanctions. Very low pay forces large proportions of teachers to earn secondary income from private tutoring and other activities. Poor human resources management also seriously de-motivates employees. Teacher management at the national and sub-national levels is nothing short of chaotic in many countries.

Where teachers pay large bribes to secure employment and desired postings, this may impact on job commitment and overall motivation. In these situations, teaching positions are little more than sinecures, which means that teachers do not feel accountable to school management, parents or the wider community. Being posted to a rural school is likely de-motivating for most teachers.

Increasing hours of work, larger class sizes, more subjects and constantly charging curricular are cited as major de-motivators in many countries. The work and living environment for many teachers are poor, which tends to lower self-esteem and is generally de-motivating. Housing is a major issue for nearly all teachers. The `struggling teacher’ is an all too common sight, especially in primary schools. Too often, teachers are thrown in at the `deep end’ with little r no induction.

Individual teacher characteristics can also adversely Impact on motivation levels. In particular, the age profile of teachers has become younger in many countries due to the rapid expansion of secondary enrolment and higher rate of teacher attraction.


It is generally agreed that motivation has positive impact upon learning. It influences individual behavior with respect to the attainment of workplace goals and tasks. These believe has given rise to the following questions:

1.      Do higher teacher certification and greater teacher pay raise student

achievement and to what extent?

2.      Are teachers rewarded for possession of characteristics that raise students’ achievement?

3.       Does teachers’ classroom effectiveness have significant influence on student academic performance?


Generally this study seeks to examine effect of teachers motivation on the academic performance of their students. It will also address this issues:

1.        Examine the effect of teachers incentives on students academic performance

2.        Explore the effect of job satisfaction and teachers work motivation

3.        Determine the relationship between awarding of incentive pay, teacher motivation, and students achievement.

4.        assesses the extent to which the material and psychological needs of teachers are being met


1.      Why is there a low level of achievement in education despite the extra-ordinary pace of innovation and invention in formation technology, curriculum change and government funding?

2.      What factors motivate teachers to teach with inspiration?

3.      What instructional strategies may be employed to motivate teachers?

4.      What factors motivate teachers in the local government to teach effectively?




H01       There is no significant relationship between a motivated teacher and the Students’ academic achievement

H02       There is no significant relationship between teachers effectiveness and Students’ academic performance

H03   There is no significant relationship between teachers job satisfaction  

         their teaching performance.


This study will be of immense benefit to all concerned in the educational sector, particularly stakeholders in the sector (education planners, policy makers, educators, academic and human resource development and strategic managers) interested in empirical information method to conceptualize the issue raised in this study and provide them with useful suggestions that might help them improve secondary schools in Nigeria.


Since Aguda Local Government is used as a case study, the approach used here may be conceptually inadequate. It is therefore not clear if we could get the same result from other Local Government or States as the case may be.


The study was limited by many factors. There are others in the teaching profession- primary school and tertiary institution that are also affected by poor or lack of motivation in their chosen profession. This research project is restricted to the secondary school with emphasis laid on effect. For in the course of this study, visits were made to the schools mention which is based in Aguda. Others in other states and Local Government were not visited due to financial constrain.


Academic: connected with education, especially studying in schools and universities

Achievement: a thing that somebody has done successfully, especially using their own effort and skill

Effect: a change that somebody or something causes in somebody or something else

Investigation: a scientific or academic examination of the facts of a subject or problem

Motivation: the reason why somebody wants to do something especially something that involves hard work and effort.

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