AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CODE OF CONDUCT BUREAU AND CODE OF CONDUCT TRIBUNAL (CCB and CCT)’S PUBLIC ETHICS PRACTICES

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ABSTRACT

 

The prevalence and ubiquity of unethical behaviours and practices in Nigeria is no longer debatable considering their obviously insidious plague and a wide range of corrosive effects on the Nigerian state. What is more perplexing, however, is why this problem has defied all attempts at combating it. Thus, this dissertation is an assessment of the Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal in the practice of public ethics in Nigerias democratic governance (1999-2007). In order to achieve this aim, the constitutional mandates of the Bureau and the Tribunal were used as parameters for  assessment. Relying on  the survey  method  of  research  and  documentary  evidence  with  the  aid  of descriptive statistics, the study found out that the CCB and CCT were established primarily to promote public ethics in public service. Other findings show that in terms of Assets Declaration Forms(ADFs) issued to public officers within the mandate of the Bureau, over 784,000   public officers returned the Completed Assets Declaration forms(CADFs) representing over 70% rate of return which is a far cry from an estimation that eligible people for the forms are  over  4,000,000  withithe periods  under investigation  (1999-2007)  Also findings shows that out of the number of complaints received by the CCT, only 11,640 were referred to the CCT for trials, out of which  only 3,304. The rest were either adjourned until it died down or struck out for lack of merit. With the prevalent nature of this menace and the number of convicts, it is a clear manifestation of ineffectiveness of the CCB and CCT. On the fourth objective of the study, which focuses  on  the  performance  assessment  of  the  CCB  and  CCT,  overwhelming  majority  of  the respondents had indicated that the CCB and CCT had performed below expectation; but considering the efforts made at organizing workshops, retreat and the extent to which public officer on their co me to fill, complete and submit Assets Declaration Forms today unlike in the past and the fact that some officers were tried and given a public show means they deserve a pass mark. The study, in agreement with  the  theoretical  postulation  of  functionalism  identified  institutional  framework,  financial, manpower in terms of quality and quantity, legal and constitutional set back and lack of political commitment and willingness on the part of political leadership as factors responsible for the ineffective performance of their functions. This therefore buttressed the postulation of these scholars that establishing institutions alone does not solve the problem but providing what they referred to as functional prerequisites are very fundamental to effective performance of these institutions. However, we make the following recommendations for an improved performance. Theoretically, the study recommends that there is a need for the provision of the necessary requirements for the functioning of the institutions such as adequate funding, staffing, independence of the institutions to enable them function well. Above all, political leadership must display leadership by example at all levels of governance.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CONTENT PAGE Title…………………………………………………………. i Declaration ……………………………………………………ii Certification …………………………………………………………..iii Dedication ………………………………………… .iv Acknowledgements………………………………………................................v List of Abbreviations……………………………………...........................vii

Abstract ………………………………………………..x

 

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background to the study  ……………………………………………………………1

 

1.2 Statement of Research Problem ……………………………………………………………  7

 

1.3 Research Questions ………………………………………………………………….8

 

1.4 Research Objectives…………………………………………………………………… 9

 

1.5 Assumptions …………………………………………………………………………..10

 

1.6 Significance of the study…………………………………………………………………10

 

1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study…………………………………………………………......12

 

1.8 Organization of Chapters………………………………………………………13

 

CHAPTER TWO : Literature Review and Theoretical Framework

 

2.1 Literature Review ………………………………………………………………………14

 

2.2 Public Ethics…………………………………………………………………….16

 

2.3 Traditional Ethical Values in Nigeria……………………………………………………...19

 

2.4 Accountability ……………………………………………………………………......21

 

2.5:1 Transparency…………………………………………………………………..29

 

2.5:2 Types of Transparency…………………………………………………………..31


2.6 Democratic Governance ………………………………………………………………..33

 

2.6:1 Governance ………………………………………………………………………...34

 

2.6:2 Democratic Governance …………………………………………………………………37

 

2.7 Theoretical Framework ………………………………………………………………….42

 

2.7:1 Structural-Functionalism ………………………………………………………………42

 

CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology

 

3.1 Location of the Study Area ……………………………………………………………...50

 

3.2 Types and Sources of Data ………………………………………………………………50

 

3.3 Interview Guide …………………………………………………………………………....52

 

3.4 Examination of Official Records…………………………………………………………52

 

3.5 Population Sampling and Sampling Techniques……………………………………………52

 

