study examined biological, psychological and socio-economic consequences of
alcoholism among adolescent using Yaba psychiatric Hospital as case study. The
purpose was to investigate the degree of relationship among some identified
study was conducted through the survey method which involved the construction
of questionnaire with stratified and simple randomly techniques. Also, I
attempted to reveal ways of ensuring adequate involvement and participation of
the government and the general society to solve the problem of alcoholism and
it’s effect on human body.
the test of hypotheses confirmed that there is significant relationship between
alcoholic’s home and the source of introduction to alcoholism, there is
significant relationship between socio-economic of the alcoholics and the use
of alcohol, there is significant relationship between alcoholics influence with
other peers and the use of alcohol, there is significant relationship between
stressful condition and the use of alcohol, and there is a significant
relationship between alcoholics age and access to alcohol. It was known that a
number of problems and factors influence adolescent to take alcohol.
on this finding, conclusions and recommendations were made.
of contents viii-ix
1.1 Introduction 1-5
1.2 Statement of the problem 5-7
1.3 Statement of Hypotheses 7
1.4 Significance of the study 8-9
1.5 Objective of the Study 9
1.6 Limitation to the study 10
1.7 Operational Definition 10-11
2.1 Concept of Alcohol 12
2.2 Absorption and distribution mechanism 13
2.3 Metabolism and its effects 13
2.4 Effects at initial stages 14
2.5 Carcinogenic effects 14-15
2.6 Alcohol Abuse 15-19
3.1 Alcohol and the human body 20
3.2 The use of animal and insect models in
effect of alcohol on humans. 20-21
How does alcohol move
through the human
What is “One Drink”? 22-23
3.5 Knowing your blood alcohol content (BAC) 23
4.1 Short-term effects of alcohol on human body 24-28
4.2 Anterofrade Amnesia 28-30
4.3 General effects of alcohol on human body 30-32
5.1 Summary 33-36
5.2 Conclusion 36-37
5.3 Recommendation 37-39
is a disease of a two fold nature, an allergy of the body and an obsession of
the mind (Duke 2006). It is an age-old public health and social problem. Alcohol
is no respecter of economic status, social and business standing or
intelligence. Neither rich nor poor, learned nor unlettered, all found
themselves for the same destruction. Some people enjoy a social drinking with
no apparent harm to themselves or others. Occasions for drinking alcohol can
come more frequently as a result of a hard day, worries and pressure, bad news,
good news etc. Those who drinks think they can drink to excess without anyone
knowing it. Everyone knows it. The only one they are fooling is themselves.
They rationalize and excuse their conduct beyond all reason. Those who are
alcoholic dependants experiences intolerable cold sweats, jumpy nerves and lack
of sleep physically, while mentally they are bewildered with fears and
tensions, the complete change in attitude and outlook. Dishonest thinking,
prejudice, ego, antagonism towards anyone and everyone who dares to cross
him/her are the characteristics of alcoholic dependants. Vanity and a critical
attitude are character defects that gradually creep in and become a part of
his/her life. Living with fear and tension inevitably results in waiting to
ease that tension, which alcohol seems to do temporarily.
who are familiar with alcoholism agreed that there is no such thing as making a
normal drinker out of an alcoholic. Science may one day accomplish this, but it
hasn’t done so yet.
If a person has cancer
all are sorry for him and no one is angry or hurt. But not so with the
alcoholic illness, for with it there goes annihilation of all the things
worthwhile in life. It engulfs all whose lives touch the sufferer’s. It brings
misunderstanding, fierce resentment, financial insecurity, disgusted friends
and employers, warped lives of blameless children, sad wives and parents,
anyone can increase the list. For me, as for most alcoholics, it was “Eat,
drink and be merry, for tomorrow you die”. There are many things worse than
dying, but is there any death worse than the progressive, self-induce slow
suicide of the practicing alcoholic?. The alcoholic suffers death many times
over. Alcohol wrings the gut out of life, eats into the brain in such a way as
to make the alcoholic blind to the truth. Thus, the
of alcohol continues to be one of the most significant medical, social and
economic problems facing mankind. Alcoholism related problems affect
practically all nations, all classes of the society, people in all types of
jobs and all ages. In fact, alcoholism has been described as an “equal
opportunity afflation”. Since creation
of man, alcohols have always been needed to rectify the physical discomfort of
man. However, the use of alcohol indiscriminately brings about a bad effect on
the human body. These bad effects which was originally conceived, as the
problem of selected few is today becoming a “disease” of a sizeable proportion
of our citizens especially youths. The problem is so grave that it has extended
beyond the usual characteristics profile of abusers being male, adult and urban
based to now include females, youngsters and those who live in the rural areas
(Folawiyo, 1988). Alcoholism is an
important factor in distribution of family and social relationship accidents,
crimes, violence, disease and illness. Societies
pay a heavy toll for alcoholism in economic as well as in human terms. The
history of alcoholism in Nigeria
is a catalogue of changes determined by factors such as civil changes, rapid
urbanization with the disintegration of family social network, drug
availability and lately economic depression (Guardian Newspaper of 4th
rapid industrialization and urbanization witnessed in 1970s led to the
multiplication of breweries and production of all sort of alcoholic beverages
of various contents, couple with thriving allowing easy access to alcohol and
then endangering the life of the abusers. Alcoholism blocks meaningful use of
time, energy and creative thinking. It destroys a person’s ambition to become
great, thereby making him unproductive and a liability to the society. It is
therefore not surprising that virtually all countries (including Nigeria) have
put in place programmes for combating alcoholism and related problems
pharmacology, alcohol specifically ethanol is a nervous system suppressive.