3.6 Data Transcription and Analysis Techniques (DTAT)……………………………………...53

 

3.7 Problems encountered………………………………………………………………………54

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Overview of Previous Attempts at Promoting Public Ethics in Nigeria

 

4.1 General Aguiyi Ironsi …………………………………………………………………….55

 

4.2 General Yakubu Gowon Regime……………………………………………………….62

 

4.3 Murtala/ Obasanjo Regime ……………………………………………………………….64

 

4.4 Alhaj Shehu Aliyu Shagari Administration……………………………………….. ……68

 

4.5  General Muhammadu Buhari  ………………………………………………………71

 

4.6 General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida Regime………………………………………..74

 

4.7 General Sani Abacha Regime……………………………………………………..……...76

 

4.8 Chief Olusegun ObasanjAdministration 1999-2007……………………………………...77

 

4.8:1  Independent Corrupt Practices and other related Offences Commission (ICPC) .78

 

4.8:2  Budget Monitoring Evaluation and Intelligent Unit (Due Process)……………………….78

 

4.8:3 Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)………………………………79

 

4.8:4 Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency International (NEITI) ……………………80


CHAPTER FIVE : Evolution and Mandates of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Code of

Conduct Tribunal

 

5.1 Historical Background………………………………………………………………….87

 

5.2 Evolution and Structure of the Bureau …………………………………………………...88

 

5.3 Mandates and Powers of the Bureau and Tribunal……………………………………….90

 

5.4 Code of Ethics of Work for Public Officers …………………………………………...96

 

CHAPTER SIX :  Assessment of the Function-Performance of the Code of Conduct Bureau

(CCB) and Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT)’s Public Ethics Practices in Nigeria, 1999-2007.

 

6.1 Functions-Performance Assessment of the Code of Conduct Bureau (1999-2007)………104

 

6.2:1 The primary purpose for the establishment of the Code of Conduct Bureau…………….105

 

 

6.2:2  Total number  of  Assets  Declarations Forms  received  by  the  CCB  from public  officers  in accordance with the provision of the Act between 1999 and 2007…………………………..108

 

6.2:3 The extent to which the CCB promote public ethics in Nigerias democratic governanc (1999-

2007)……………………………………………………………………………………..112

 

6.2: Factor militatin agains th effectiv functions-performanc o th CC (1999-

2007)………………………………………………………………………………………..115

 

6.3 Functions-Performance Assessment of the Code of Conduct Tribunal (1999-2007)…….130

 

 

6.3:1 The primary purpose for the establishment of the Code of Conduct Tribunal…………….130

 

 

6.3:2 How many complaints did the CCT receive about non-compliance with the provisions of the Act by public officers within the period under review and how many have been tried and convicted……………………………………………………………………………………….131

 

6.3:3 The extent to which the CCT promote public ethics  in Nigerias democratic governanc (1999-

2007)…………………………………………………………………………………………136

 

6.3: Factor militatin against   th effective   functions performanc o th CC (1999-

2007)...........................................................................................................................................139

 

6.4 Discussion of Research Findings ………………………………………………………..142


6. 10 Relating Research Assumptions to Research Findings …………………………………..146

 

CHAPTER SEVEN: Summary, Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

 

7.1 Summary of Major Findings……………………………………………………………150

 

7.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….....154

 

7.3 Recommendations……………………………………………………………..........156

 

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………......161

 

Appendix 1 List of Officers interviewed with Dates……………………………………..174

 

Appendix 2 Interview Guide for Staff of CCB and CCT …………………………………..175

 

Appendix 3 Interview Guide for  Specialized Groups…………………………………………176

 

Appendix 4  Budget Allocation for CCB 2000-2005……………………………………….177


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

 

ADF                       ASSET DECLARATION FORM

 

AGF                       ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE FEDERATION AU              AFRICAN UNION

BMIU                     BUDGET MONITORING AND INTELLIGENT UNIT CADFs             COMPLETED ASSETS DECLARATION FORMS

CCB                        CODE OF CONDUCT BUREAU CCT CODECONDUCT TRIBUNAL

CDC                       CONSTITUTION DRAFTING COMMITTEE

 

CPIB                       CORRUPT PRACTICES INVESTIGATION BUREAU CSO                    CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS

DFID                       DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT DPU      DUE PROCESS UNIT

EFCC                     ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION

 

EITI                       EXTRACTIVE NDUSTRIES TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL EU       EUROPEAN UNION

FCT                       FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY FEC FEDREAL EXECUTIVE COUNCIL FMG   FEDERAL MILITARY GOVERNMENT FRN        FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA FAQ          FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GDP                              GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

ICPC                      INDEPENDENT CORRUPT PRACTICES AND OTHER RELATRED OFFENCES COMMISSION ICAC        INDEPENDENT COMMISSION AGAINST CORRUPTION

IDI                         INDEPTH INTERVIEW

IMF                       INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

 

MAMSER             MASS MOBILIZATION FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY NEITI              NIGERIAN EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES TRANSPARENCY INTERNATONAL NITEL   NIGERIAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS

NLC                           NIGERAN LABOUR CONGRESS NJC       NATIOANAL JUDICIAL COUNCIL NCS NATIONAL COUNCIL OF STATES

NGO                          NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS NONATIONAL ORIENTATION AGENCY

NEPAD                       NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA DEVELOPMENT NPN      NATIONAL PARTY OF NIGERIA

OECD                           ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT OSA      ORGANISATION OF AMERICAN STATES

PCC                                PUBLIC COMPLAINTS COMMISSION

 

PTDF                           PETROLEUM TRUST DEVELOPMENT FUND SAP                             STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMME SRS                              SMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING

SMC                                 SUPREME MILITARY COUNCIL

 

SPSS                                 STATISTICAL PROGRAMME FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES TI    TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL

UK                                    UNITED KINGDOM UN                 UNITED NATONS

UNDP                               UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

 

UNECA                              UNITED NATION ECONOMIC COMMSSION FOR AFRICA USA           UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

USAID                                   UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT USSR       UNITED SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC

UPGA                                     UNITED PROGRESSIVE GRAND ALLIANCE VIP                       VERY IMPORTANT PERSON

WAI                                        WAR AGAINST INDISCIPLINE

 

WAIC                                     WAR AGAINST INDISCIPLINE AND CORRUPTION WB              WORLD BANK

WTO                                      WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Background to the study

 

 

       the essence of holding public office, political decisions and actions is not to satisfy any abstract ideals but to make life better for the citizenry in terms of shelter, food, good health, education and security of lives and property. This is because modern democratic practice worldwide assumes that governments derive mandate from the people and the major goal of governance is to enhance the welfare of the entire citizenry. Public service is the machinery through which such goals are met. If governance is about the welfare of the people, its integrity or otherwise depends on the extent to which public officers are faithful to the social contract and the level of honesty and transparency which they demonstrate in executing such contract. It is only when the activities of government are transparent that government is acknowledged as accountable to the governed. The conduct or behaviour of the public officer which is often reflected in official decisions must therefore conform to the highest ethical standards if public expectations must be met.

 

The picture painted above constitutes the essence to which governance defined in terms of accountability and transparency can be made more meaningful to the people. However, even though no one would doubt the desirability of accountable and transparent government irrespective of the form of government or political system, a political system or government that renders full account of its stewardship, including the efficiency and effectiveness with which it has utilized resources entrusted to it in the performance of its duties to the citizens promotes stability, peace and prosperity and inspires public confidence in the government.

 

A general look at the Nigerian political landscape in the light of the above after over five

 

decades of political independence reveals not only a paradox but on the contrary thereby resulting to


what the World Bank (1992) describes as governance crisis. The experience of Nigeria from independence to date with few exceptions has been selfish, personal, unresponsive leadership and irresponsible and unaccountable government which has resulted in the crisis of development. Political power in Nigeria, like in other sub-Saharan African countries, is seen as an end in itself to be used mainly in the pursuit of the self interest of the political ruling class, a class which claimed rights and privileges but refused to recognize that power is entrusted to them to serve the interest of the people.

 

The challenges of development and democratic stability in developing countries depends to a large extent on the efficient, effective, responsible, accountable and transparent public service. This realization is predicated on the assumption that good governance defined in terms of ethics or ethical behaviour, accountability and transparency are very fundamental to sustainable development. To corroborate this assertion, UNDP (2001) observes that there is greater awareness of the need for ethics, accountability and transparency in the public service today, given its pivotal role in the governance and development of the nation. However, in spite of this awareness, ethics, accountability and transparency in governance, the main thrusts for social and political cohesion, development and economic progress, are  still  very  elusive  in  Nigeria.  The  elusivenesof  this  important  vehicle  for  development  is responsible for the decline in good governance in most developing countries (World Bank, 2007). The growing  absence  of  accountability,  transparency  and  ethics  in   public  servic badly  pushes infrastructural decay, poverty escalation, inequality and political incohesion to an unacceptable dimension. Furthermore, the impact of unethical and corrupt practices in the public service is overwhelming and consequently resulting to loss of confidence in public institutions and the erosion of the rule of law. Nigeria is, of course, rated low in terms of the quantum level of low transparency and accountability in governance.