Invariably when ingested interacts with a living organism and brings about
noticeable changes in the way the body functions, or when it is used with the
intent or purpose of bringing about such changes (Cook, 2006).
Africa as in the rest of the world people use
alcohol specifically ethanol to alter or enhance their mood based on a variety
of need that fall broadly into two categories
need to feel better, to alleviate real or imagined pain.
and desire for pleasure or entertainment.
rich may turn to alcoholism for entertainment or relief from boredom, while the
poor are more likely to use alcohol to escape from their unfortunate situation
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
causes of alcoholism are complex and multifunctional, including social,
economic and educational factors. The problem of alcoholism has risen rapidly
over the years and is still on the increase. There are many reasons for the
increase in alcoholism throughout the region certainly the main factor is the stress
of economic hardship coupled with the breakdown of traditional systems of
community and family support which they need in healthier ways.
this breakdown is much because of economic hardship and unemployment problem.
Many youths turn to alcoholism as an action to the experience of broken dreams.
Alcohol offers temporary relief for them.
can be buttressed by the day-to-day outcry by organizations through various
seminars, campaigns, and workshops organized often by the minister of health
and social welfare and also the ministry of education, even the
Non-Governmental organization (NGO). One of the social problems in Nigeria health
sector today is the management of alcoholics and its social consequences, on
the abusers and society at large. Alcoholics tend to become more of a nuisance
to friends, relatives and society. There is no doubt that alcoholics constitute
part of the nation’s labour force, which reflects a negative implication on the
(1985) declared that, the misuse of alcohol by teenagers, young men and women
is the greatest single evil in the country today. He explained that the
situation is extremely dangerous to the survival of the nation. In fact,
alcoholism Have become one of the central problem of our time, that parents
teacher, various bodies like doctors, nurses, social workers, counsellors, psychologists,
exercise physiologists as well as government and clergymen are now disturbed
more than ever before by an alarming and rapid rate at which our youths in
particular are being drawn in the cub-culture of alcoholism.
have been known to ruin the career of many promising stars like actors,
actresses, musicians, athletes and intellectuals who would have made meaningful
contributions to the society. Many lives
are lost yearly due to the effect of alcohol used as pleasure and
entertainment. However, when alcohol is used according to accepted medical
practice or prescription gives the desired therapeutic response and when
inappropriately used, it results in immediate or delayed adverse effects and
even worsen a pre-existing disease condition.
other step towards ensuring a free society is the setting up of a Narcotic,
alcohol and drugs abuse control unit by the federal ministry of health. The
units charged with the responsibility of educating the public most especially
1.3 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
There is significant
relationship between abusers and the source of introduction to alcoholism.
There is significant
relationship between socio-economy of alcoholics and the use of alcohol.
There is significant
relationship between abuser’s influence with other peers and the use of
There is significant
relationship between stressed condition and the use of alcohol.
There is significant
relationship between abuser’s age and access to alcohol.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
significance of this study is to know why adolescents takes alcohol and the
sociological, biological and psychological consequences on the abuser and
society. It will find out the causes of alcoholism among the adolescents. The
study will facilitate and aid advance research on socio-economic consequences
of alcoholism among adolescents. Also it will be used as an eye opener to the
people on the potential benefits, limitations and risks associated with
alcoholism thus serve as an avenue for enlightment of the inherent danger of
alcoholism and make necessary possible solution.
it will be used as a health policy to reduce the intake of alcohol among
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
the effort of both the state, federal, ministries and even families on how to
curb the menace of alcoholism among youth and adolescent through various
seminars and symposium.
the main objectives of this study are:
To find out the causes
and effects of alcohol in the human body.
To examine the factors
that are responsible for the use of alcohol among adolescent.
To suggest ways of
ensuring adequate involvement and participation of individual, government and
general public on reducing alcoholism.
To determine if
socio-economic consequence on the adolescents lead to alcoholism.
1.6 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
study will be limited to the alcoholic inmate in psychiatric hospital, Yaba.
This research work will focus on patients on admission, who are already calm
and stable and could respond to any question positively. Also due to financial
constraints, time available and attitude of respondents towards the
questionnaire, the researcher will limit to only psychiatric hospital Yaba and
it will not include other psychiatric hospitals within the state.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
hormone, released by the pituitary gland that increases the reabsorption of
water by the kidney thus preventing excessive loss of water from the body.
CIRRHOSIS: A condition in which the liver responds to
injury or death of some of its cells.
HALLUCINATION: A false perception of something that is not
HEPATIC CELL: Relating to the liver
HEPATITIS: Inflammation of the liver caused by viruses,
toxic substances, or immunological abnormalities.
METABOLISM: The sum of all the chemical and physical
changes that take place within the body and enable its continued growth and
NEUROTRANSMITTER: A chemical substance released from nerve
endings to transmit impulses across synapses to other nerves and across the
minute gaps between the nerves and the muscles or glands that they supply.
OPIOID: it is used synonymously. The group includes
apormorphine, codeine, morphine, and papaverine. Opiates depress the central
nervous system. They relieve pain, suppress coughing and stimulate vomiting.
PHARMACOLOGY: the science of the properties of drugs and
their effects on the body.
PLACEBOS: Medicine that is ineffective but may help
to relieve a condition because the patient has faith in its powers.