As a matter of fact, public ethics, accountability and transparency constitute the ethical foundation for the quest for a better society and as such, offer best explanation for why countries that embraced it excel in all spheres of human development. This implies, therefore, that accountability and transparency are ground norms of ethics upon which democracy and development thrive. However, in contemporary Nigeria, good governance, based on ethics, accountability and transparency have practically been relegated to the background, while questionable dealings, large scale political ineptitude, squandermania, corruption, favouritism, nepotism and other forms of unethical behaviours that run contrary to good governance remain a bourgeoning problem. This issue has been a challenge in Nigeria since independence and has undermined all her development plans.

 

Interestingly,  military regimes  after  long  years  of  dominance  in  the  political  governance returned the country to civil rule in 1999. It is in consonance with this that Babawale (2007) noted that democracy has emerged as the most sought political system across the planet. With democracy now in place, comes the euphoria and enthusiasm that things will turn out better for accountability and transparency in governance in Nigeria. Since then, the general expectation has been high because, to many, democracy presupposes the exercise of political power for the promotion of public good. This is because public servants entrusted with guarding public resources and executing decisio ns on behalf of the people play an indispensable role in the development and democratic governance of the nation. As such, state or nation must have in place a system or measures to create an environment for promoting public ethics, accountability and transparency in governance. Ironically, public service and position of authority in Nigeria, whether elected or appointed has become a key to unlock the national treasury unto self. This altogether depicts that our development failure is a function of bad governance defined in terms of unethical practices.


However, against all perceivable expectations, accountability and transparency, as an envisaged advantage of democratic governance still remains a hoax in the country. Things in Nigeria have not really changed from the status-quo. On the contrary, what obtain as the prevalent tendencies are bad, irresponsive and irresponsible and unethical modes of governance. A situation like this generates intense public apprehension and cynicism as to why governance based on ethics, accountability and transparency still remain serious issues in Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that the task of building good and legitimate governance in a state that is accessible, efficient, ethical, accountable, transparent and equitable delivery of goods and services has been one of the most critical problems facing many African countries including Nigeria. One of the many challenges of development in Nigeria is not premeditated on its lack of resources to forge a common national political and economic development, but the blatant abuse of office and large scale unethical practices manifested in lack of transparency and non-accountability in governance. Virtually in all spheres of governance in Nigeria, there is absence of these essential elements (accountability and transparency) for good governance. This of course, becomes an empirically verifiable concern for the study. In other words, the study provides a platform to assess the performance of one of the institutional mechanisms; the Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal established under the 1979 Constitution and strengthened  under  the  Obasanjo  government  (1999–2007) to  promote  public  ethics  practices  in Nigeria.  The Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal as enshrined in the Act that established were designed to among other things perform the following functions:

 

i.          To receive declarations by public officers in accordance with the provisions of this Act;

 

ii.         To examine the assets declarations and ensure that they comply with the requirements of this

Act and of any law for the time being in force;

 

iii.       To take and retain custody of such assets declaration and make them available for inspection by            any citizen of Nigeria on such terms and conditions as the National Assembly may prescribe the public ;


iv.       To receive complaints about non-compliance with or breach of this Act and where the Bureau considers it necessary to do so, refer such complaints to the Code of Conduct Tribunal established by section 20 of this Act in accordance with the provisions of sections 20 to 25 of this Act (Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act CAP, C 15, 1989).

 

The establishment of the Bureau, as Sambo (1992) has observed, is an important instrument for monitoring the actions and behaviour of public officers to ensure that they conform to the highest standard of morality and public accountability.

 

Part 2 of the Act deals with the establishment of the Code of Conduct Tribunal with section 23 focusing on the powers of the Tribunal to impose punishment on defaulters. The Act specifically states that where the Tribunal finds a public officer guilty of contravening any of the provisions of this Act, it shall impose upon that officer any of the punishments specified under subsection (2) of this section which shall include any of the following:

 

i.          Vacation of office or any elective or nominated office, as the case may be;

 

ii.        Disqualification from holding any public office(whether elective or not) for a perod not exceeding ten years; and

 

v.         Seizure and forfeiture to the state of any property acquired in abuse or corruption of office

(Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act CAP, C 15, 1989).

 

 

 

 

 

The rationale for the choice of this problem is predicated on the fact that Nigeria is said to be one of the richest countries in Africa in terms of natural and human resource endowment. Paradoxically, Nigeria is rated as one of the poorest countries in the world. A further interrogation of the causes reveals a governance crisis defined in terms of unethical practices, lack of transparency and accountability in governance at all levels. A 1989 World Bank study of Sub-Saharan Africa has noted that underlying the litany of Africas development problems is a crisis of governance (WB,1989).


It is based on the numerous socio-political and economic problems precipitated by unethical practices, that successive post independent Nigerian governments especially after Balewa government had attempted to fight the menace of ethical behaviour and abuse of office by instituting one programme, structure, commissions and a lot of legislations ranging from military decrees to Acts empowering institutions such as the Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal, the Public Complaint Commission, Ethical Revolution programme, War Against Indiscipline(WAI), War Against  Indiscipline and  Corruption (WAIC); and  many more.  All these were designed  to  fight unethical practices thereby promoting public ethics, accountability and transparency in governance. In spite of all these measures, however, unethical practices and flagrant abuse of office are most pronounced to the extent that Nigeria has earned herself one of the most corrupt nation in the world (TI,2001;2003;2010).

 

When President Obasanjo assumed office in 1999 with the return to democratic rule, unethical practices and corruption had reached a fatal stage or what Leo (2000) described as a tidal wave. It is against this backdrop that President Obasanjo in his inaugural speech, among other things, declared and promised to fight all unethical practices in public service to its logical conclusion and to ensure transparency and accountability in governance. It is the above philosophical intention that informed the establishment of agencies and institutions such as Budget Monitoring and Intelligent Unit (BMIU); Due Process Office (DP); Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC); Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiatives (NEITI) and the strengthening of existing ones such as Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCB and CCT). Despite the establishment of these institutions aimed at combating ethical problem and abuse of office, this problem has persisted to the extent that in 2010, it has been observed by the Transparency International (TI) that Nigeria has slipped from a score of 2.5 in 2009


ranked at 130th  position to 2.4 in 2010 taking the 134th  spot alongside countries like Sierra Leone, Togo, Ukraine and Zimbabwe (Edet, 2010:9).

 

The logical question that can be deduced from the above is that why has this ethical problem persisted despite these institutions? This study therefore primarily examined the performance of these bodies in promoting unethical official attitude of the political leaders and the officers between 1999-

2007 in order to ascertain what factors best explain why some of these institutions established to promote public ethics are not performing.

The need for assessment has become crucial because, despite the recent diverse governmental efforts especially under President Obasanjos democratic governance aimed at stemming the tide of ethical problem and abuse of office in Nigeria through the establishment of EFCC, ICPC DPU, NEITI, etc, and strengthening of existing institutions such as the Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal, the problem has proved recalcitrant, partly because these measures, apart from being half measures, are legal and institutional responses. But more crucial is the fact that these institutions directly in charge of the problem have not been thoroughly subjected to any comprehensive assessment. The first step in dealing with social phenomenon therefore, is to assess the institution concerned and in this case the CCB and CCT because by definition and statutory powers, there are designed to promote public ethics in governance.

1.2 Statement of  Research Problem

 

 

The study assessed the performance of the Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal in promoting public ethics in Nigerias democratic governance (1999-2007). Hence, the statutory functions of the CCB and the CCT as stipulated by the Act establishing them constitute our parameters for assessment.


The importance of establishing the Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal as measures to maintaining high level of morality and accountability by public officers in the conduct of government business in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized (CCB &CCT, 1991; CCB, 2010). What appears to be a major lacuna is the extent to which the behaviour of public officers conforms to the set functions of the provisional Acts of the CCB & CCT. Similarly, there seems to be a gap or an apparent failure on the parts of government and even scholars as Rothstein (2005) argues, that there is a lack of research regarding what type of strategies are working and what explains success and failure. It is therefore, expedient as a matter of responsibility to periodically assess these measures (CCB & CCT) being put in place with a view to determining their performance. This, according to Odekunle (1978), was necessary because assess ment has significant value of measuring the efficiency with which functions are performed, the suitability of means employed in carrying out the task defined and the end sought. Thus, the necessity for a periodical check is to help appraise the institutions by indentifying grey areas for improvement.

The need for assessment of institutions such as the CCB and CCT is particularly crucial in a developing polity such as Nigeria, with high degree of human and economic potentials but ironically experiencing deep poverty and infrastructural decay. Therefore, establishing institutions without corresponding mechanisms to check function-performance especially cultivating an independent culture of research orientation will amount to an exercise in futility. It was against this background that this research is conceived as a platform to empirically verify the function-performance of the CCB and CCT within the given periods, 1999-2007.


1.3 Research Questions

 

 

This study attempted to provide answers to the following research questions:

 

 

i)          What is the primary purpose for the establishment of the CCB and the CCT?

 

ii)        How much of the Assets Declarations Forms did the CCB received from public officers in accordance with the provision of the Act between 1999-2007?

iii)       How many complaints did the CCT receive about non-compliance with the provisions of the Act by public officers  within the period under review and what have they done to ensure compliance?

iv)        What is the public perception of the functions- performance of the CCB and CCT from

 

1999-2007?

 

v)         What are the possible factors militating against the effective performance of the CCB and

 

CCT?

 

vi)       In what ways and means can the CCB and CCT be empowered and strengthened to carry out their mandate?

 

1.4 Research  Objectives

 

 

The study was designed to achieve the following objectives.

 

 

i)         To ascertain the primary purpose for the establishment of the Code of Conduct Bureau and the Code of Conduct Tribunal.

ii)        To ascertain how much of the Assets Declarations Forms did the CCB received from public officers in accordance with the provision of the Act between 1999-2007.


iii)       To  ascertain  how  many complaints the  CCT  received  about  non-compliance with  the provisions of the Act by public officers within the period under review and  the number tried and convicted.

iv)        To ascertain what is the public assessment of the functions- performance of the CCB and

 

CCT from 1999-2007.

 

v)         To identify the possible factors militating against the effective functions- performance of the

 

CCB and CCT between 1999-2007.

 

vi)       To  ascertain ways  and  means  by which the  CCB and  CCT    can  be  empowered and strengthened to carry out their mandate?

 

1.5 Assumptions

 

 

This study was guided by the following assumptions:

 

 

i)         The  Bureau  and  Tribunal  as  institutions  for  promoting  public  ethics  in  democratic governance in Nigeria have not performed effectively from1999-2007 due to myriads of problems.

 

ii)        Lack of commitment and political will on the part of political leadership has affected the effective performance of the Bureau and the Tribunals functions.

 

iii)        Poor funding and lack of adequate manpower affects the performance of the Bureau and  the

 

Tribunals functions.

 

 

iv)       Poor  publicity on  the  existencand  activities  of the  Bureau  and  Tribunal affects  the effective performance of the Bureau and the Tribunals functions.


1.6 Significance of the Study

 

 

The issue of unethical practices and mechanisms for combating them has increasingly gained attention in literature and public policy circle but little attention has been paid to the efficiency and effectiveness of the mechanisms. As such, this study is significant in a number of ways including but not restricted to contributions to knowledge, public policy and theoretical explanations.

 

On the significance of the study especially as it relat to contribution t the existing body of knowledge, various studies have been done extensively on the causes, types, forms, effects and even on the fight against corruption and unethical practices in developing countries and Nigeria in particular. Theoretically, most of the studies have focused on the moral and cultural aspects of corruption at the expense of the institutions established to perform what functions and institutional frameworks designed to make institutions perform their functions effectively. T he o r e t ic a l l y  t he r e fo r e ,  t he  r e s e a r c h f u r t he r  s t im u la t e s  t h e o r e t ic a l k no w le d g e a bo u t  u ne t h ic a l p r a c t ic e s w it h in t he  c o nt e xt o  t h s t r u c t u r a l- f u n c t io na  p a r a d ig m  w it  t h int e nt io  t  u lt im a t e l  p r o v i d e s o lu t io n t o t h is h yd r a - he a d e d p r o b le  m t ha t s e e m s t o ha v e d e f ie d a l l c u r a t iv e m e a s u r e s

t a k e n  a g a i n s t  it  s o  f a r  in  N ig e r ia .  This study also focuses on the institutions established to perform the function of promoting public ethics in governance which constitute our point of departure with a view to providing answer to the question as to why unethical behaviours and abuse of office has remained endemic and intractable in spite of the existence and activities of